USER'S GUIDE

 

Ethington, Kooistra, and DeYoung

Los Angeles County Union Census Tract Data Series, 1940-1990

© 2000 University of Southern California.

 

Version 1.01

Release Date 4 August 2000

 

 

Introduction:

 

Ethington, Kooistra and DeYoung, Los Angeles County Union Census Tract Data Series, 1940-1990 was created with the support of a grant from the John Randolph Haynes and Dora Haynes Foundation. It is published and distributed by the University of Southern California to facilitate a wide range of research on the development and condition of Los Angeles County. Los Angeles County, the largest county in the United States, is of great interest to researchers from all disciplines of the human and natural sciences. Until now, no uniform census data were available to chart the development of this important metropolitan region through the period of its most important changes and critical decades. This data set is organized with the goal of providing maximum uniformity and comparability across all census years and census geographies. It includes aggregate data describing the characteristics of U.S. Census Tracts for race-ethnicity, occupation, education, housing, age and median household income, house value, and rent. It was assembled from two principal sources: 1) the print-published US Census tables for the years 1940, 1950 and 1960, and 2) the digitally distributed "Correspondence" data files created by the California State Department of Finance for the years 1970, 1980, and 1990. All data have been proportionally aggregated to fit the 1990 census tract geography. The boundary data are provided in ESRI's ArcView© shapefile format, and the numeric data are provided in the standard dBase© spreadsheet data file format (.dbf).

 

Citation and Use:

 

No fee is charged for the use of these data, and no fee may be charged for use or distribution. Publications and reports based on the data set must site it properly. The citation must include the following:

 

Philip J. Ethington, Anne Marie Kooistra, and Edward DeYoung, Los Angeles County Union Census Tract Data Series, 1940-1990, Version 1.01. Created with the support of the John Randolph Haynes and Dora Haynes Foundation. (Los Angeles: University of Southern California, 2000).

 

In addition, we request that users send us a copy of any publications, research reports, or educational material making use of the data or documentation. Printed matter should be sent to:

 

Philip J. Ethington

Department of History

University of Southern California

Los Angeles, CA 90089-0034

 

Electronic material or URLs for web sites should be sent to:

philipje@usc.edu

 

Documentation:

 

All available documentation for these data are included in this User's Guide document. No further support is available, but improved releases are planned, and users are invited send comments to the Principal Investigator, Philip J. Ethington, at philipje@usc.edu.

 

Format:

 

Ethington, Kooistra and DeYoung, Los Angeles County Union Census Tract Data Series, 1940-1990, Version 1.0, consists of a single table of 1,656 records (rows) and 252 variables (columns). The main data table, called la4090v101.dbf is in dBase IV © format and may be converted to any other format for quantitative analyses. The data set also includes the associated ArcView © shapefile to utilize these data in a Geographic Information System (GIS). These files must be kept together. They are called la4090v101.sbn, la4090v101.sbx, la4090v101.shp, and la4090v101.shx. ArcView © uses the la4090v101.dbf file as its "attribute table." Care should be taken when altering this file so that the shapefile continues to function with it. We recommend copying and renaming the main data file before beginning alterations.

 

Missing Data:

 

Missing data are only certain as such if the cell is empty. Users must beware of vestigial sources of missing data, however, in for the form of zero values. These are most likely to occur in the "median value" variables. Data were taken directly from the sources listed below. If the source reported zero, we collected that value, even though a zero median home value might be highly unlikely. Users must use their own judgement as to when and whether to code these zeroes as missing. Users must also beware of the blank cells when converting these data to other formats, because some software does not support empty cells.

 

Universe:

 

The data in la4090v101.dbf were prepared over the course of a four-year project, with the goal of assembling consistently comparable data from each of the six census years, 1940, 1950, 1960, 1970, 1980, and 1990. It is also intended that these data can be expanded backwards and forwards in time. Due to resource limitations, not all available tract-level data could be collected. The uniform method of collecting these data, however, make it possible to augment the data, so long as additions can be aggregated by census tracts. Further, not all variables are available in all census years. A core set of "union" variables, describing race-ethnicity, occupation, education, and median home rent and value information are available across all census years. In general, there are more variables describing occupations in the 1940-1960 years, and more variables describing median income, age, and marital characteristics in the 1970-1990 years.

 

The table below lists the variables by their generic variable names, and shows which are available for each year.

Sources:

 

The data in this data set were drawn from the following sources:

 

U.S. Bureau of the Census, Sixteenth Census of the United States: Population and Housing Statistics for Census Tracts. Los Angeles-Long Beach, California. (Wash, DC: GPO, 1942).

 

U.S. Bureau of the Census, U.S. Census of Population: 1950 Vol. III, Census Tract Statistics, Chapter 28 Los Angeles California and Adjacent Area Selected Population and Housing Characteristics (Wash, DC: US GPO, 1952).

 

U.S. Bureau of the Census, U.S. Censuses of Population and Housing: 1960 Census Tracts Final Report PH(1)082 Los Angeles-Long Beach, California. Standard Metropolitan Statistical Area (Wash, DC: US GPO, 1962).

 

State of California, Department of Finance 1970-1980-1990 Correspondence Data Series (Sacramento: California State Census Data Center, 915 L. Street, Lower level, Sacramento, California, 95814, 1996).

 

Methods:

 

The unique feature of the Ethington, Kooistra and DeYoung, Los Angeles County Union Census Tract Data Series, 1940-1990 is that all data can be studied according to a common geography for every year, from 1940 through 1990. In order to achieve this uniformity, all data were fitted to the geography of the 1990 census tracts. Census data or the years 1940, 1950, and 1960 were originally collected and stored in GIS shapefiles according to the census tract boundaries of those years. The 1970 1980 and 1990 data had already been fitted to the 1990 tracts by the California State Department of Finance (see specific methods below). We performed the fitting operation on the 1940, 1950, and 1960 data by imposing the 1990 tract boundaries on top of the boundaries for each of those years, and, using the "Union" function in ArcInfo ©, calculated a proportional distribution of data into the 1990 tracts. Obviously, certain assumptions and drawbacks are involved in this method. For the most part, census tracts in earlier years were geographically larger than those in following years. Thus, a 1940 tract with 1000 persons might have been split the Census Bureau into two or more tracts in 1950, to reflect growing population, again in 1960, and so on through 1990. Those original 1000 persons are assumed by our method to be spread uniformly across the space of the 1940 tract, and to land proportionally, by area, in the 1990 tracts that overlay that 1940 tract. Thus, assume that hypothetical 1940 Tract A was split over the years into five 1990 tracts, called Tract V, W, X, Y, and Z. Tract A was 100 square kilometers. 1990 Tract V lies completely within 1940 Tract A, and is 25 square kilometers. 1990 Tract W also lies completely within 1940 Tract A, and is 30 square kilometers. 1990 Tract X, Y, and Z lie both inside and outside of 1940 Tract A, however. Only 2% 1990 Tract X lies within 1940 Tract A (call that 2 square kilometers), 50% of Tract Y lies within 1940 Tract A (call that 30 square kilometers), and 80% of 1990 Tract Z lies within 1940 Tract A. The following person counts would have been assigned to the 1990 tracts: V=250; W=300; X=20; Y=300; Z=130. Note that 1990 Tracts X, Y, and Z will also pick up data assigned from the other 1940 tracts they overlap.

 

The 1970 and 1980 data were fitted to the 1990 census tracts by a different method. Below we have reproduced verbatim the State Department of Finance's description of its method:

 

" The 1970 – 80 – 90 database was created to simplify thematic mapping of historical California data for the years 1970, 1980 & 1990. The data for all three years are assigned to 1990 census tracts. Census geography has changed since 1970 making the process of relating 1970/1980 data to 1990 census tracts more difficult. The result of this effort, however, eliminates much of the difficulty and allows the user to easily compare census tract data between 1970 and 1990. The data, as assigned to 1990 census tracts, will accurately depict the demographic and economic changes for this period.

 

To help the user of this file better understand the relationship of 1990 census tracts and the 1970/1980 geography, a correspondence file is available that indicates how the 1970-1980 data were assigned to 1990 census tracts. If the user wanted to produce a tabular report of the data for 1970 or 1980, beware of the fact that the data cannot be considered OFFICIAL U.S. Census Bureau data or California Department of Finance data.

 

There are seven possible types of geographical changes between 1970 and 1990:

 

    1. A census tract existed in 1970 and has not been subdivided:

    1970

    1980

    1990

    0001

    0001

    0001

     

    The actual data appears for this tract in each year.

     

  1. A census tract existed in 1970 and was subdivided in 1980:
  2.  

    1970

    1980

    1990

    0001

    0001.01

    0001.01

    0001

    0001.02

    0001.02

     

  3. A census tract existed in 1970 and was subdivided in 1980 and 1990:
  4.  

    1970

    1980

    1990

    0001

    0001.01

    0001.11

    0001

    0001.01

    0001.12

     

    0001

    0001.02

    0001.21

    0001

    0001.02

    0001.22

     

    The actual data appears for these tracts in 1990 only. The 1980 data were assigned to the 1990 tracts based upon the population split of the 1990 tracts. The 1970 data was assigned to the four 1990 census tracts based upon the population split of the two subdivided 1980 tracts. The 1982 and 1970 medians are assigned without change.

  5. A census tract existed in 1970 and was subdivided in 1990:
  6.  

    1970

    1980

    1990

    0001

    0001

    0001.01

    0001

    0001

    0001.02

    0001

    0001

    0001.03

    The actual data appears for this tract in1990 only. The 1980 and 1970 data were assigned to the three 1990 tracts based upon the population split of the three 1990 tracts. The 1980 and 1970 medians are assigned without change.

     

  7. A census tract existed in 1970 and was merged with another tract in 1990:
  8.  

    1970

    1980

    1990

    0001.01

    0001.01

    0001

    0001.02

    0001.02

    0001

     

    In this situation the 1970 and 1980 data are aggregated and the medians are re-calculated.

     

  9. Actual adjustments (other than subdivision) were made to a census tract boundary in 1980 and/or 1990. In these situations the boundary adjustments have been ignored. The assumption is that these changes are insignificant in respect to thematic mapping purposes and do not distract from interpreting change between 1970 and 1990 in a particular geographic area. Users must be cautioned that the boundaries in this file accurately describe 1990 census tract areas BUT may not accurately describe 1980 or 1970 census tract areas.
  10.  

  11. Census tracts did not exist in 1970 and/or 1980. In this situation Enumeration districts (Eds) or Census County Divisions (CCDs) were matched to 1990 tracts according to the following steps:

 

Step one. Determine all census county divisions (CCDs) that match directly with 1990 tracts. For the remaining areas go to step two.

 

Step two. Determine enumeration districts (one or more) that match directly with 1990 tracts. For the remaining areas go to step three.

 

Step three. Determine enumeration districts (one or more) that closely match with 1990 tracts. For the remaining areas go to step four.

 

Step four. Using CCDs as a geographical control, match 1970/1980 enumeration districts to 1990 census tracts based upon median family income and the percent non-white population."

 

Data Dictionary

 

Below is a table with short descriptions of all variables. The "YY" in variable names stands for the census year: "40" (or 50, 60, etc) will appear in place of the YY in the variable containing the 1940 (or 1950, 1960, etc) data for that variable, if available.

 

This table is hyperlinked to the detailed data descriptions for each variable. Users are strongly recommended to read the extended descriptions carefully before analyzing these data.

 

Ethington, Kooistra, and DeYoung

LOS ANGELES COUNTY UNIFIED CENSUS DATA SERIES, 1940-1990

(Shaded variables indicate consistent availability for all years)

 

VARIABLE NAMES

 

SHORT DESCRIPTION

AVAILABILITY

(X=YES)

VARIABLES

SUBTOTAL VARIABLES

1940

1950

1960

1970

1980

1990

CTBNA

CENSUS TRACT NUMBER

X

X

X

X

X

X

PYYT

POPULATION TOTAL

X

X

X

X

X

X

PYYWNH

POPULATION WHITE NON HISPANIC

X

X

X

X

X

X

PYYBNH

POPULATION BLACK NON HISPANIC

X

X

X

X

X

X

PYYONH

POPULATION OTHER NON HISPANIC

X

X

X

X

X

X

PYYHIS

POPULATION HISPANIC

X

X

X

X

X

X

PYYTW

POPULATION TOTAL WHITE

X

X

X

no

no

no

PYYNATW

POPULATION NATIVE WHITE

X

X

no

no

no

no

PYYFBW

POPULATION FOREIGN-BORN WHITE

X

X

no

no

no

no

PYYTOTNW

POPULATION TOTAL NON-WHITE

X

X

X

no

no

no

PYYB

POPULATION BLACK, NON-WHITE

X

X

X

no

no

no

PYYNBNW

POPULATION OTHER NON-WHITE

X

X

X

no

no

no

PYYSST

POPULATION TOTAL WITH SPANISH SURNAMES

no

X

X

no

no

no

PYYSSN

POPULATION NATIVE WITH SPANISH SURNAMES

no

X

X

no

no

no

PYYSSFB

POPULATION FOREIGN-BORN WITH SPANISH SURNAMES

no

X

X

no

no

no

PYYMEX

POPULATION BORN IN MEXICO

X

X

X

no

no

no

PYYCSA

POPULATION BORN IN CENTRAL OR SOUTH AMERICA

X

X

no

no

no

no

EYYH

EDUCATION COMPLETED HIGH SCHOOL

X

X

X

X

X

X

EYYC

EDUCATION COMPLETED COLLEGE

X

X

X

X

X

X

OYYWC

OCCUPATION WHITE COLLAR

X

X

X

X

X

X

OYYBC

OCCUPATION BLUE COLLAR

X

X

X

X

X

X

OYY01

OCCUPATION WAGE WORKERS TOTAL

X

X

X

no

no

no

OYY01M

OCCUPATION WAGE WORKERS MALE

no

X

no

no

no

no

OYY01F

OCCUPATION WAGE WORKERS FEMALE

no

X

no

no

no

no

OYY02

OCCUPATION GOVERNMENT WORKERS TOTAL

X

X

X

no

no

no

OYY02M

OCCUPATION GOVERNMENT WORKERS MALE

no

X

no

no

no

no

OYY02F

OCCUPATION GOVERNMENT WORKERS FEMALE

no

X

no

no

no

no

OYY03

OCCUPATION SELF-EMPLOYED TOTAL

X

X

X

no

no

no

OYY03M

OCCUPATION SELF-EMPLOYED MALE

no

X

no

no

no

no

OYY03F

OCCUPATION SELF-EMPLOYED FEMALE

no

X

no

no

no

no

OYY04

OCCUPATION UNPAID FAMILY TOTAL

X

X

X

no

no

no

OYY04M

OCCUPATION UNPAID FAMILY MALE

no

X

no

no

no

no

OYY04F

OCCUPATION UNPAID FAMILY FEMALE

no

X

no

no

no

no

OYY05

OCCUPATION PROFESSIONAL TOTAL

X

X

X

no

no

no

OYY05PRM

OCCUPATION PROFESSIONAL MALE

no

X

X

no

no

no

OYY05PRF

OCCUPATION PROFESSIONAL FEMALE

no

X

X

no

no

no

OYY05SPS

OCCUPATION SEMI-PROFESSIONAL SUBTOTAL

X

no

no

no

no

no

OYY05PRS

OCCUPATION PROFESSIONAL SUBTOTAL

X

no

no

no

no

no

OYY06

OCCUPATION MANAGER TOTAL

X

X

X

no

no

no

OYY06M

OCCUPATION MANAGER MALE

no

X

X

no

no

no

OYY06F

OCCUPATION MANAGER FEMALE

no

X

X

no

no

no

 

 

VARIABLE NAMES

 

SHORT DESCRIPTION

AVAILABILITY (X=YES)

VARIABLES

SUBTOTAL VARIABLES

1940

1950

1960

1970

1980

1990

OYY07

OCCUPATION CLERICAL/SALES TOTAL

X

X

X

no

no

no

OYY07CLM

OCCUPATION CLERICAL MALE

no

X

X

no

no

no

OYY07CLF

OCCUPATION CLERICAL FEMALE

no

X

X

no

no

no

OYY07SLM

OCCUPATION SALES MALE

no

X

X

no

no

no

OYY07SLF

OCCUPATION SALES FEMALE

no

X

X

no

no

no

OYY08

OCCUPATION CRAFT TOTAL

X

X

X

no

no

no

OYY08M

OCCUPATION CRAFT MALE

no

X

X

no

no

no

OYY08F

OCCUPATION CRAFT FEMALE

no

X

X

no

no

no

OYY09

OCCUPATION OPERATIVES TOTAL

X

X

X

no

no

no

OYY09M

OCCUPATION OPERATIVES MALE

no

X

X

no

no

no

OYY09F

OCCUPATION OPERATIVES FEMALE

no

X

X

no

no

no

OYY10

OCCUPATION DOMESTIC TOTAL

X

X

X

no

no

no

OYY10M

OCCUPATION DOMESTIC MALE

no

X

X

no

no

no

OYY10F

OCCUPATION DOMESTIC FEMALE

no

X

X

no

no

no

OYY11

OCCUPATION SERVICE TOTAL

X

X

X

no

no

no

OYY11M

OCCUPATION SERVICE MALE

no

X

X

no

no

no

OYY11F

OCCUPATION SERVICE FEMALE

no

X

X

no

no

no

OYY12

OCCUPATION LABORERS TOTAL

X

X

X

no

no

no

OYY12M

OCCUPATION LABORERS MALE

no

X

X

no

no

no

OYY12F

OCCUPATION LABORERS FEMALE

no

X

X

no

no

no

OYY13

OCCUPATION NOT REPORTED TOTAL

X

X

X

no

no

no

OYY13M

OCCUPATION NOT REPORTED MALE

no

X

X

no

no

no

OYY13F

OCCUPATION NOT REPORTED FEMALE

no

X

X

no

no

no

HYYTOT

HOUSING TOTAL UNITS

X

X

X

X

X

X

HYYNWT

HOUSING NONWHITE UNITS

X

X

X

no

no

no

HYYOWN

HOUSING TOTAL OWNER OCCUPIED UNITS

X

X

X

no

no

no

HYYNWO

HOUSING NONWHITE OWNER OCCUPIED UNITS

X

X

X

no

no

no

HYYRNT

HOUSING TOTAL RENTER OCCUPIED UNITS

X

X

X

no

no

no

HYYWRN

HOUSING WHITE RENTER OCCUPIED UNITS

X

no

no

no

no

no

HYYNRN

HOUSING NONWHITE RENTER OCCUPIED UNITS

X

X

X

no

no

no

HYYMVL

HOUSING MEDIAN VALUE OF UNIT

X

X

X

X

X

X

HYYMRN

HOUSING MEDIAN RENT OF UNIT

X

X

X

X

X

X

INCYYMED

MEDIAN FAMILY/HOUSEHOLD INCOME

no

no

no

X

X

X

RYYSHYY

RESIDENCE IN YY SAME HOUSE AS FIVE YEARS PREVIOUS

no

no

no

X

X

X

RYYSCYY

RESIDENCE IN YY SAME COUNTY AS FIVE YEARS PREVIOUS

no

no

no

X

X

X

RYYOTYY

RESIDENCE IN YY OTHER LOCATION THAN SAME HOUSE OR SAME COUNTY, AS FIVE YEARS PREVIOUS

no

no

no

X

X

X

 

 

VARIABLE NAMES

 

SHORT DESCRIPTION

AVAILABILITY (X=YES)

VARIABLES

SUBTOTAL VARIABLES

1940

1950

1960

1970

1980

1990

AYY0004

PERSONS AGED 0-4 YEARS

no

no

no

X

X

X

AYY0517

PERSONS AGED 5-17 YEARS

no

no

no

X

X

X

AYY1864

PERSONS AGED 18-64 YEARS

no

no

no

X

X

X

AYY65UP

PERSONS AGED 65 YEARS AND UP

no

no

no

X

X

X

AYYMEDN

AGE MEDIAN WITHIN CENSUS TRACT

no

no

no

X

X

X

MYYSINGL

PERSONS OF MARITAL STATUS SINGLE

no

no

no

X

X

X

MYYMAR

PERSONS OF MARITAL STATUS MARRIED

no

no

no

X

X

X

MYYOTH

PERSONS OF MARITAL STATUS OTHER

no

no

no

X

X

X

 

 

Extended Variable Descriptions

 

(Note: Hyperlinks are not operable in this portion of the document)

 

NAME

AYY0004

SHORT

DESCRIPTION

Persons aged 0 to 4 years.

AVAILABILITY

1940

1950

1960

1970

1980

1990

no

no

no

A700004

A800004

A900004

 

SOURCE: CSDF, 1970-1990.

FULL DESCRIPTION: Persons aged 0 to 4 years. See also AYY0517, AYY1864, AYY65UP, AYYMEDN.

 

 

 

NAME

AYY0517

SHORT

DESCRIPTION

Persons aged 5 to 17 years.

AVAILABILITY

1940

1950

1960

1970

1980

1990

no

no

no

A705017

A805017

A905017

 

SOURCE: CSDF, 1970-1990.

FULL DESCRIPTION: Persons aged 5 to 17 years. See also AYY0004, AYY1864, AYY65UP, AYYMEDN.

 

 

 

 

 

NAME

AYY1864

SHORT

DESCRIPTION

Persons aged 18 to 64 years.

AVAILABILITY

1940

1950

1960

1970

1980

1990

no

no

no

A701864

A801864

A901864

 

SOURCE: CSDF, 1970-1990.

FULL DESCRIPTION: Persons aged 18 to 64 years. See also AYY0004, AYY0517, AYY65UP, AYYMEDN.

 

 

 

NAME

AYY65UP

SHORT

DESCRIPTION

Persons aged 65 years and older.

AVAILABILITY

1940

1950

1960

1970

1980

1990

no

no

no

A7065UP

A8065UP

A9065UP

 

SOURCE: CSDF, 1970-1990.

FULL DESCRIPTION: Persons aged 65 years and older. See also AYY0004, AYY0517, AYY1864, AYYMEDN.

 

 

 

NAME

AYYMEDN

SHORT

DESCRIPTION

Median age within census tract.

AVAILABILITY

1940

1950

1960

1970

1980

1990

no

no

no

A70MEDN

A80MEDN

A90MEDN

 

SOURCE: CSDF, 1970-1990.

FULL DESCRIPTION: Median age within census tract. See also AYY0004, AYY0517, AYY1864, AYY65UP.

 

 

 

 

 

NAME

CTBNA

SHORT

DESCRIPTION

Census Tract

AVAILABILITY

1940

1950

1960

1970

1980

1990

CTBNA

CTBNA

CTBNA

CTBNA

CTBNA

CTBNA

 

SOURCE: Ethington, Kooistra and DeYoung, 1940-1960; CSDF, 1970-1990.

FULL DESCRIPTION: Census Tracts are the basic geographic unit used by the US Census Bureau for the collection of data. The population size is supposed to remain uniform, at around 4,000 persons--although the total population per tract varies considerably. The attempt to maintain this uniform size explains the changing census boundaries from decade to decade. In general, census tracts from previous years are either left the same--if population size does not change considerably, or subdivided--if population size increases considerably. In practice, census tracts may be far larger or far smaller than the norm. Whereas the 1940 and 1950 tracts were listed simply by ascending numerical order, the 1960 tracts were listed within the separate headings of city and "Balance of Los Angeles County." Thus, while some 1960 tracts are listed only once, within a city or the county, others are split. Tract 5343 is listed three times: under the headings of Huntington Park, Southgate, and Balance of Los Angeles County. Split tracts such as these three were added back together in the present data set. The 1970, 1980, and 1990 tracts were not split in this manner. See description of State Department of Finance Correspondence Data elsewhere in this User's Guide. CTBNA is the "key" or "join" variable linking all other variables in this data set.

 

 

 

 

NAME

EYYC

SHORT

DESCRIPTION

Persons who have completed college.

AVAILABILITY

1940

1950

1960

1970

1980

1990

E40C

E50C

E60C

E70C

E80C

E90C

 

SOURCE: Ethington, Kooistra and DeYoung, 1940-1960; CSDF, 1970-1990.

FULL DESCRIPTION: For years 1940, 1950, and 1960, EYYH is number of persons 25 years and older who reported that the last full grade that the person had completed in the regular school system—public, private, or parochial school, college, or university—was four or more years of college. For years 1970, 1980, and 1990, the CSDF codebook does not indicate the age of the respondant, but the criteria are presumably the same.

 

 

NAME

EYYH

SHORT

DESCRIPTION

Persons who have completed high school.

AVAILABILITY

1940

1950

1960

1970

1980

1990

E40H

E50H

E60H

E70H

E80H

E90H

 

SOURCE: Ethington, Kooistra and DeYoung, 1940-1960; CSDF, 1970-1990.

FULL DESCRIPTION: For years 1940, 1950, and 1960, EYYH is number of persons 25 years and older who reported that the last full grade that the person had completed in the regular school system—public, private, or parochial school, college, or university—was four years of high school. For years 1970, 1980, and 1990, the CSDF codebook does not indicate the age of the respondant, but the criteria are presumably the same.

 

 

 

 

NAME

HYYMRN

SHORT

DESCRIPTION

Median rent of dwelling/housing units.

AVAILABILITY

1940

1950

1960

1970

1980

1990

H40MRN

H50MRN

H60MRN

H70MRN

H80MRN

H90MRN

 

SOURCE: Ethington, Kooistra and DeYoung, 1940-1960; CSDF, 1970-1990.

FULL DESCRIPTION: Indicates the median rent paid for dwelling/housing units within a census tract. This value is based on the figure reported for contract monthly rent--a figure which includes the estimated rent of the dwelling/housing unit regardless of whether it included furniture, heating fuel, electricity, cooking fuel, water, or personal services. See also variables HYYTOT, HYYMVL, and INCYYMED. Warning: these dollar values are not adjusted for inflation.

 

 

NAME

HYYMVL

SHORT

DESCRIPTION

Median value of dwelling/housing units.

AVAILABILITY

1940

1950

1960

1970

1980

1990

H40MVL

H50MVL

H60MVL

H70MVL

H80MVL

H90MVL

 

SOURCE: Ethington, Kooistra and DeYoung, 1940-1960; CSDF, 1970-1990.

FULL DESCRIPTION: Indicates the median value of dwelling/housing units within a census tract. The median value is defined as that value which divides the whole number of dwelling/housing units into two equal groups: one having values higher than the median, and one having lower values than the median. In 1940, the median value was based on the estimated current market value of the home. In 1950, the median value was based "on the amount for which the owner estimates that the property, including such land as belongs with it, would sell under ordinary conditions." In 1960, the median value is calculated only for owner-occupied units having only one housing unit in the property and no business. See also variables HYYTOT and HYYMRN. Warning: these dollar values are not adjusted for inflation.

 

 

 

 

NAME

HYYNRN

SHORT

DESCRIPTION

Total number of dwelling/housing units occupied by non-white renters.

(Subtotal variable).

AVAILABILITY

1940

1950

1960

1970

1980

1990

H40NRN

H50NRN

H60NRN

no

no

no

 

SOURCE: Ethington, Kooistra and DeYoung, 1940-1960.

FULL DESCRIPTION: Indicates the number of dwelling/housing units within a census tract occupied by non-white renters.

Note that renter is a residual category, including all those dwelling/housing units households not counted as "owners" according to the definitions in HYYOWN. See also HYYTOT. This variable is a subtotal of HYYRNT.

 

 

NAME

HYYNWO

SHORT

DESCRIPTION

Total number of dwelling/housing units occupied by non-white owners.

(Subtotal variable).

AVAILABILITY

1940

1950

1960

1970

1980

1990

H40NWO

H50NWO

H60NWO

no

no

no

 

SOURCE: Ethington, Kooistra and DeYoung, 1940-1960.

FULL DESCRIPTION: Indicates the number of dwelling/housing units within a census tract occupied by non-white owners of those dwelling/housing units. See also HYYTOT. This variable is a subtotal of HYYOWN.

 

 

NAME

HYYNWT

SHORT

DESCRIPTION

Total number of nonwhite housing units.

(Subtotal variable).

AVAILABILITY

1940

1950

1960

1970

1980

1990

H40NWT

H50NWT

H60NWT

no

no

no

 

SOURCE: Ethington, Kooistra and DeYoung, 1940-1960.

FULL DESCRIPTION: Indicates the number of dwelling/housing units within a census tract either owned or rented by nonwhite residents. This variable is a subtotal of HYYTOT.

 

 

 

 

NAME

HYYOWN

SHORT

DESCRIPTION

Total number of dwelling/housing units occupied by the owners of those units.

AVAILABILITY

1940

1950

1960

1970

1980

1990

H40OWN

H50OWN

H60OWN

no

no

no

 

SOURCE: Ethington, Kooistra and DeYoung, 1940-1960.

FULL DESCRIPTION: Indicates the number of dwelling/housing units within a census tract occupied by owners of those dwelling/housing units, regardless of race. In 1940 a dwelling unit was classified as occupied "if occupied at the time of enumeration by households enumerated at their usual place of residence." In 1950, a dwelling unit was classified as owner-occupied if it was "owned wholly or in part by the head of the household or some related member of his family living in the dwelling unit." The 1960 introduction further specifies that a housing unit was listed as owner-occupied if "the owner or co-owner lives in the unit, even if it is mortgaged or not fully paid for." See also HYYTOT.

 

 

NAME

HYYRNT

SHORT

DESCRIPTION

Total number of dwelling/housing units occupied by renters.

AVAILABILITY

1940

1950

1960

1970

1980

1990

H40RNT

H50RNT

H60RNT

no

no

no

 

SOURCE: Ethington, Kooistra and DeYoung, 1940-1960.

FULL DESCRIPTION: Indicates the number of dwelling/housing units within a census tract occupied by renters, regardless of race. Renter is a residual category, including all those dwelling/housing units households not counted as "owners" according to the definitions in HYYOWN. See also HYYTOT.

 

 

 

NAME

HYYTOT

SHORT

DESCRIPTION

Total number of dwelling/housing units.

AVAILABILITY

1940

1950

1960

1970

1980

1990

H40TOT

H50TOT

H60TOT

H70TOT

H80TOT

H90TOT

 

SOURCE: Ethington, Kooistra and DeYoung, 1940-1960; CSDF 1970-1990.

FULL DESCRIPTION: Indicates the number of dwelling/housing units within a census tract regardless of ownership or occupancy. In 1940, a dwelling unit was defined a "the living quarters occupied by, or intended for occupancy by, one household. A dwelling unit may be a detached house; a tenement, flat, or apartment in a larger building (apartment house, apartment hotel, or section of a hotel devoted entirely to apartment rather than transient use); or a room in a structure used primarily for business or other nonresidential purposes. It may be a tourist cabin, trailer, railroad car, boat, etc., if occupied by persons having no other place of residence." In 1950, a dwelling unit is defined as "a group of rooms or a single room, occupied, or intended for occupancy, as separate living quarters by a family or other group of persons living together or by a person living alone." In 1960, the term "dwelling unit" was replaced with the term "housing unit," which was defined as "a house, an apartment or other group of rooms, or a single room occupied or intended for occupancy as separate living quarters, that is, when the occupants do not live and eat with any other persons in the structure and there is either (1) direct access from the outside or through a common hall or (2) a kitchen or cooking equipment for the exclusive use of the occupants of the units." The 1960 introduction goes on to contrast the main difference between 1950 dwelling units and 1960 housing units as follows: "In 1960, separate living quarters consisted of one room with direct access but without separate cooking equipment qualify as a housing unit if occupied by a person whose usual residence is the hotel or a person who has no usual residence elsewhere. In 1950, a one-room unit without cooking equipment qualified as a dwelling unit only when located in a regular apartment house or when the room constituted the only living quarter in the structure." The California State Department of Finance does not provide detailed definitions for the 1970-1990 years, but we assume the housing unit definition remained consistent with the 1960 refinement. See also variables HYYNWT, HYYOWN, HYYNWO, HYYRNT, HYYWRN, HYYNRN, HYYMVL, HYYMRN.

 

 

 

NAME

HYYWRN

SHORT

DESCRIPTION

Total number of dwelling/housing units occupied by white renters.

(Subtotal variable).

AVAILABILITY

1940

1950

1960

1970

1980

1990

H40WRN

H50WRN

H60WRN

no

no

no

 

SOURCE: Ethington, Kooistra and DeYoung, 1940-1960.

FULL DESCRIPTION: Indicates the number of dwelling/housing units within a census tract occupied by white renters.

Note that renter is a residual category, including all those dwelling/housing units households not counted as "owners" according to the definitions in HYYOWN. See also HYYTOT. This variable is a subtotal of HYYRNT.

 

 

NAME

INCYYMED

SHORT

DESCRIPTION

Median family/household income.

AVAILABILITY

1940

1950

1960

1970

1980

1990

no

no

no

INC70MED

INC80MED

INC90MED

 

SOURCE: CSDF, 1970-1990.

FULL DESCRIPTION: Median family income in 1970. Median household income in 1980 and 1990. See also HYYMVL and HYYMRN. Warning: these dollar values are not adjusted for inflation.

 

 

NAME

MYYMAR

SHORT

DESCRIPTION

Persons of marital status married.

AVAILABILITY

1940

1950

1960

1970

1980

1990

no

no

no

M70MAR

M80MAR

M90MAR

 

SOURCE: CSDF, 1970-1990.

FULL DESCRIPTION: persons of marital status single. See also MYYSINGL and MYYOTH.

 

 

 

 

 

NAME

MYYOTH

SHORT

DESCRIPTION

Persons of marital status other than single or married.

AVAILABILITY

1940

1950

1960

1970

1980

1990

no

no

no

M70OTH

M80OTH

M90OTH

 

SOURCE: CSDF, 1970-1990.

FULL DESCRIPTION: Persons of marital status other than single or married. See also MYYSINGL and MYYMAR.

 

 

 

NAME

MYYSINGL

SHORT

DESCRIPTION

Perons of marital status single.

AVAILABILITY

1940

1950

1960

1970

1980

1990

no

no

no

M70SINGL

M80SINGL

M90SINGL

 

SOURCE: CSDF, 1970-1990.

FULL DESCRIPTION: persons of marital status single. See also MYYMAR and MYYOTH.

 

 

 

NAME

OYY01

SHORT

DESCRIPTION

Total wage and salary workers.

AVAILABILITY

1940

1950

1960

1970

1980

1990

O4001

O5001

O6001

no

no

no

 

SOURCE: Ethington, Kooistra and DeYoung, 1940-1960.

FULL DESCRIPTION: Number of people 14 years and older employed in the labor force and working for a wage and/or a salary. OYY01M and OYYO1F are subtotals of this variable.

 

 

 

 

NAME

OYY01F

SHORT

DESCRIPTION

Subtotal female wage and salary workers.

(Subtotal variable).

AVAILABILITY

1940

1950

1960

1970

1980

1990

NO

O5001F

NO

NO

NO

NO

 

SOURCE: Ethington, Kooistra and DeYoung, 1940-1960.

FULL DESCRIPTION: Number of females 14 years and older employed in the labor force and working for a wage and/or a salary. Subtotal of OYY01.

 

 

NAME

OYY01M

SHORT

DESCRIPTION

Subtotal male wage and salary workers.

(Subtotal variable).

AVAILABILITY

1940

1950

1960

1970

1980

1990

NO

O5001M

NO

NO

NO

NO

 

SOURCE: Ethington, Kooistra and DeYoung, 1940-1960.

FULL DESCRIPTION: Number of males 14 years and older employed in the labor force and working for a wage and/or a salary. Subtotal of OYY01.

 

 

NAME

OYY02

SHORT

DESCRIPTION

Total number of government workers.

AVAILABILITY

1940

1950

1960

1970

1980

1990

O4002

O5002

O6002

no

no

no

 

SOURCE: Ethington, Kooistra and DeYoung, 1940-1960.

FULL DESCRIPTION: Indicates the total number of people 14 years and older working as government employees. In 1940, this category included people in the labor force employed in public emergency work. O5002M and O5002F are subtotals of this variable.

 

 

 

 

NAME

OYY02F

SHORT

DESCRIPTION

Total number of female government workers.

(Subtotal variable).

AVAILABILITY

1940

1950

1960

1970

1980

1990

no

O5002F

no

no

no

no

 

SOURCE: Ethington, Kooistra and DeYoung, 1940-1960.

FULL DESCRIPTION: Indicates the total number of females 14 years and older working as government employees. This is a subtotal of O5002.

 

 

NAME

OYY02M

SHORT

DESCRIPTION

Total number of male government workers.

(Subtotal variable).

AVAILABILITY

1940

1950

1960

1970

1980

1990

no

O5002M

no

no

no

no

 

SOURCE: Ethington, Kooistra and DeYoung, 1940-1960.

FULL DESCRIPTION: Indicates the total number of males 14 years and older working as government employees. This is a subtotal of O5002.

 

 

NAME

OYY03

SHORT

DESCRIPTION

Total number of people self-employed.

AVAILABILITY

1940

1950

1960

1970

1980

1990

O4003

O5003

O6003

no

no

no

 

SOURCE: Ethington, Kooistra and DeYoung, 1940-1960.

FULL DESCRIPTION: Indicates the total number of people 14 years and older who were self-employed. In 1940, this category included people in the labor force as employers and as own-account workers. O5003M and O5003F are subtotals of this variable.

 

 

 

NAME

OYY03F

SHORT

DESCRIPTION

Total number of males self-employed.

(Subtotal variable).

AVAILABILITY

1940

1950

1960

1970

1980

1990

no

O5003F

no

no

no

no

 

SOURCE: Ethington, Kooistra and DeYoung, 1940-1960.

FULL DESCRIPTION: Indicates the total number of females 14 years and older who were self-employed. In 1940, this category included females in the labor force as employers and as own-account workers. This is a subtotal of O5003.

 

 

NAME

OYY03M

SHORT

DESCRIPTION

Total number of males self-employed.

(Subtotal variable).

AVAILABILITY

1940

1950

1960

1970

1980

1990

no

O5003M

no

no

no

no

 

SOURCE: Ethington, Kooistra and DeYoung, 1940-1960.

FULL DESCRIPTION: Indicates the total number of males 14 years and older who were self-employed. In 1940, this category included males in the labor force as employers and as own-account workers. This is a subtotal of O5003.

 

 

NAME

OYY04

SHORT

DESCRIPTION

Total number of family workers.

AVAILABILITY

1940

1950

1960

1970

1980

1990

O4004

O5004

O6004

no

no

no

 

SOURCE: Ethington, Kooistra and DeYoung, 1940-1960.

FULL DESCRIPTION: Indicates the total number of people 14 years and older working in families. In 1940, this category included unpaid family workers. O5004M and O5004F are subtotals of this variable.

 

 

 

 

NAME

OYY04F

SHORT

DESCRIPTION

Total number of female family workers.

(Subtotal variable).

AVAILABILITY

1940

1950

1960

1970

1980

1990

no

O5004F

no

no

no

no

 

SOURCE: Ethington, Kooistra and DeYoung, 1940-1960.

FULL DESCRIPTION: Indicates the total number of females 14 years and older working in families. In 1940, this category included unpaid female family workers. This variable is a subtotal of 05004.

 

 

NAME

OYY04M

SHORT

DESCRIPTION

Total number of male family workers.

(Subtotal variable).

AVAILABILITY

1940

1950

1960

1970

1980

1990

no

O5004M

no

no

no

no

 

SOURCE: Ethington, Kooistra and DeYoung, 1940-1960.

FULL DESCRIPTION: Indicates the total number of males 14 years and older working in families. In 1940, this category included unpaid male family workers. This variable is a subtotal of 05004.

 

 

NAME

OYY05

SHORT

DESCRIPTION

Total number of people working as professionals.

AVAILABILITY

1940

1950

1960

1970

1980

1990

04005

O5005

O6005

no

no

no

 

SOURCE: Ethington, Kooistra and DeYoung, 1940-1960.

FULL DESCRIPTION: Indicates the number of people 14 years and older employed in "professional" occupations. In order to attain a comparable classification for the years 1940, 1950, and 1960, separate original categories were combined. For 1940, 0YY05 combines 04005SPS ("semi-professionals" in the original classification) and 040YYPRS ("professionals" in the original classification). For 1950 and 1960, OYY05 combines the male and female "professional" workers (OYY05PRM and OYY05PRF), plus "technical and kindred" workers. Note, there was no original "semi-professional" classification for the years 1950 and 1960.

 

 

NAME

OYY05PRF

SHORT

DESCRIPTION

Total number of females working as professionals. (Subtotal variable).

AVAILABILITY

1940

1950

1960

1970

1980

1990

no

O5005PRM

O6005PRM

no

no

no

 

SOURCE: Ethington, Kooistra and DeYoung, 1940-1960.

FULL DESCRIPTION: Indicates the number of females 14 years and older employed in "professional" occupations. See OYY05 for details. This variable is a subtotal of OYY05.

 

 

NAME

OYY05PRM

SHORT

DESCRIPTION

Total number of males working as professionals. (Subtotal variable).

AVAILABILITY

1940

1950

1960

1970

1980

1990

no

O5005PRM

O6005PRM

no

no

no

 

SOURCE: Ethington, Kooistra and DeYoung, 1940-1960.

FULL DESCRIPTION: Indicates the number of males 14 years and older employed in "professional" occupations. See OYY05 for details. This variable is a subtotal of OYY05.

 

 

NAME

OYY05PRS

SHORT

DESCRIPTION

Total number of persons working as professionals. (Subtotal variable).

AVAILABILITY

1940

1950

1960

1970

1980

1990

O4005PRS

no

no

no

no

no

 

SOURCE: Ethington, Kooistra and DeYoung, 1940-1960.

FULL DESCRIPTION: Indicates the number of persons 14 years and older employed in "professional" occupations. See OYY05 for details. This variable is a subtotal of OYY05.

 

 

 

 

NAME

OYY05SPS

SHORT

DESCRIPTION

Total number of persons working as semi-professionals. (Subtotal variable).

AVAILABILITY

1940

1950

1960

1970

1980

1990

O4005SPS

no

no

no

no

no

 

SOURCE: Ethington, Kooistra and DeYoung, 1940-1960.

FULL DESCRIPTION: Indicates the number of persons 14 years and older employed in "semi-professional" occupations. See OYY05 for details. This variable is a subtotal of OYY05.

 

 

NAME

OYY06

SHORT

DESCRIPTION

Total number of people working as managers.

AVAILABILITY

1940

1950

1960

1970

1980

1990

04006

O5006

O6006

no

no

no

 

SOURCE: Ethington, Kooistra and DeYoung, 1940-1960.

FULL DESCRIPTION: Indicates the number of people 14 years and older employed as proprietors, managers, and officials, including farmers (owners and tenants) and farm managers.

Male and female subtotals are provided in OYY06M and OYY06F.

 

 

NAME

OYY06F

SHORT

DESCRIPTION

Total number of females working as managers.

(Subtotal variable).

AVAILABILITY

1940

1950

1960

1970

1980

1990

no

O5006F

O6006F

no

no

no

 

SOURCE: Ethington, Kooistra and DeYoung, 1940-1960.

FULL DESCRIPTION: Indicates the number of females 14 years and older employed as proprietors, managers, and officials, including farmers (owners and tenants) and farm managers.

Subtotal of OYY06.

 

 

 

 

NAME

OYY06M

SHORT

DESCRIPTION

Total number of males working as managers.

(Subtotal variable).

AVAILABILITY

1940

1950

1960

1970

1980

1990

no

O5006M

O6006M

no

no

no

 

SOURCE: Ethington, Kooistra and DeYoung, 1940-1960.

FULL DESCRIPTION: Indicates the number of males 14 years and older employed as proprietors, managers, and officials, including farmers (owners and tenants) and farm managers.

Subtotal of OYY06.

 

 

NAME

OYY07

SHORT

DESCRIPTION

Total number of people working as clerks and salespeople.

AVAILABILITY

1940

1950

1960

1970

1980

1990

04007

O5007

O6007

no

no

no

 

SOURCE: Ethington, Kooistra and DeYoung, 1940-1960.

FULL DESCRIPTION: Indicates the number of people 14 years and older employed as clerks, salespeople and kindred workers. The 1940 census counted clerks and salespeople under a single category. The 1950 and 1960 censuses separated these two categories, and subdivided those further into male and female. See also subtotal variables OYY07CLM, OYY07CLF, OYY07SLM, OYY07SLF.

 

 

NAME

OYY07CLF

SHORT

DESCRIPTION

Total number of females working as clerks.

(Subtotal variable).

AVAILABILITY

1940

1950

1960

1970

1980

1990

no

O5007CLF

O6007CLF

no

no

no

 

SOURCE: Ethington, Kooistra and DeYoung, 1940-1960.

FULL DESCRIPTION: Indicates the number of females 14 years and older employed as clerks. This variable is a subtotal of OYY07.

 

 

 

 

NAME

OYY07CLM

SHORT

DESCRIPTION

Total number of males working as clerks.

(Subtotal variable).

AVAILABILITY

1940

1950

1960

1970

1980

1990

no

O5007CLM

O6007CLM

no

no

no

 

SOURCE: Ethington, Kooistra and DeYoung, 1940-1960.

FULL DESCRIPTION: Indicates the number of males 14 years and older employed as clerks. This variable is a subtotal of OYY07.

 

 

NAME

OYY07SLF

SHORT

DESCRIPTION

Total number of females working as salespeople. (Subtotal variable).

AVAILABILITY

1940

1950

1960

1970

1980

1990

no

O5007SLF

O6007SLF

no

no

no

 

SOURCE: Ethington, Kooistra and DeYoung, 1940-1960.

FULL DESCRIPTION: Indicates the number of females 14 years and older employed as salespeople. This variable is a subtotal of OYY07.

 

 

NAME

OYY07SLM

SHORT

DESCRIPTION

Total number of males working as salespeople. (Subtotal variable).

AVAILABILITY

1940

1950

1960

1970

1980

1990

no

O5007SLM

O6007SLM

no

no

no

 

SOURCE: Ethington, Kooistra and DeYoung, 1940-1960.

FULL DESCRIPTION: Indicates the number of males 14 years and older employed as salespeople. This variable is a subtotal of OYY07.

 

 

 

 

NAME

OYY08

SHORT

DESCRIPTION

Total number of craft workers.

AVAILABILITY

1940

1950

1960

1970

1980

1990

04008

O5008

O6008

no

no

no

 

SOURCE: Ethington, Kooistra and DeYoung, 1940-1960.

FULL DESCRIPTION: Indicates the number of people 14 years and older employed in craft industries. Craftsmen, foremen, and kindred workers are included. Male and female subtotals for 1950 and 1960 are provided in OYY08M and OYY08F.

 

 

NAME

OYY08F

SHORT

DESCRIPTION

Total number of female craft workers.

(Subtotal variable).

AVAILABILITY

1940

1950

1960

1970

1980

1990

no

O5008F

O6008F

no

no

no

 

SOURCE: Ethington, Kooistra and DeYoung, 1940-1960.

FULL DESCRIPTION: Indicates the number of females 14 years and older employed in craft industries. Craftsmen, foremen, and kindred workers are included. This variable is a subtotal of OYY08.

 

 

NAME

OYY08M

SHORT

DESCRIPTION

Total number of male craft workers.

(Subtotal variable).

AVAILABILITY

1940

1950

1960

1970

1980

1990

no

O5008M

O6008M

no

no

no

 

SOURCE: Ethington, Kooistra and DeYoung, 1940-1960.

FULL DESCRIPTION: Indicates the number of males 14 years and older employed in craft industries. Craftsmen, foremen, and kindred workers are included. This variable is a subtotal of OYY08.

 

 

 

 

NAME

OYY09

SHORT

DESCRIPTION

Total number of persons employed as operatives.

AVAILABILITY

1940

1950

1960

1970

1980

1990

O4009

O5009

O6009

no

no

no

 

SOURCE: Ethington, Kooistra and DeYoung, 1940-1960.

FULL DESCRIPTION: Indicates the number of persons 14 years and older employed as (factory) operatives. See also subtotals in OYY09M and OYY09F.

 

 

NAME

OYY09F

SHORT

DESCRIPTION

Total number of females employed as operatives. (Subtotal variable).

AVAILABILITY

1940

1950

1960

1970

1980

1990

no

O5009F

O6009F

no

no

no

 

SOURCE: Ethington, Kooistra and DeYoung, 1940-1960.

FULL DESCRIPTION: Indicates the number of females 14 years and older employed as (factory) operatives. This variable is a subtotal of OYY09.

 

 

NAME

OYY09M

SHORT

DESCRIPTION

Total number of males employed as operatives. (Subtotal variable).

AVAILABILITY

1940

1950

1960

1970

1980

1990

no

O5009M

O6009M

no

no

no

 

SOURCE: Ethington, Kooistra and DeYoung, 1940-1960.

FULL DESCRIPTION: Indicates the number of males 14 years and older employed as (factory) operatives. This variable is a subtotal of OYY09.

 

 

 

 

NAME

OYY10

SHORT

DESCRIPTION

Total number of persons employed in domestic service.

AVAILABILITY

1940

1950

1960

1970

1980

1990

O4010

O5010

O6010

no

no

no

 

SOURCE: Ethington, Kooistra and DeYoung, 1940-1960.

FULL DESCRIPTION: Indicates the number of persons 14 years and older employed in "domestic service" (the 1940 terminology) and as "private household workers" (the 1950 and 1960 terminology). See also subtotals for 1950 and 1960 in OYY10M and OYY10F.

 

 

NAME

OYY10F

SHORT

DESCRIPTION

Total number of females employed in domestic service. (Subtotal variable).

AVAILABILITY

1940

1950

1960

1970

1980

1990

no

O5010F

O6010F

no

no

no

 

SOURCE: Ethington, Kooistra and DeYoung, 1940-1960.

FULL DESCRIPTION: Indicates the number of females 14 years and older employed in "domestic service" (the 1940 terminology) and as "private household workers" (the 1950 and 1960 terminology). This variable is a subtotal of OYY10.

 

 

NAME

OYY10M

SHORT

DESCRIPTION

Total number of males employed in domestic service. (Subtotal variable).

AVAILABILITY

1940

1950

1960

1970

1980

1990

no

O5010M

O6010M

no

no

no

 

SOURCE: Ethington, Kooistra and DeYoung, 1940-1960.

FULL DESCRIPTION: Indicates the number of males 14 years and older employed in "domestic service" (the 1940 terminology) and as "private household workers" (the 1950 and 1960 terminology). This variable is a subtotal of OYY10.

 

 

 

 

NAME

OYY11

SHORT

DESCRIPTION

Total number of service workers.

AVAILABILITY

1940

1950

1960

1970

1980

1990

O4011

O5011

O6011

no

no

no

 

SOURCE: Ethington, Kooistra and DeYoung, 1940-1960.

FULL DESCRIPTION: Indicates the number of persons 14 years and older employed as service workers, excepting "domestic service" and "private household workers." See also subtotals for 1950 and 1960 in OYY11M and OYY11F.

 

 

NAME

OYY11F

SHORT

DESCRIPTION

Total number of female service workers.

(Subtotal variable).

AVAILABILITY

1940

1950

1960

1970

1980

1990

no

O5011F

O6011F

no

no

no

 

SOURCE: Ethington, Kooistra and DeYoung, 1940-1960.

FULL DESCRIPTION: Indicates the number of females 14 years and older employed as service workers, excepting "domestic service" and "private household workers." This variable is a subtotal of OYY11.

 

 

NAME

OYY11M

SHORT

DESCRIPTION

Total number of male service workers.

(Subtotal variable).

AVAILABILITY

1940

1950

1960

1970

1980

1990

no

O5011M

O6011M

no

no

no

 

SOURCE: Ethington, Kooistra and DeYoung, 1940-1960.

FULL DESCRIPTION: Indicates the number of males 14 years and older employed as service workers, excepting "domestic service" and "private household workers." This variable is a subtotal of OYY11.

 

 

 

 

NAME

OYY12

SHORT

DESCRIPTION

Total number of persons employed as laborers.

AVAILABILITY

1940

1950

1960

1970

1980

1990

O4012

O5012

O6012

no

no

no

 

SOURCE: Ethington, Kooistra and DeYoung, 1940-1960.

FULL DESCRIPTION: Indicates the number of persons 14 years and older employed as laborers. In 1950 and 1960 this category specifically excluded miners. See also subtotals in OYY12M and OYY12F.

 

 

NAME

OYY12F

SHORT

DESCRIPTION

Total number of females employed as laborers. (Subtotal variable).

AVAILABILITY

1940

1950

1960

1970

1980

1990

no

O5012F

O6012F

no

no

no

 

SOURCE: Ethington, Kooistra and DeYoung, 1940-1960.

FULL DESCRIPTION: Indicates the number of females 14 years and older employed as laborers. In 1950 and 1960 this category specifically excluded miners. This variable is a subtotal of OYY12.

 

 

NAME

OYY12M

SHORT

DESCRIPTION

Total number of males employed as laborers.

(Subtotal variable).

AVAILABILITY

1940

1950

1960

1970

1980

1990

no

O5012M

O6012M

no

no

no

 

SOURCE: Ethington, Kooistra and DeYoung, 1940-1960.

FULL DESCRIPTION: Indicates the number of males 14 years and older employed as laborers. In 1950 and 1960 this category specifically excluded miners. This variable is a subtotal of OYY12.

 

 

 

 

NAME

OYY13

SHORT

DESCRIPTION

Total number of persons not reporting any occupation.

AVAILABILITY

1940

1950

1960

1970

1980

1990

O4013

O5013

O6013

no

no

no

 

SOURCE: Ethington, Kooistra and DeYoung, 1940-1960.

FULL DESCRIPTION: Indicates the number of persons 14 years or older not reporting any occupation. See also subtotals in OYY13M and OYY13F.

 

 

NAME

OYY13F

SHORT

DESCRIPTION

Total number of females not reporting any occupation. (Subtotal variable).

AVAILABILITY

1940

1950

1960

1970

1980

1990

no

O5013F

O6013F

no

no

no

 

SOURCE: Ethington, Kooistra and DeYoung, 1940-1960.

FULL DESCRIPTION: Indicates the number of females 14 years or older not reporting any occupation. This variable is a subtotal of OYY13.

 

 

NAME

OYY13M

SHORT

DESCRIPTION

Total number of males not reporting any occupation. (Subtotal variable).

AVAILABILITY

1940

1950

1960

1970

1980

1990

no

O5013M

O6013M

no

no

no

 

SOURCE: Ethington, Kooistra and DeYoung, 1940-1960.

FULL DESCRIPTION: Indicates the number of males 14 years or older not reporting any occupation. This variable is a subtotal of OYY13.

 

 

 

 

NAME

OYYBC

SHORT

DESCRIPTION

Persons of blue collar occupation

AVAILABILITY

1940

1950

1960

1970

1980

1990

O40BC

O50BC

O60BC

O70BC

O80BC

O90BC

 

SOURCE: Ethington, Kooistra and DeYoung, 1940-1960; CSDF, 1970-1990.

FULL DESCRIPTION: This and its companion variable, OYYWC are highly constructed variable, meaning many value judgements are involved. The criteria used to create it are based on the occupational classification system most widely used by social scientists, which goes back to the work of Alba M. Edwards in the U.S. Census of 1940. The distinction between "white" and "blue" collars hinges principally upon the use of the hands. Those who work with their hands, whether skilled or not, are classified as blue collar. For the years 1940, 1950, and 1960, the following variables were combined to form the OYYBC variable: OYY08 (Crafts), OYY10 (Operatives), OYY11 (Domestics), OYY13 (Laborers). Unfortunately, the CSDF codebook does not list its criteria for classifying the occupations for the years 1970, 1980, and 1990. Testing, however, shows great continuity between the system used by Ethington, Kooistra, and DeYoung, and that used by the CSDF. Further, for an unknown reason, about one-third of the observations in the CSDF dataset for 1970 were missing. These were re-created for this data set by interpolating proportions for each tract for which the data had been missing, between the years 1960 and 1980. See also OYYWC.

 

 

 

 

NAME

OYYWC

SHORT

DESCRIPTION

Persons of white collar occupation.

AVAILABILITY

1940

1950

1960

1970

1980

1990

O40WC

O50WC

O60WC

O70WC

O80WC

O90WC

 

SOURCE: Ethington, Kooistra and DeYoung, 1940-1960; CSDF, 1970-1990.

FULL DESCRIPTION: This and its companion variable, OYYBC are highly "constructed" variables, meaning that many value judgements are involved. The criteria used to create it are based on the occupational classification system most widely used by social scientists, which goes back to the work of Alba M. Edwards in the U.S. Census of 1940. The distinction between "white" and "blue" collars hinges principally upon the use of the hands. Those who work with their hands, whether skilled or not, are classified as blue collar. For the years 1940, 1950, and 1960, the following variables were combined to form the OYYWC variable: OYY02 (Government), OYY05 (Professional), OYY06 (Managers), OYY07 (Clerks and Sales), and OYY12 (Service). Unfortunately, the CSDF codebook does not list its criteria for classifying the occupations for the years 1970, 1980, and 1990. Testing, however, shows great continuity between the system used by Ethington, Kooistra, and DeYoung, and that used by the CSDF. Further, for an unknown reason, about one-third of the observations in the CSDF dataset for 1970 were missing. These were re-created for this data set by interpolating proportions for each tract for which the data had been missing, between the years 1960 and 1980. See also OYYBC.

 

 

NAME

PYYB

SHORT

DESCRIPTION

Population black.

(Subtotal variable).

AVAILABILITY

1940

1950

1960

1970

1980

1990

P40B

P50B

P60B

NO

NO

NO

 

SOURCE: Ethington, Kooistra and DeYoung, 1940-1960.

FULL DESCRIPTION: Subtotal of PYYTOTNW, limited to "negro," "black," and "African American" population. This variable is a subtotal of PYYTOTNW.

 

 

 

 

NAME

PYYBNH

SHORT

DESCRIPTION

Population black non hispanic.

(Subtotal variable).

AVAILABILITY

(Union

1940-90)

1940

1950

1960

1970

1980

1990

P40BNH

P50BNH

P60BNH

P70BNH

P80BNH

P90BNH

 

SOURCE: Ethington, Kooistra and DeYoung, 1940-1960; CSDF, 1970-1990.

FULL DESCRIPTION: All persons classified as "negro," "black" or "African American" minus persons classified as "hispanic." This variable originated in the CSDF series and was carried backward to the Ethington, Kooistra and DeYoung 1940-1960 series as closely as possible, but must be used with caution. Difficulties in maintaining consistency for the "hispanic" category affect the consistency of this variable. See also the discussions in PYYWNH, PYYONH, and PYYHIS.

 

 

NAME

PYYCSA

SHORT

DESCRIPTION

Population born in Central or South America.

AVAILABILITY

1940

1950

1960

1970

1980

1990

P40CSA

P50CSA

P60CSA

NO

NO

NO

 

SOURCE: Ethington, Kooistra and DeYoung, 1940-1960.

FULL DESCRIPTION: Listed in the Census tract tables as a subtotal of PYYFBW, this variable was collected in order to help approximate the "hispanic" category in later Census years, and also because of its intrinsic interest for Los Angeles County. See also discussion in PYYHIS and PYMEX.

 

 

 

 

NAME

PYYFBW

SHORT

DESCRIPTION

Population foreign-born white.

(Subtotal variable).

AVAILABILITY

1940

1950

1960

1970

1980

1990

P40FBW

P40FBW

NO

NO

NO

NO

 

SOURCE: Ethington, Kooistra and DeYoung, 1940-1960.

FULL DESCRIPTION: Listed in the 1940 and 1950 Census tract tables as a subtotal of PYYTW, it specifies number of persons not born in the United States or any of its territories or possessions, or any other area designated as "native." The census tract tables also indicate country of origin for foreign born whites, but apart from "Mexico" and "Central or South America," (necessary for the "hispanic" category) these data were not collected for this data set. See also PYYTW and PYYNATW. This variable is a subtotal of PYYTW.

 

 

 

 

NAME

PYYHIS

SHORT

DESCRIPTION

Population hispanic.

(Subtotal variable).

AVAILABILITY

1940

1950

1960

1970

1980

1990

P40HIS

P50HIS

P60HIS

P70HIS

P80HIS

P90HIS

 

SOURCE: Ethington, Kooistra and DeYoung, 1940-1960; CSDF, 1970-1990.

FULL DESCRIPTION: "Hispanic" is a bureaucratically constructed term, intended to embrace all persons of Spanish-language descent. This category is not racial, in that it includes whites, blacks, and even asians. The key question for demographic data definition then, is not whether the category is 'real,' but whether it is consistent in its constructedness. The 1970-1990 Censuses actually used this category for data collection and aggregation, so we must assume relative consistency for those years. In 1950 and 1960 the Census reported the number of people with Spanish surnames, subdivided further into native and foreign born. That served as a very close approximation of the 1970-1990 "hispanic" category. However, the 1940 Census only reported the national and regional origins of "born in Mexico" and "born in Central or South America" at the tract level. Those are the only available tract-level category for indicating "hispanic" and although inadequate, it cannot be improved upon. Tests indicate a significant undercount of "hispanics" using this measure. On the positive side, it does seem to provide a very reliable tool for locating concentrations of "hispanic" people more broadly defined to include the native-born. Given the high degree of segregation in 1940, most persons of hispanic descent were clustered together. This variable originated in the CSDF series and was carried backward to the Ethington, Kooistra and DeYoung 1940-1960 series as closely as possible, but must be used with caution. See also the discussions in PYYWNH, PYYBNH, and PYYONH.

 

 

 

 

NAME

PYYMEX

SHORT

DESCRIPTION

Population born in Mexico.

AVAILABILITY

1940

1950

1960

1970

1980

1990

P40MEX

P50MEX

P60MEX

NO

NO

NO

 

SOURCE: Ethington, Kooistra and DeYoung, 1940-1960.

FULL DESCRIPTION: Listed in the Census tract tables as a subtotal of PYYFBW, this variable was collected in order to help approximate the "hispanic" category in later Census years, and also because of its intrinsic interest for Los Angeles County. It does not, however, include anyone of Mexican descent born in the United States ("Mexican-Americans," or "Chicanos"), a considerable number by 1940. Nor should it be assumed that tracts including Mexican-born individuals were representative of tracts including Mexixan-Americans. See also discussion in PYYHIS and PYCSA.

 

 

NAME

PYYNATW

SHORT

DESCRIPTION

Population native-born white.

(Subtotal variable).

AVAILABILITY

1940

1950

1960

1970

1980

1990

P40NATW

P50NATW

NO

NO

NO

NO

 

SOURCE: Ethington, Kooistra and DeYoung, 1940-1960.

FULL DESCRIPTION: Listed in the 1940 and 1950 Census tract tables as a subtotal of PYYTW, it specifies number of persons "born in the United States or any of its territories or possessions" (1940). In 1950 this definition was expanded with the language "…or born in a foreign country of parents were American citizens." See also PYYTW and PYYFBW. This variable is a subtotal of PYYTW.

 

 

 

 

NAME

PYYNBNW

SHORT

DESCRIPTION

Population non-black and non-white.

(Subtotal variable).

AVAILABILITY

1940

1950

1960

1970

1980

1990

P40NBNW

P50NBNW

P60NBNW

NO

NO

NO

 

SOURCE: Ethington, Kooistra and DeYoung, 1940-1960.

FULL DESCRIPTION: Includes all non white but also non black population. Since "Mexicans" and "Central and South Americans" were classified as "white" in 1940-1960," this variable effectively represents Asians, who comprised the vast majority of remaining nonwhites, although Native Americans were also included. This variable is a subtotal of PYYTOTNW,

 

 

NAME

PYYONH

SHORT

DESCRIPTION

Population other non white non hispanic.

(Subtotal variable).

AVAILABILITY

1940

1950

1960

1970

1980

1990

P40ONH

P50ONH

P60ONH

P70ONH

P80ONH

P90ONH

 

SOURCE: Ethington, Kooistra and DeYoung, 1940-1960; CSDF, 1970-1990.

FULL DESCRIPTION: This category is inherently residual: it attempts to embrace all non white non hispanics. For most of the years 1940-1990, this effectively meant "Asian," but the diversity of persons in this category grew increasingly wide after the Immigration Reform Act of 1965. The tract-level data for actually do not permit finer race-ethnic distinctions. This variable originated in the CSDF series and was carried backward to the Ethington, Kooistra and DeYoung 1940-1960 series as closely as possible, but must be used with caution. Difficulties in maintaining consistency for the "hispanic" category affect the consistency of this variable. See also the discussions in PYYWNH, PYYBNH,and PYYHIS.

 

 

 

 

NAME

PYYSSFB

SHORT

DESCRIPTION

Population with Spanish surnames, foreign born. (Subtotal variable).

AVAILABILITY

1940

1950

1960

1970

1980

1990

NO

P50SSFB

P60SSFB

NO

NO

NO

 

SOURCE: Ethington, Kooistra and DeYoung, 1940-196O.

FULL DESCRIPTION: Includes only those native born in the United States, its territories or possessions. Note limitation of this variable, discussed in PYYSST. See also PYYSSN. This variable is a subtotal of PYYSST.

 

 

NAME

PYYSSN

SHORT

DESCRIPTION

Population with Spanish surnames, native born. (Subtotal variable).

AVAILABILITY

1940

1950

1960

1970

1980

1990

NO

P50SSN

P60SSN

NO

NO

NO

 

SOURCE: Ethington, Kooistra and DeYoung, 1940-1960.

FULL DESCRIPTION: Includes only those native born in the United States, its territories or possessions. Note limitation of this variable, discussed in PYYSST. See also PYYSSFB. This variable is a subtotal of PYYSST.

 

 

NAME

PYYSST

SHORT

DESCRIPTION

Population total with Spanish surnames

AVAILABILITY

1940

1950

1960

1970

1980

1990

NO

P50SST

P60SST

NO

NO

NO

 

SOURCE: Ethington, Kooistra and DeYoung, 1940-1960.

FULL DESCRIPTION: Persons with Spanish surnames were identified for the first time in the 1950 Census. These were listed in separate tables listing all tracts with 250 or more white persons with Spanish surnames. Data in this variable were collected from those subsidiary tables. Clearly the minimum number of 250 characterizes this variable as one to be used with caution, as it is not sensitive to smaller populations. See also PYYSSN and PYYSSFB.

 

 

 

 

NAME

PYYT

SHORT

DESCRIPTION

Population total.

AVAILABILITY

1940

1950

1960

1970

1980

1990

P40T

P50T

P60T

P70T

P80T

P90T

 

SOURCE: Ethington, Kooistra and DeYoung, 1940-1960; CSDF, 1970-1990.

FULL DESCRIPTION: Total number of residents, of all ages, races, ethnic groups, and sexes, living in census tract.

 

 

NAME

PYYTOTNW

SHORT

DESCRIPTION

Total non white population.

AVAILABILITY

1940

1950

1960

1970

1980

1990

P40TOTNW

P50TOTNW

P60TOTNW

NO

NO

NO

 

SOURCE: Ethington, Kooistra and DeYoung, 1940-1960.

FULL DESCRIPTION: Includes all not defined as "white," such as blacks, Asians, Native Americans. Mexicans (1940, 1950, and 1960) and Central and South Americans (1940 and 1950) are classified as "white," and hence not included in this figure.

 

 

NAME

PYYTW

SHORT

DESCRIPTION

Total white population.

AVAILABILITY

1940

1950

1960

1970

1980

1990

P40TW

P50TW

P60TW

NO

NO

NO

 

SOURCE: Ethington, Kooistra and DeYoung, 1940-1960

FULL DESCRIPTION: Total number of persons considered "white," which includes persons of Mexican birth or ancestry who are not "definitely" Indian or of another "nonwhite race." For 1940 and 1950, this figure is subdivided into the subtotals of PYYNATW (native-born whites) and PYYFBW (foreign-born whites).

 

 

 

 

NAME

PYYWNH

SHORT

DESCRIPTION

Population white non hispanic.

(Subtotal variable).

AVAILABILITY

(Union

1940-90)

1940

1950

1960

1970

1980

1990

P40WNH

P50WNH

P60WNH

P70WNH

P80WNH

P90WNH

 

SOURCE: Ethington, Kooistra and DeYoung, 1940-1960; CSDF, 1970-1990.

FULL DESCRIPTION: "White non hispanic" represents all persons classified as "white" (which included Hispanics of various backgrounds in the 1970, 1980 and 1990 censuses), minus those classified as "hispanic." This variable originated in the CSDF series and was carried backward to the Ethington, Kooistra and DeYoung 1940-1960 series as closely as possible, but must be used with caution. Difficulties in maintaining consistency for the "hispanic" category affect the consistency of this variable. In 1950 and 1960 the Census reported the number of people with Spanish surnames, subdivided further into native and foreign born. That served as a very close approximation of the 1970-1990 "hispanic" category. However, the 1940 Census only reported the national and regional origins of "born in Mexico" and "born in Central or South America." That is the only available tract-level category for indicating "hispanic" and although inadequate, it cannot be improved upon. Tests indicate a significant undercount of "hispanics" using this measure. On the positive side, it does seem to provide a very reliable tool for locating concentrations of "hispanic" people more broadly defined to include the native-born. Given the high degree of segregation in 1940, most persons of hispanic descent were clustered together. The implication of these considerations is that the "white non hispanic" category cannot be fully consistent across the years 1940-1990. Especially in 1940, at least some persons of hispanic descent are undoubtedly included in the "white non hispanic" category. See also the discussions in PYYBNH, PYYONH, and PYYHIS.

 

 

 

 

NAME

RYYOTYY

SHORT

DESCRIPTION

Residence in other location than same house or same county, as five years previous.

AVAILABILITY

1940

1950

1960

1970

1980

1990

no

no

no

R70OT65

R80OT75

R90OT85

 

SOURCE: CSDF, 1970-1990.

FULL DESCRIPTION: Residence in other location than same house or same county, as five years previous. See also RYYSHYY and RYYSCYY.

 

 

NAME

RYYSCYY

SHORT

DESCRIPTION

Residence in same county as five years previous.

AVAILABILITY

1940

1950

1960

1970

1980

1990

no

no

no

R70SC65

R80SC75

R90SC85

 

SOURCE: CSDF, 1970-1990.

FULL DESCRIPTION: Residence in same county as five years previous. See also RYYSHYY and RYYOTYY.

 

 

NAME

RYYSHYY

SHORT

DESCRIPTION

Residence in same house as five years previous.

AVAILABILITY

1940

1950

1960

1970

1980

1990

no

no

no

R70SH65

R80SH75

R90SH85

 

SOURCE: CSDF, 1970-1990.

FULL DESCRIPTION: Residence in same home as five years previous. See also RYYSCYY and RYYOTYY.