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Biblical Manuscripts

The Leningrad Codex, or Leningradensis, is the oldest complete Hebrew bible still preserved. Dating to the year 1010 C.E., the manuscript contains the whole Hebrew Bible (or Old Testament in Hebrew). In 1990 a team from the West Semitic Research Project and the Ancient Biblical Manuscript Center traveled to the Russian National Library in St. Petersburg to photograph all 1,000 pages of the Bible.


The Leningrad Codex: A Facsimile Edition.

General Editor: David Noel Freedman
Managing Editor: Astrid B. Beck
Associate Editors: Bruce E. Zuckerman and Marilyn J. Lundberg
Publication Editor: James A. Sanders
Photographers: Bruce E. Zuckerman, Kenneth A. Zuckerman, Marilyn J. Lundberg, and Garth I. Moller

Wm. B. Eerdmans Publishing in Grand Rapids, Michigan, and Brill Academic Publishers in Leiden, the Netherlands, have published (1998) a facsimile edition of the Leningrad Codex using the photographs taken in 1990. The facsimile is intended as a scholar's edition, and most of the pages are in black and white. The sixteen illuminated pages of the Codex, however, are printed in color. If you would like more information, please write to us at

Leningrad Codex General Information.

Leningrad f.40b Folio 40b - a page of biblical text.

Leningrad Carpet Page An illuminated page.

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