History of Civil Engineering
Pre-18th Century Civil Engineering
Civil engineering began in 4000 and 2000 BC in Egypt during the times of the creation of the pyramids and with the increased need for transportation of goods, materials, and supplies for people and construction. Major structures like the Ancient Wall of China and the Pyramids were constructed on the basis of ancient civil engineering techniques that form the basis of what we use today. They started creating aqueducts, dams, and vast empires for protection of their people and commodities. Civil engineering was a chiefly applied in a military manner after major civilizations began appearing. Engineers used the principles of civil engineering to construct catapults, towers, and small arms and instruments for them to use in battle. They als0o traveled with armies to construct roads, bridges, and other forms of transportation to assist in the armies’ advance.
18th-20th Century Engineering
It wasn’t until the early to mid 19th century that Civil Engineering was named a separate study from Architecture. In 1819, Norwich University established a separate civil engineering class delineating the difference between architecture, military engineering, and civil engineering. From that point on, many civil engineering societies like the American Society of Civil Engineers were formed in the United States and Europe and the popularity and importance of the study greatly increased.
Modern Civil Engineering
Nowadays, civil engineering is one the most important parts of the engineering field. It is used to create important machinery, buildings, roads, schools, and much more. With recent advancements in technology, modern engineers now have access to programs like CAD and CAM which help them design, create, and test simulations of any type of structure the engineer creates. These programs can save time, money, and labor and greatly increase the efficiency of construction in modern times
History of Mechanical Engineering
Early Years of Mechanical Engineering
Mechanical Engineering started all the way back in 200-300 BC with Archimedes and Heron of Alexandria. Archimedes’ principles set the basis for mechanical engineering and Heron of Alexandria created the first steam engine. Other inventions in China like the chariot with gears, the seismometer, and water clock greatly influenced the growth of mechanical engineering in the early days of its creation. Furthermore, during the Islamic Golden Age of the 7th to 15th century, many Islamic inventors contributed to the growth of the mechanical technology of the time.
17th Century to Present
One of the most influential scientists of all time, Sir Isaac Newton, greatly influenced the science world in the 17th century. He developed his basic Laws of Motion and created Calculus. Newton helped create a separate sector of mechanical engineering the dealt with the manufacturing of machines. The first professional group formed of mechanical engineers was formed in 1847 called the Institution of Mechanical Engineers. Presently, mechanical engineering plays a vital role in our daily lives. Mechanical engineers can create basic commodities that an every-day person would use, or other highly valued items for the military or government. The field of mechanical engineering spans many fields of study and deals with the designing of many important items in our daily lives.