Polish Music Journal
Vol. 1, No. 1. Summer 1998. ISSN 1521 - 6039


bar

Kochański's Collaborative Work
As Reflected in His Manuscript Collection

Tyrone Greive

bar

PART I: KOCHAŃSKI'S LIFE AND MANUSCRIPTS
1. Biographical Sketch
2. Overview of Collaborations
3. Manuscripts and Career

Bar


110 years after his birth Polish violinist Paul Kochański is remembered mostly for the technical assistance he gave composer Karol Szymanowski; however, the violinist collaborated with other important composers as well. Patterns in the type of work habits and attitudes which Kochański brought to these collaborations are suggested by examining the violinist's endeavors in the following steps: (1) a biographical sketch outlining Kochański's professional importance and qualifications including (2) an overview of his collaborations, (3) the relationship between the violinist's personal manuscript collection and his career, and, in the second part of this paper, (4) connections between the collection and Szymanowski's violin writing of 1915-16, (5) Kochański's work habits and (6) attitudes as reflected through the collection, as well as (7) conclusions offering insights into his collaborative work.


1. Biographical Sketch

Paul [Paweł] Kochański was born in Orel, Russia on September 14, 1887. After starting the violin with his father he began his formal training at the age of 7 in Odessa, where he studied with Emil Młynarski, a Polish student of Leopold Auer. In 1897 Kochański went with Młynarski to Warsaw; when the latter became director of the Warsaw Philharmonic in 1901, his fourteen-year-old student was appointed concertmaster. In 1903 Kochański pursued further studies with César Thomson at the Brussels Conservatoire, where he was awarded the first prize after only a few months.

That Kochański successfully established and sustained an international solo concert career during a period when there were many excellent concertizing violinists with large followings—e. g. Elman, Enesco, Heifetz, Huberman, Kreisler, Powell, Spalding, Szigeti, Thibaud and Zimbalist—is in itself evidence that he was a unique artist. His concert reviews reveal that beyond his abilities as a violinist he possessed "sterling musical qualities and [an] absence of sensationalist methods"[1] and that it was as a "musician and interpreter that he won" his audiences.[2]

Kochański was esteemed by other musicians as well. German violinist Carl Flesch described Kochański as an "inimitable interpreter,"[3] and fellow violinists' tributes at the time of his death included such statements as ". . . [one of the world's] most distinguished artists" (Mischa Elman), ". . . not only a great artist but a great person" (Efrem Zimbalist), and "a fine colleague and valued friend." (Jascha Heifetz).[4] English violist Lionel Tertis regarded Kochański as "brilliant",[5] and Artur Rubinstein, a close life-long friend and frequent recital partner, wrote that from the beginning they played together as if musically they had been "made for each other."[6] Furthermore, Kochański frequently performed chamber music with many outstanding musicians such as Pablo Casals, Eugene Goossens and Fritz Kreisler. Possessing a strong sense of humor, Kochański was also often included in musically-important social events. Hence, when the violinist prematurely died from cancer in 1934, "more than 1500 mourners including nearly every prominent musician in New York" attended his memorial, and 41 internationally-known personalities of the music world comprised the list of honorary pallbearers.[7]

On the basis of his relatively few recordings of mostly miniature works, in which he was a specialist,[8] Kochański's playing can be described as reflecting his training through "a marvellous blend of the Russian school as represented by Auer's finest pupils and the older, grandly romantic Belgian school as epitomized by [Eugčne] Ysaďe."[9] Moreover, unlike many violinists of his day, Kochański's playing was both musically and technically oriented toward late twentieth-century standards.[10] How Kochański's musicianship transcended the violin itself has been described in a recollection of when the violinist expressively sang most of Franz Schubert's Die Winterreise "with his small, well-trained voice and intensity of expression."[11]

As a performer Kochański become known for his interest in new music. In addition to his brilliant interpretations of Szymanowski's music, he presented works by many other composers of the time such as Ernest Bloch's First Sonata and the revised version of Arnold Bax's First Sonata for Violin and Piano. Among his last public appearances is the first New York performance of Sergei Prokofiev's Sonata for Two Violins, which took place in April 1933 (with Louis Persinger).[12]

The virtuoso violinist also taught throughout his career. Beginning in 1909 at the age of 21, he was professor of violin at the Warsaw Conservatory for two years, and between 1916 and 1918 he succeeded Leopold Auer at the Imperial Conservatory in St. Petersburg. After teaching at the Kiev Conservatory between 1919 and 1920 and immigrating to the United States in 1921, Kochański taught at the Juilliard School from 1924 until his death. In addition to demonstrating a serious approach to violin pedagogy,[13] these appointments were also instrumental in making contacts with other musical artists.

Finally, Paul Kochański was also a composer and arranger. In more than one case, Kochański's transcriptions represent a personal connection with the original composer. For example, in 1907 Kochański had not only performed in Bilbao with Manuel de Falla as pianist[14] but also financially assisted the Spaniard to go to Paris,[15] thus furthering the latter's professional growth. The transcription of de Falla's Siete canciones populares espanolas for voice and piano (1914-15), for which the violin and piano parts were revised by Kochański and the composer, respectively, [16] also lists the violinist as a dedicatee.[17] Retitled Suite populaire espagnole, the work is among the most popular of Kochański many transcriptions.[18]

A chronology of Kochański's published work is shown in Table 1.[19]

Table I. Paul Kochański's Compositions and Transcriptions

COMPOSER

TITLE

PUBLISHER(S)

YEAR

Nicolo Paganini

Campanella

Carl Fischer

1922

Alexander Glazunov

Melodie Arabe

Carl Fischer

1923

Fryderyk Chopin

Mazurka, Op. 6, No.3

Carl Fischer

1923

Paul Kochański (vln.) Karol Szymanowski (pno.)

Danse sauvage

[Wild Dance]

Carl Fischer

1925

Paul Kochański (vln.) Karol Szymanowski (pno.)

L'Aube [The Dawn]

Carl Fischer

1925

Manuel de Falla

Suite populaire espagnole

Max Eschig

1925

Joaquin Nin

Chants d'Espagnole

Max Eschig

1926

Karol Szymanowski

Roxana's Song from King Roger

Universal Edition

1926

Maurice Ravel

Pavane pour une infante défunte

Max Eschig

1927

Paul Kochański

Flight (Caprice)

Carl Fischer

1928

Manuel de Falla

Danse rituelle du feu [Ritual Fire Dance] tirée de El amor brujo

Max Eschig

c.1930

Franz Schubert

Impromptu, Op. 90, No. 4

Carl Fischer

1930

Karol Szymanowski

Dance from Harnasie

Universal Edition

1931

Karol Szymanowski

Kurpie Song

Universal Edition

1931

Fryderyk Chopin

Nocturne in C # Minor

Carl Fischer

??

Manuel de Falla

Pantomine (El amor brujo)

Chester

1931

Aleksander Scriabin

Etude, Op. 42, No. 4

G. Schirmer

1933

Manuel de Falla

Danza del Terre

Chester

1934

Paul Kochański

Souvenir d'un lieu cher, Op. 42, No. 3

published (?) (?)


Note that the dates of Kochański's published works span from 1922, i. e. the year after Kochański moved to the United States, to 1933, the year before his death. This increasing focus on composition indicates that writing and transcribing had become important priorities alongside performing and teaching during approximately the last quarter of Kochański's life. The data gleaned from Table 1 are supported by a statement of Dr. John Erskin, dean of the Juilliard School, who said about Kochański: "Had he lived, I believe he [Kochański] would have distinguished himself in composition, to which his attention was turning."[20]


2. Overview of the Kochański Collaborations

Paul Kochański's most lasting contribution to new music was his collaborative work with several important composers. The collaboration with Karol Szymanowski (1882-1937) had the most far-reaching scope.

The two Poles first met in Warsaw in 1901, when Szymanowski was 19 years old and Kochański was 14, and their final collaboration on the composer's Violin Concerto No. 2 (1932-33) took place at the end of the violinist's life. The two were intimate friends, and their friendship motivated Szymanowski to write for the violin.[21] Kochański and Szymanowski often performed together in recital presenting the composer's violin-piano works.

These international performances, as well as Kochański's appearances with prominent conductors and other pianists, served to make Szymanowski's music more widely known, and the violinist came to be considered "the most authentic exponent" of Szymanowski's music.[22] Szymanowski greatly valued Kochański both professionally and personally; his respect and admiration is well-documented in Szymanowski's published letters as well as reflected by the number of works the composer dedicated to the violinist and his wife.[23]

Kochański's principal contribution to the violin idiom of Szymanowski's works is usually described as the introduction of the technical means through which the composer-pianist was able to blend his uniquely-imaginative conceptions with an idiomatic use of the full virtuoso resources of the violin. The result was the creation a new type of violin writing which is "in the highest degree refined and exploratory."[24] The works which launched the new style include the Nocturne and Tarantella, Op. 28 (1915), the Myths, Op. 30 (1915) and the Violin Concerto No. 1, Op. 35 (1916). It is interesting to note that Szymanowski did not continue to fully develop his new violin idiom in compositions written after 1920. This fact can has a twofold explanation:(1) the composer attempted to create a national style based on folklore, within which the new violin writing would have been inappropriate, and (2) he no longer had direct contact with Paul Kochański, who since 1921 was living in America.[25] The latter reason strongly suggests the significance of Kochański's role in the development of Szymanowski's new violin writing.

Kochański's three transcriptions of Szymanowski's music were either "authorized" by the composer or made with the composer.[26] The closeness of the entire Kochański-Szymanowski collaboration is evident in the facts that not only were the solo parts to both violin concerti written as a joint effort, but the violinist wrote his own cadenzas in precisely the same style, thus recalling a similar relationship between Joseph Joachim and Johannes Brahms in the writing of the latter's violin concerto.

Later in their collaboration, Szymanowski himself came to realize that their work had truly innovative results:[27] ". . .Paul and I have created a new style in Mity and Koncert, a new utterance in violin playing, something you might call epochal." According to Alistair Wightman, one composer strongly influenced by the Poles' efforts was Béla Bartók.[28] Technical and musical influences from the Myths can be found in Bartók's Sonata No. 1 and Sonata No. 2 for violin and piano (1921 and 1922, respectively) as well as the Second Violin Concerto (1938).[29]

At the same time Szymanowski was also aware that the influence of their new violin style was disseminated both through his own compositions and through Kochański's collaborative work with other composers. The latter was considered by Szymanowski to be an extension of his own collaboration with the violinist; this conviction is implicit in his statement that:[30]

All works by other composers related to this style (no much how much creative genius they revealed) came later, that is through direct influence of Myths and the Violin Concerto [No. 1] or else through direct collaboration with Paweł."

Works known to have been written with Kochański's collaboration are chronologically listed in Table 2.

Table 2. Works Resulting from Collaboration with Paul Kochański

COMPOSER

WORK

YEAR

DEDICATION

Karol Szymanowski

Nocturne and Tarantella, Op. 28

1915

Auguste Iwański

Karol Szymanowski

Myths, Op. 30

1915

Sophie Kochańska

Karol Szymanowski

Concerto No. 1

1916

Paul Kochański

Serge Prokofiev

Concerto No. 1 in D Major

1917

 

Arnold Bax

First Sonata (revised)

1920

Paul Kochański

Ernest Bloch

First Sonata

1921

Paul Rosenfeld

Serge Prokofiev

Five Melodies, Op. 35-bis

1925

Nos. 1, 3, 4: Paul Kochański, No. 2: Cecilia Hansen, No. 5: Joseph Szigeti

Igor Stravinsky [31]

Suite for violin and piano, after themes, fragments and pieces by Giambattista Pergolesi

1925 [32] (1921?)

Paul Kochański

Karol Szymanowski [33]

Three Paganini Caprices, Op. 40

1926

No. 20, 21: Paul Kochański
No. 24: Józef Ozimiński

Karol Szymanowski

Concerto No. 2

1932-33

Paul Kochański

Kochański's collaborative influences represented in Table 2 and their inter-relationship with the new violin style of Szymanowski, along with its direct influence on Bartók, chronicle the remarkable impact of the Szymanowski-Kochański collaboration within less than twenty years. In the words of H. H. Stuckenschmidt,[34]

His [Szymanowski's] compositions for violin [. . .] mark an enormous advance in the repertory of that instrument. [. . .] He was as much a pioneer in that domain as Debussy was in the pianoforte.


3. Relationship of Kochański's Manuscript Collection To His Career

The Paul Kochański Manuscript Collection is an important resource in examining the violinist's written creative work. Housed in the Music Department of the National Library in Warsaw, Poland since 1989, the collection was purchased at Sotheby's New York location in December 1988 by using funds provided by the Polish Ministry of Culture. Prior to the sale it was probably owned by the Kochański family in the United States.[35] The majority of the individual items are signed or stamped, thus indicating the violinist's personal ownership at one time.

Consisting of forth three numbered manuscript items and three printed scores, the collection represents all of Kochański's professional life beginning with his student days in Brussels. The earliest dated items are from 1904 - i.e. his manuscript copies of Joseph Joachim's cadenza to the Brahms Concerto (Mus.6028)[36] and Eugčne Ysaďe's cadenza to the Tchaikowsky Concerto (Mus.6029), and the inscribed printed score to Francis Poulenc's Huit chansons polonaises for female voice and piano is dated 1934.

Also, when viewed as a whole the manuscript collection mirrors different facets of Kochański's career. First, the collection reflects Kochański as a violinist-performer. Short works and multi-movement suites make up most of the collection, thus paralleling the violinist's specialty of performing pieces from the small-scale genre. Cadenzas to standard violin concerti (e. g. Brahms, Mozart and Tchaikowsky) mirror Kochański's frequent role as soloist with orchestra. Representing Kochański's broad musical tastes, composers range from Baroque masters (e. g. J. S. Bach, Antonio Vivaldi and Arcangelo Corelli) to nineteenth-century virtuosi (e. g. Nicolo Paganini) and active writers of the early twentieth century (e. g. Alexander Gretchaninov, Piotr Perkowski and Karol Szymanowski). Some composers also represent a personal relationship with Kochański (e. g. Manuel de Falla, Igor Stravinsky).

Second, as is to be expected, creative work by Kochański himself is included within this collection. Original pieces in both completed and unfinished (or "in progress") stages are represented. For example, Młynek (Mus.6008) consists of four pages in ink and 4 blank score pages; in the last three systems the piano part seems finished but the violin part has yet to be begun. The Introduction and Tarantella (Mus.1616) consists of a penciled violin part of one complete page (11 lines) for the "Introduction" and 3 1/2 lines for the "Tarantella." Likewise, there are numerous manuscripts of Kochański's transcriptions in varying degrees of completion. Some original composers and/or pieces are the same as those found in Kochański's published transcriptions, e. g. Fryderyk Chopin, Maurice Ravel, Manuel de Falla and Aleksander Scriabin (Mus.6017 and 6018, 6019, 6020, 6039, respectively).

Third, the collection includes numerous other composers' manuscripts, including some autographs which directly relate to Kochański's collaboration with Szymanowski. [37] Suggesting possible use in some of the many joint concerts given by Kochański and Szymanowski, several works from the latter group appear to have been used in performance (Mus.6001, 6003, 6004, 6005 and 6006).[38] Reflecting Kochański's popularity with other musicians are the items bearing signed dedications to the violinist. Good examples are three pieces by Poldowski (1879-1932), Henryk Wieniawski's youngest daughter, Irena Wieniawska, who was known in England as Lady Dean Paul (Mus.6024 - Mus.6027).

Most of the collection's items are not dated, but those which are by other composers and dated or can be dated through other sources are listed in Table 3.

Table. 3. Dated Items by Other Composers in the Kochański Collection

COMPOSER

WORK

YEAR/ PLACE

KOCHANSKI DEDICATION ?

Karol Szymanowski

Sonata in D Minor for Violin and Piano, Op. 9 (Mus.6003)

1903, Warsaw

 

Karol Szymanowski

Kochański's manuscript copy of Violin Concerto No. 1, Op. 35 (Mus.6007)

(1916)

yes, but not this manuscript

Karol Szymanowski

Three Paganini Caprices, Op. 40 (Mus.6001)

1918

yes (first two), but not this manuscript

Paul Kochański - Karol Szymanowski

Danse sauvage (Mus.6005)

May, 1920, Warsaw

 

Tivador Nachez

Concerto in B Flat Major by Antonio Vivaldi (Mus.6042)

London Aug.18,1920

yes

Jules Conus

Suite Sept Caprices rythmiques (Mus.6034)

1923

yes

Alexander L. Steinert

Barcarolle (Mus.6041)

1925

yes

R. Stoklas

Lento assai (Mus.6023)

10/8/25

 

Karol Szymanowski-
Paul Kochański

Air de Roxane from the opera King Roger (Mus.6004).

(1926)

 

Alexander Gretchaninoff

Romance, Op. 112, No. 1 (Mus.6033)

8/27/27

yes

Paul Kochański

Flight (Mus.6043)

March 1928, N. Y. City

 

Emil Młynarski

Second Concerto for Violin with Piano Reduction, Op. 16 (printed score)

1931

yes

Karol Szymanowski -
Paul Kochański

Transcription of Dance from the ballet Harnasie (Mus.6002)

1931

 

Karol Szymanowski

36-page sketch to Violin Concerto No. 2, Op. 61 - (Mus.6043)

(1932-

33)

yes, but not this manuscript

Francis Poulenc

Huit chansons polonaises for Female Voice and Piano (printed score)

1934

No. 5 to "Madame Kochańska"

Table 3 clearly shows that the time span of most of the dated materials of the Kochański Manuscript Collection (i. e. 1916 - 1934) roughly coincides with that of the violinist's collaborations as outlined in Table 2 (i. e. 1916 - 1933) as well as indicating a concentration of the collection's dated materials coinciding with the period when Kochański's own works and transcriptions were published, i. e. 1922 - 1933 as shown in Table 1. Furthermore, it is probable that a number of Kochański's undated manuscripts were written and worked on during this time. For example, undated transcriptions by Chopin and Ravel (Mus.6017 and Mus.6020) were published in 1923 and 1927, respectively. In short, the coinciding of the dates of a sizeable amount of the collection's materials with (1) the writing and publication of Kochański's original pieces and transcriptions and (2) the span of the collaborations further points to the violinist's creative musical breadth during those years.


Kochanski - Part 2
Bibliography
List of Musical Examples
PMJ - Current Issue


bar

NOTES

[1]. Alfred Kalisch, " London Concerts - Pianists and Violinists" in The Musical Times 62 (January 1, 1921) 29. [Back]

[2]. "Paul Kochanski Appears," The New York Times, February 15, 1921, p. 9, col. 4.[Back]

[3]. Carl Flesch: The Memoirs of Carl Flesch, 1979 (1957), p. 340. [Back]

[4]. "Paul Kochanski, Violinist, Is Dead," The New York Times, January 13, 1934, p. 13, col. 4 and 5. [Back]

[5]. Lionel Tertis: My Viola and I, A Complete Autobiography, 1974, p. 45. [Back]

[6]. Artur Rubinstein: My Young Years, 1973, p. 109. [Back]

[7]. Among the names were Walter Damrosch, Mischa Elman, Carl Friedberg, Ossip Gabrilowitsch, George Gershwin, Jascha Heifetz, Vladimir Horowitz, Jose Iturbi, Fritz Kreisler, Serge Koussevitzky, Louis Persinger, Gregor Piatigorsky, Artur Rodzinski, Felix Salmond, Theodore Steinway, Leopold Stokowski, Joseph Szigeti, Arturo Toscanini and Efrem Zimbalist. "Musicians Mourn Paul Kochanski," The New York Times, January 15, 1934, p. 16, col. 2. [Back]

[8].In addition to the recording of the entire Johannes Brahms Sonata in D Minor, Op. 108 (with Artur Rubinstein), Kochański's recordings include the following short pieces: Johannes Brahms-Joachim: Hungarian Dance No. 1, Fritz Kreisler: La Gitana, Gabriel Pierné-Haddock: Serenade in A Major, Op. 7, Serge Rachmaninov-Press: Vocalise , Op. 34, No. 14, Joseph Raff: Cavatina, Op. 85, No. 3, Pablo Sarasate: Malaguena, P. I. Tchaikowsky: Melodie, P. I. Tchaikowsky-Kreisler: Chant Sans Paroles in F Minor, Richard Wagner-Wilhelmj: Prize Song and Henryk Wieniawski: La Carnaval Russe, Op. 11. James Creighton, Discopaedia of the Violin, 1884-1971, (1974,) pp. 377-78. [Back]

[9]. Henry Roth: "Refined Colourist" in The Strad, 98, No. 1169 (September 1987) 689. [Back]

[10]. Ibid. [Back]

[11]. Rubinstein: My Young Years, p. 406. [Back]

[12]. "Paul Kochanski, Violinist, Is Dead," The New York Times, January 13, 1934, p. 13, col. 4. [Back]

[13]. "Paul Kochanski" in Frederick Martens, String Mastery, 1922, pp. 72-75 [Back]

[14]. Jaime Pahissa: Manuel de Falla, His Life and Works, 1954, pp. 38 - 39. [Back]

[15]. B. M. Maciejewski: Karol Szymanowski: His Life and Music, 1967, p. 2. [Back]

[16]. Antonio Gallego, "Los ineditos de Manuel de Falla" in Manuel de Falla tra la Espagna e l'Europa, 1989. [Back]

[17]. The dedication reads "à Madame Ida GODEBESKA et à Paul KOCHAŃSKI." Manuel de Falla, Suite populaire espagnole pour violon et piano (1925) 1990, p. 1. [Back]

[18]. For a listing of the many, often famous violinists who had recorded one or more of the movements of this suite by the early 1970's see James Creighton, Discopaedia of the Violin, 1884-1971, 1974, p. 863. [Back]

[19]. Adagio languido (L'Aube) and Danse sauvage were co-composed by Paul Kochański (violin part) and Karol Szymanowski (piano part); the transcriptions of Szymanowski's Dance from the ballet "Harnasie" and Kurpie Song were made with the composer. The listing in Table 1 does not pretend to be complete since several works have been out of print for a number of years and it is often difficult to obtain publication information. Publication information is cited as found in The National Union Catalogue, 1968, 1970, 1973, 1978; the card catalogue of the Music Division of the National Library in Warsaw, Poland; publishers' lists on the author's copies of Kochański's works, and computerized inter-library loan listings. The last item was found in Music for Violin and Viola by Hans Letz (1948), p. 49 only; no publisher or date was given. [Back]

[20]. "Paul Kochanski, Violinist, Is Dead," The New York Times, January 13, 1934, p. 13, col. 4. [Back]

[21]. Christopher Palmer: Szymanowski, 1983, p. 100. [Back]

[22]. Flesch: The Memoirs of Carl Flesch, p. 340. [Back]

[23]. Szymanowski's violin works which are dedicated to Paul Kochański include Romance in D Major for Violin and Piano, Op. 23 (1910), Violin Concerto No. 1, Op. 35 (1916), the first two of Three Paganini Caprices, Op. 40 (1918) - i. e. Nos. 20, 21, and Violin Concerto No. 2, Op. 61 (1932-33) for which the dedication reads "To the memory of the Great Artist and Great Friend - Paweł Kochański." Also, the Myths, Op. 30 (1915) is dedicated to the violinist's wife Zofia Kochańska. [Back]

[24]. Teresa Chylińska: "Szymanowski" in the New Groves Dictionary of Music and Musicians, London: McMillan, 1980, vol. 18, p. 503. [Back]

[25]. Also see Adam Walaciński's Introduction to Karol Szymanowski: Complete Edition , Series B, Vol. 9 Works for Violin and Piano, 1978, p. ix. [Back]

[26]. Ibid, p. ix. Roxana's Song from the opera King Roger was authorized"; the other two (listed in Table I) were transcribed with the composer. [Back]>

[27]. Szymanowski's letter to Zofia Kochańska, March 5, 1930 in Teresa Chylińska, Dzieje Przyjaźńi: Korespondencja Karola Szymanowskiego z Pawłem i Zofią Kochanskimi [Correspondence of Karol Szymanowski with Paweł and Zofia Kochańska], Krakow: PWM, 1971, p. 242; translated for the author by Edmund Zawacki, Professor Emeritus of Slavic Languages, University of Wisconsin-Madison.

[28]. In 1921 Bartók ordered Szymanowski's latest works from Universal Edition and studied them sufficiently to call to the attention of the publisher a printer's error in the third Myth. In the same year he and violinist Zoltán Székely publicly performed all three Myths in Budapest. See Alistair Wightman, "Szymanowski, Bartók, and the Violin" in Musical Times 122, no. 1657 (March 1971): 161-62. Also see Walaciński, Introduction to Karol Szymanowski Complete Edition, Series B, Volume 9, p. X. [Back]

[29]. Ibid. [Back]

[30]. Teresa Chylińska: Dzieje przyjaźni, op. cit., p. 242. [Back]

[31]. This work, a five-movement transcription of music from Pulcinella (1919-20), was first published by Edition Russe de Musique in 1926; it is an early version of the Suite Italienne, which was arranged for cello and piano by Stravinsky and Gregor Piatigorsky in 1932 and for violin and piano by Stravinsky and Dushkin about 1933. Both were published by Edition Russe de Musique in 1934. The composer's two violin-piano transcriptions from The Firebird ("Prelude and Ronde des Princesses" and "Berceuse," 1929) are also dedicated to Paul Kochański. [Back]

[32]. Sources seem to be unified in dating this work from 1925; however, in an interview which was published in 1922 Kochański states ". . . during the summer just passed I worked with Stravinsky on some of the things he is doing for violin. . . . The Stravinsky composition is a delightful violin suite which he has made out of the Scarlatti 'Pulcinella' music of his ballet, in five or six movements. I expect to play it here next year." Martens, "Paul Kochanski," p. 78. Italics added by the author. [Back]

[33]. While Szymanowski's Three Paganini Caprices, Op. 40 was written in 1918 with the assistance of violinist Victor Goldfeld, the work also represents a collaboration with Kochański since the violinist prepared the violin part for publication in 1926. Similarly, Kochański's performance editings are included in the published editions of Szymanowski's Romance, Op. 23. [Back]

[34]. H. H. Stuckenschmidt: "Szymanowski" in The Book of Modern Composers , 1942, p. 21. [Back]

[35]. Interview with Włodzimierz Pigła, Head Music Librarian, National Library, Warsaw, Poland on July 23, 1996.

[Back]

[36]. All catalogue numbers given hereafter refer to those assigned by the Polish National Library. The printed scores within the collection have not been assigned numbers. [Back]

[37]. Several manuscripts promise to shed additional light on future Szymanowski research. For example, Sonata in D Minor, Op. 9 is usually dated 1904 ("or earlier") but the end of Mus.6003 is clearly dated "1903, Warsaw." Kochański's manuscript copy of Violin Concerto No. 1, Op. 35 (Mus.6007) is not listed among the sources in the Complete Edition, Series A, Volume 3 "Violin Concerti," 1976, p. 194. [Back]

[38]. Signs include great wear, repeated page turns, markings to reinforce dynamics, accidentals, etc In Mus. 6003 some notes are rewritten at page breaks so as to facilitate turning. Both Mus. 6005 and Mus. 6006 have been folded in the middle lengthwise, suggesting that they might have been fitted into a shaped violin case. [Back]


bar

Editor: Maria Anna Harley. Publisher: Polish Music Reference Center
Design: Maria Anna Harley & Marcin Depinski. 20 July - 22 September 1998.
Comments and inquiries by e-mail: polmusic@email.usc.edu