Polish Music Journal
Vol. 1, No. 1. Summer 1998. ISSN 1521 - 6039
4. Collaboration with Szymanowski|
5. Kochański's Creative Work Habits
6.Markings in Manuscripts
4. The Kochański Collection of Manuscripts
And Szymanowski's Violin Writing Of 1915-16
The violin techniques recognized as characteristic of Szymanowski's color-oriented violin writing of 1915-16 are also found in a number of manuscripts from the Kochański Collection, composed either by the violinist himself or by other composers. As amply pointed out by previous researchers, while the techniques themselves are traditional in their origin, their uniqueness consists in that they are used in new ways or to create new colors within musically-innovative contexts. The materials from the Collection suggest that Kochański and other composers continued to work imaginatively with these technical devices, either by using the technique within a context that emphasizes its uniqueness or by using it to an unusually extensive degree in order to create an unusual color. In either case (as in the pieces created by the Szymanowski-Kochański collaboration), each technique seems to have been used in a highly idiomatic manner. The point will be illustrated by demonstrating six techniques appearing in selected manuscripts from the Kochański Collection: (A) the use of different registers - especially the very high, (B) harmonics, (C) trills, (D) double stops, (E) chromatic glissandi, and (F) pizzicati.
(A) Use of registers. The colorful use of the violin's different registers, especially the high "E" string in order to create a singing quality as well as an dreamy, soaring effect, is widely found within the collection's many works. It has long been recognized that this quality was directly transferred from Kochański's playing into Szymanowski's works. In the words of Christopher Palmer, that the Violin Concerto No. 1, "an apotheosis of instrumental song," was "specifically conceived with the 'captivating sweetness' of Kochański's tone in mind can scarcely be doubted."  In addition to the first two solo violin's entrances in this concerto, among the most famous of the many other specific passages that could be cited in Szymanowski's works are the first violin solo in the first of the three Myths, La Fontaine d'Arethuse, Op. 30, No. 1, especially measures 9 - 17 which feature the violin in a high register with a relative low piano part. Measures 14 - 18, 27 -30 and 57 - 64 of the idyllic Lento assai (1925) by R. Stoklas (Mus.6023) are written very similarly, with the latter passage being particularly expressive since its musical gesture is reminiscent of the opening of Claude Debussy's Prélude a l'Apres-Midi d'un Faune (see Example 1).
Example 1. See a larger image.
An equally-effective use of the high "E" string register is also found in the straight-forward, much more traditionally written Serenade by Kochański (Mus. 6010); again, the violin's high register contrasts with a low piano part (see Example 2).
Example 2. See a larger image.
An extension of this technique is the designation of another single string for the sake of a single, unique tone color, e. g. the use of the "G" string on the return of the violin solo in La Fontaine d'Arethuse, measures 87 - 98. One of the many such indications in the Kochański Manuscript Collection is the specification of "IV" (i. e. the "G" string) for the opening violin solo in Kochański's transcription of the famous Pavane by Ravel (Mus. 6019); see Example 3.
Example 3. See a larger image.
(B) Harmonics. Among the most famous examples of Szymanowski's and Kochański's highly colorful use of harmonics are those in double stops in measures 49 - 50 and 53 - 55 of La Fontaine d'Arethuse and the sequence of natural harmonics imitating the pipes of Pan in measures 55 - 57 in Dryades et Pan, Op. 30, No. 3. Equally effective is the return of the opening in the Lento assai (1925) by R. Stoklas (Mus.6023): in measures 48 - 55 the haunting character of measures 1 - 4 is given a new color through the use of a mixture of natural and artificial harmonics dividing the vibrating string into segments of quarters and thirds (see Example 4).
Example 4. See a larger image.
Also quite impressive, but much more direct in character is the last statement of the main theme in Kochański's Serenade (Mus.6010) when it is sounded all in harmonics (see Example 5).
Example 5. See a larger image.
(C) Trills. Among the best-known examples of colorful occurrences of the violin trill and left hand tremolo in Szymanowski's oeuvre are the continuous trills combined with sul ponticello in the last seven measures of La Fontaine d'Arethuse and the numerous tremoli in double stops or on one string with another as a drone found toward the end of Dryades et Pan. In the Kochański Collection passages of equal inventiveness of color may be found in measures 37 - 38 from the Lento assai (1925) by R. Stoklas (Mus.6023), which combine trills and a drone "E" in contrast to the octaves without trills in the previous two measures (see Example 6).
Example 6. See a larger image.
A highly-spirited octave passage with continuous trills on the lower notes is found in measures 26 - 29 of Kochański's violin part to the published edition of Danse sauvage (1920) (Mus.6005), but the trills appear only on the longer-valued notes after the first measure in manuscript Mus.6005 (see Example 7).
Example 7. See a larger image.
(D) Double Stops. In contrast to the usual parallel thirds, sixths and other intervals of traditional double-stop writing, instances of unusual, but idiomatic, mixtures of double-stopped intervals are so numerous in Szymanowski's violin works that there is no need to cite specific examples. A highly effective example from the Kochański Collection is found in measures 11 - 12 of Irena Wieniawska's Berceuse de l'enfant mourant (undated) (Mus.6024), where sixths and perfect fourths and fifths mix with the more dissonant seconds and tritones (see Example 8).
Example 8. See a larger image.
An equally effective but contrasting example is found in Kochański's violin part to L'Aube [The Dawn] (no date) (Mus.6006), measures 3-6.  Within the harmonic context, the many perfect intervals, especially the first fourth in measure 3, give a rather open, hollow effect which seems particularly appropriate to the character of the composition (see Example 9).
Example 9. See a larger image.
(E) Chromatic Glissandi. A glissando combined with a trill or left-hand tremolo is an easily-recognizable feature of the Szymanowski-Kochański violin style. Double-stop versions in ascending and descending forms are found in La Fontaine d'Arethuse, measures 71 and 109, respectively. Both forms of this type of glissando are very important throughout all five pages of the published violin part to Flight (1928) (Mus.6043) by Paul Kochański (see Example 10).
Example 10. See a larger image.
Single-stop versions, which are more numerous in Szymanowski's works, are found in Kochański's violin part to Danse sauvage (Mus. 6005), in measures 49 (descending, see Example 11) and 92 (ascending).
Example 11. See a larger image.
(F) Pizzicati. The colorful use of different types of pizzicato is frequent in Szymanowski's violin works, to mention only the descending left hand pizzicato run at end of Dryades et Pan (bars 155 - 156), the patterns in measures 78, 80 of the Tarantella, Op. 28 and the strumming triple-- and quadruple-stop pizzicato chords in the Nocturne, Op. 28 (bars 19 - 21 and 45 - 50). A comparably effective use of pizzicato which sounds very similar to a guitar is found in measures 7 - 10 of the violin part to Danse sauvage (1920) by Kochański-Szymanowski (Mus.6005); see Example 12.
Example 12. See a larger image.
In the same movement left-hand pizzicati alternating with arco in measures 38 - 39 impart the flavor of a folk violinist playing a passionate dance (see Example 13).
Example 13. See a larger image.
At times, two or more of these special techniques are used simultaneously or in close succession for the sake of contrasting colors. I believe that the continuing popularity of Kochański's transcriptions is in part due to the color created by the frequent occurrences of these techniques, e.g. Suite Populaire espagnole (1925) by Manuel de Falla and Chants d'Espagnole (1926) by Joaquin Nin. An excellent example of successive use of multiple techniques is found in Irena Wieniawska's Berceuse de l'enfant mourant (no date) (Mus.6024), measures 16 - 19. In each consecutive measure a different technique appears to create a new color, i. e. measure 16 features descending chromatic glissandi in major seconds and in a "ff" dynamics; measure 17, which begins with a sudden "pp", brings a sul ponticello effect; measure 18 is made up of artificial harmonics; and measure 19 consists of after-beat eighth-note seconds with a trill on the upper voice. These measures, in turn, contrast with lyrical writing (for the "G" string) that both precedes and follows this inventive passage (see Example 14).
Example 14. See a larger image.
In brief, the Manuscript Collection demonstrates that during the third decade of the twentieth century Paul Kochański and at least a few other composers continued to utilize the innovations of the Szymanowski- Kochański color-oriented violin writing. Many of the characteristic features of this writing were also frequently employed in Kochański's published works and transcriptions.
5. Kochański's Creative Work Habits
The number of annotations made on the individual manuscripts of the Manuscript Collection and the variety of their types reflect the violinist's creative work habits. Like many other composers and arrangers Kochański made minor and major corrections, as well as changes in his own manuscripts. In addition, in working with most manuscripts, both his own and those of others, Kochański would edit them for his own performance. Such editorial annotations are a common practice among artist-violinists; their purpose is to translate the composer's ideas into practical performance solutions by matching the performer's concept of the music with an individual technical approach, i.e. translating the composer's phrasings into bowings, as well as articulations, fingerings, and dynamics. In most cases, Kochański's markings are extensive enough to constitute his own, highly personalized edition. This aspect becomes of special interest in the case of the Szymanowski-Kochański collaboration since research has shown that, beginning with the Romance, Op. 23, Kochański started to perform each of Szymanowski's violin works before they appeared in print. Since the first printed editions included Paul Kochański's fingerings and bowings, Szymanowski must have felt that Kochański's performance editings were an important part of realizing the fruits of their collaborative work. The violinist apparently shared these feelings, because his fingerings and bowings are amply included in all his published original works and transcriptions.
The reasons for these inclusions seem to be reflected in two ways in the documents from the Manuscript Collection. The first can be seen through Kochański's experimental preparations for the practical application of the techniques associated with the Szymanowski-Kochański violin style. All sorts of possible solutions to short passages, specific technical problems and special techniques are written on the edges of manuscript pages and title pages. This profusion of annotations gives an impression that the violinist was experimenting with instrument in hand. The notations appear to have been quickly jotted down as an aid to help the violinist remember what he tried on the violin. For example, the title page of Air de Roxane from the opera King Roger (Mus. 6004) shows several such sketches (see Example 15).
Example 15. See a larger image.
Another sketch is written at the bottom of the first score page (see Example 16).
Example 16. See a larger image.
Similar annotations can be found throughout the Kochański's manuscript violin part to the Szymanowski Violin Concerto No. 1 (Mus.6007) and at the top of first score page of Danse sauvage (1925). Often, the final solutions imply a specific fingering or bowing.
The second general aspect of Kochański's working style apparent in the collection is the thoroughness with which the violinist worked with a manuscript he was preparing to perform, whether it was his own or that written by another composer. This is well illustrated by Kochański's annotations for three Siloti transcriptions of music by J. S. Bach. The violin part (in ink) of the Adagio (Mus.6037) is extensively marked with bowings and fingerings (in pencil), including specific string indications and at least one scratchout indicating a change of mind. Interestingly, the piano score, written in ink, bears no such markings (see Example 17).
Example 17. See a larger image.
Both the violin part and piano score of the Air for Violin and Piano "from the Suite No. 3 for String Orchestra" (Mus. 6038) display numerous editorial annotations for both instruments (in ink and pencil) and include phrasing and fingering; at the top of both parts is the notation "Violin part re-edited by P. Kochański" (see Example 18).
Example 18. See a larger image.
Similarly, in J. S. Bach's Preludium from Partita No. 6 for Violin and Piano, found among the published musical scores collected by Kochański, so many penciled markings have been made that the violinist writes at the top "newly revised edition."
In all three transcriptions the fingerings often indicate that the violinist is to remain on a single string; the purpose of this technique is to maintain an individual color of a single string instead of obtaining a more open sound favored in authentic Baroque performance-practice and created by crossing strings in a lower position. As can be seen in the previous two examples, these fingerings are interspersed with indications of the left-hand portamenti, i. e. a deliberately-audible change of the position from one note to another which is either indicated through the fingering itself or by a line between two notes. The appearance of this gesture as well as its relatively low frequency is typical for the published editions of Szymanowski's violin works as well as for Kochański's transcriptions. Its presence here reflects the prominence of this technique as an important expressive means of the time, a staple in the playing standards of many violinists, while the relative discretion with which Kochański employed this device is musically farsighted.
Kochański worked out performance annotations in the Szymanowski-related manuscripts with a comparable degree of attention to detail. In the violinist's manuscript part to Szymanowski's Violin Concerto No. 1, Op. 35 (Mus.6007) the violinist notated the bowings and fingerings side by side with sketches of possible solutions to passagework—apparently, Kochański's performance-oriented editorial work began early. The manuscript of Three Paganini Caprices, Op. 40 (Mus.6001), for which Kochański prepared the violin parts when it was published by Universal Edition in 1926, features different colors of ink and two shades of pencil (regular and blue) used for the performance-related annotations, sketches of ideas, and musically-substantial changes. A feature that stands out in this manuscript is the great care given to the bowings and fingerings of the violin line.(see Example 19).
Example 19. See a larger image.
Since the condition of this manuscript seems to indicate that it may have been used in performance, many of these markings may have evolved during Kochański's many joint concert appearances with the composer.
Other markings demonstrate that the violinist made musical alterations in manuscripts written by composers other than himself. While many of these involved only isolated notes, or dynamics, etc., some are more musically substantial. An example is found in Alexander Gretchaninoff's Romance, Op. 112, No. 1 (1927) (Mus.6033). In the piano score and the separate violin part (both in ink) the last two measures have been altered. (see Example 20).
Example 20. See a larger image.
Far more substantial changes are found in the Suite Sept Caprices rythmiques (1923) by Jules Conus (Mus.6034), which, like the two previously-discussed manuscripts, shows considerable page wear and numerous penciled annotations which indicated the reinforcing of repeats, etc. Both factors (page wear, annotations) suggest a heavy performance-related use (most likely by Kochański himself). In the sixteen-page violin-piano score and the twelve-page separate violin part, major scratch-outs and alterations of notes and entire passages appear, written in red and regular pencil. They are so numerous that, at a certain point, the page sequence of the score needs to be resorted - perhaps, this is why rehearsal numbers have been placed in both parts. The number of these alterations is comparable to that found in some manuscripts of Kochański's own pieces and transcriptions such as the Theme and Variations (on a famous theme of Corelli) (Mus.6012). This twelve-page manuscript (which is written in ink) features many changes in blue and red pencil, among them there are lines crossing out the first two variations plus Variation IX and an insert pasted over Variation XII which is, thus, replaced with a return of the theme.
The prominence and thoroughness displayed in the alterations and other notations found in the manuscripts throughout the collection suggests that the manuscripts that do not bear such markings either didn't fit Kochański's artistic interests or were left without annotations because he didn't have enough time to work on them. However, the prominence and abundance of such notations provides vital information for hypotheses about attitudes with which the violinist approached the music.
6. Kochański's Work With Manuscripts by Other Composers
The style and scope of Paul Kochański's markings in selected manuscripts by others included in his collection mirror the attitudes of the central figures of the violin schools in which he was trained. For example, the many changes Leopold Auer made in the solo part while working with the original text of P. I. Tchaikovsky's Violin Concerto in D Major, op. 35 (1878) are reflected in the David Oistrakh edition, in which Auer's altered version is placed on separate staves below the original text in 31 lines of music in the violin part. Furthermore, seven cuts as well as more changes in passagework are found in the last movement of the concerto. Leopold Auer felt justified in making such extensive revisions. As he stated:. . . When I went over the score in detail, [. . .] I felt that, in spite of its great intrinsic value, it called for a thorough revision, since in various portions it was quite un-violinistic and not at all written in the idiom of the strings.
In other words, Auer did not feel obliged to perform what was literally written in the manuscript-score but, rather, while striving to preserve the spirit of the music, he adjusted the writing to fit the idiom of the violin and its technique as he knew it. However, in some alterations, such as the cuts in the last movement, he made musical decisions reaching beyond mere technical considerations. Similarly, Eugčne Ysaďe made both violinistic and musical alterations in preparing to present the premiere of the Poème for Violin and Orchestra by Ernest Chausson in 1896. In preparation for the performance, he. . . modified the bowing, the dynamics and the fingering and transformed insufficiently violinistic passages and those that would not speak out properly [. . .] by means of an analysis indicated by large strokes of blue or red pencil. [. . .] He read the copy, reread it, crossed out, altered.
In general, while looking through the manuscripts of this collection it quickly becomes evident that Paul Kochański's written work always expressed the standpoint of a performing artist-violinist. The nature of his notations, e. g. well thought-out fingerings which transform phrasings into bowings as well as apparently experimental sketches of passagework, indicates that he either worked with the violin in hand or that he was thinking in those terms for a large percentage of time. While such an approach might imply an impulsive thinking "through the fingers," Kochański appears to have worked methodically over a period of time with a number of manuscripts.
A methodical approach is suggested by an examination of the differences between the manuscript to Kochański's transcription of Air de Roxane from the opera King Roger (1926) by Szymanowski (Mus.6004) and the printed text of Universal Edition 8694.  The manuscript from which UE 8694 was prepared is now housed in the Austrian National Library in Vienna, and the relatively small number of differences between the two is discussed in the editorial notes of the Complete Edition of Szymanowski's works published by the PWM Edition in Poland.  The Kochański Collection manuscript displays few changes and other markings within the piano part; in the violin line, however, there are numerous performance editings, most of which are printed in UE 8694. Besides a different tempo indication (Mus.6004 -"Andante"; UE 8694 - "Andante tranquillo") the majority of the differences between Mus.6004 and the UE 8694 are the printed score's inclusion and the manuscript's omission of directives relating to tempo (e. g. "rall.", "molto rit.", "a tempo"), dynamics (e. g. "p", " cresc."), expression (e. g. "dolce", "espr.") and pedaling. A comparison shows well over 30 such instances. Also, measures 11 - 12 with upbeat and measures 15 - 16 are notated in their enharmonic equivalents, i. e. starting on "G sharp" and "E sharp" in Mus.6004 and "A flat" and "F natural" in UE 8694, respectively. In short, the existence of two scores and the number of differences between them suggests that the details reflected in UE 8694 were worked out over time, perhaps through practical performance since the condition of manuscript Mus.6004 suggests that it had been used in concert.
More substantial evidence of a methodical approach to performative revisions over a period of time can be found when comparing two manuscripts co-composed by Paul Kochański (violin part) and Karol Szymanowski (piano part) with their printed counterparts: Adagio languido (L'Aube) (Mus.6006) and Danse sauvage (Mus.6005). Separately published in 1925 by Carl Fischer in New York City, the two works were reissued in a single edition by PWM in 1982. A comparison of the PWM text with the facsimile of the first score pages of both Fischer editions (also given in the Polish publication) suggest that the former is intended as a literal reprint of the latter. An examination of the Kochański manuscripts in terms of changes within each manuscript and differences with the printed text suggests how these pieces may have evolved.
The revisions within the manuscript of Adagio languido (L'Aube) (Mus.6006) were made mostly in the piano staves, which are notated in a lighter ink than the single violin line. Within the piece's 77 measures changes take place in 27 measures within the piano part and in only 5 measures within the violin part. The violin alterations consist of a revised first double stop in measure 15 and a new placement of pizzicato eighth-notes from the second to the third beat in measures 25 and 27. In addition, a new ending for both instruments was introduced in the last two bars. The much more extensive revisions of the piano part consist mainly of the deletion and addition of pitches and the outright transformation of passages through the use of scratch-outs followed by notating a new version, sometimes even on a new stave (see Example 21).
Example 21. See a larger image.
In the period between completion of the manuscript and the publication of the piece the violin part was subject to many more revisions. Table 4 shows the differences between Mus. 6006 and the published score in terms of the number of measures affected by each type of difference, presented in the decreasing order of frequency of occurrence (from the most to the least frequent usage). Note that there is a total of 77 measures in the piece.
Table 4. Adagio languido: Comparison of Mus. 6006 and Published Score
TYPE OF DIFFERENCE
NUMBER OF BARS AFFECTED
Phrasing/bowing (incl. ties and slurs)
Tempo indications (incl. rall and accel.)
Inclusion of glissando in violin part
Inclusion of words indicating of specific expression
In summary, of the total 77 measures changes were made in 34 measures of the violin part, 6 measures of the piano part and 11 measures of both parts - i. e. differences between the manuscript and the printed score were found in a total of 51 measures or in about 66% of the 77 measures.
Similarly, the changes found within the manuscript of Danse sauvage (Mus.6005) were made mostly in the piano part. Of the first 61 measures, which include the first two sections of the piece, only one measure of the violin line has an alteration, which corrects a mis-notation; the piano part bears changes in 32 measures. Many of latter are similar to those in Adagio languido from L'Aube (Mus. 6006). Most of the alterations found in measures 62 - 88, that is in a return of the first "A" section of the piece, parallel those made in measures 1 - 27. The manuscript originally included ten additional measures of material between measures 61 and 62 and another section of 27 measures between measures 89 and 90, but both segments were subsequent cut. In addition to these changes, sketched ideas are found on the first and last pages.
Table 5 shows the differences between Mus. 6005 and the published score in terms of the number of measures affected by each type of change and in the decreasing order of frequency of occurrence (from the most frequent revisions to the least). Note that the chart measures only the first 61 bars. The differences which are found in the remainder of the piece (i. e. measures 62 - 88) correspond to those found in measures 1 - 27.
Table 5. Danse sauvage: Comparison of Mus. 6005 and Published Score
TYPE OF DIFFERENCE
NUMBER OF BARS AFFECTED
Dynamics, inflections (accents, etc.)
Phrasing/bowing (incl. ties and slurs)
Note and octave changes
Inclusion/placement of trills
Inclusion of words indicating of specific expression
Inclusion of grace note
Inclusion of glissando in violin part
In the 61 measures of the first two sections of the work changes were made in forty seven measures of the violin part, seven measures of the piano part and one measure of both parts. Differences between the manuscript and the printed score were found in a total of 55 measures or in about 90% of the 61 measures. In comparing these differences with those of the previous piece it can be seen that the proportions of the number of measures with differences to the total number of measures are great in both cases.
Differences between the manuscripts and printed parts also suggest that the evolution of these pieces, especially the substantive changes in the violin part, took place over a period of time. Indeed, the composition date for both pieces is given in the PWM- Edition as 1922  and in the Szymanowski Thematic Catalogue as 1921 - 1922; however, the date on the manuscript to Danse sauvage (Mus. 6005) is "Warsaw, 1920." Since the two pieces are generally regarded to have been composed about the same time, the difference between the date of manuscript Mus. 6005 (1920) and the publication date (1925) suggest that Kochański worked to refine the violin parts for close to four or five years before they reached their final form. Moreover, there might have been another manuscript of each piece, perhaps still in existence, from which the editions were made.
In short, the different types of markings found in the manuscripts of the Kochański Collection indicate that Kochański's creative work appears to have been an extension of his role as a violinist-performer. He did what he felt was necessary to effectively communicate the spirit of the music (either his own or written by others); this was, for him -- in accordance with his early training -- more important than reproducing exactly what was written by the composer. A highly imaginative approach in implementing this attitude is strongly implied by Kochański's many notations indicating extensive experimentation, seemingly conducted with the violin in hand or certainly in mind. At the same time, the numerous notations reflect his meticulous attention to detail, often implying that final versions were worked out over a period of time. These indications of Kochański's attitudes take on special significance in the collection's numerous instances where the violinist continued to work with special technical features that characterized Szymanowski's violin writing of 1915-16.
We have seen how Paul Kochański's multifaceted career and his collaborations were intertwined. That the time spans of Kochański's collaborations (1916 - 1933) and that of the publication of Kochański's own works and transcriptions (1922 - 1933) approximately coincide with much of the Manuscript Collection (especially 1916 - 1934) demonstrates the richness of the violinist's involvement in creative endeavors during this time; moreover, it also makes it possible to suggest that the types of work habits and attitudes reflected in Kochański's work in the collection may have also been brought to his different collaborations in several ways.
First, that Kochański's collaborative work spread the use of specific technical devices whichdistinguished the Szymanowski's violin writing of 1915-16 is implied by the composer himself when he said in March 1930 that "all works by other composers related to this style . . . came . . . through direct influence of Myths and the [Violin] Concerto [No. 1] or else through direct collaboration with Paweł." 
Indeed, research has specifically linked Kochański's collaborating composers' adaptation of these techniques with the violinist. For example, the "special kind of glissando on two strings combined with tremolo," which was added as part of Kochański's contributions in the revision of Arnold Bax's First Sonata for Violin and Piano in 1920, is called not only an influence of La Fontaine d'Arethuse but "one of Kochański's 'discoveries'."  Likewise, the glissandi, harmonics, trills found in the solo part of Prokofiev's Violin Concerto No. 1 in D Major, Op. 19 (1917) have been compared to parallel passages in Szymanowski's Myths, Op. 30 and Violin Concerto No. 1, Op. 35 but in noting their absence in the Russian composer's second violin concerto, their presence, along with the nature of the solo violin writing, has been attributed to Kochański's collaboration.
The manuscript collection partly explains how Kochański could so effectively adapt these techniques to a variety of musical styles. The collection shows that Kochański's work with them was much more extensive than suggested by the published scores. Moreover, the collection demonstrates that he experimented with their use in new, creative ways. Certainly, the breadth of the collection demonstrates Kochański's popularity with other musicians, which helped spread the idiomatic use of these devices to other composers. Kochański's work with these techniques was so extensive that they became "signatures" of his creative work and influence.
Second, Kochański's contributions in his collaboration usually recognize his input on bowing and making the writing idiomatic. For instance, while working with Serge Prokofiev in 1917 Kochański is said to have helped the composer "on questions of bow marking and other technical details."  Also, the violin part of Bax's revised First Sonata "was almost certainly edited by Kochański," The sound-- and color-oriented approach, care for detail and idiomatic qualities demonstrated in the markings of the Manuscript Collection suggest the violinist's practical "playing approach" to this aspect of his collaborative work.
Third, there are several accounts of Kochański's advice on violin writing being sought. One case took place in 1921 when Ernest Bloch is said to have "listened carefully to Paul's advice on possible improvements for the violin part of his First Sonata" Kochański himself mentioned that Prokofiev and Stravinsky had been "entirely willing to meet [his] demands with regard to practical, playability (not merely because we were friends)."  In talking about his early collaboration with Szymanowski the violinist saidWe worked out these violin things together, for Szymanowski is not a violinist [. . .] He would develop his themes, his musical ideas, at the piano, and, talking and studying them together, I would fix the mechanical form [. . .] so they would sound, so that the violin sonorities would obtain their fullest value.
Much of Kochański's advice was technically-oriented; this feature is suggested by the large number of such notations in the individual manuscripts of the collection. However, the numerous musical revisions found throughout the collection point to the probability that Kochański was more than a technical facilitator at least some of the time. Since he himself was a composer and had a very broad musical involvement as a transcriber and performing violinist, it is possible that in more than a few situations Kochański presented his technical solutions with an additional measure of his own musical imagination, thereby stimulating the composer with whom he was collaborating. This possibility, as well as the variety of the types of Kochański's contribution widely evident throughout this manuscript collection, gives a more vivid quality to the meaning of the violinist's description of working with Szymanowski on the Violin Concerto No. 2 at the end of his career: "Karol is writing a beautiful second concerto for the violin and needed my help for the solo part. We spent hours and hours working at it but I feel happy to be of any use to him."
The fact that at least some of the creative effort (beyond the technical considerations) of Paul Kochański was shared by his collaborators (while remaining unacknowledged in their scores) is made even more likely when one considers that the violinist was increasingly drawn to his written creative work by the time he died in 1934. In the words of Dr. John Erskin, dean of the Juilliard School:Magnificent his [Kochański's] playing and teaching were, I think he was a bigger man than we had yet realized. His influence and his fame were only beginning. Had he lived, I believed he would have distinguished himself in compositions, to which his attention was turning.
Perhaps, however, it was the breadth of Kochański's creative influences already achieved, as an extension of his role as a performing artist, to which Albert Spalding was referring when he declared that "Paul Kochański gave to the art world and to life something too rare, too enduring for mere death to efface or dim."
Kochanski - Part 1
List of Musical Examples
PMJ - Current Issue
. See, for example, Walaciński: "Introduction" in Szymanowski: Complete Edition, Series B, Volume 9, p. xi. [Back to the text]
. Palmer: Szymanowski, p. 64. [Back]
. Note that the piano part in Danse sauvage (Mus.6005) and Adagio languido (L'Aube) (Mus.6006) is by Szymanowski. [Back]
. Adam Walaciński: "Introduction" in Karol Szymanowski Complete Edition, Series B, Volume 9, p. xi. In 1909 Kochański and Artur Rubinstein also presented the first public performance of the Violin Sonata, Op. 9, which was first published in 1911. See Jim Samson, The Music of Szymanowski (p. 53) and Kornel Michałowski, Karol Szymanowski. Thematic Catalogue of Works (1967, p. 45). [Back]
. Walaciński, op. cit., p. xi. [Back]
. Ibid., p. ix. [Back]
. P. I. Tchaikovsky: Violin Concerto In D Major, Op. 35, edited by David Oistrakh and Konstantin Mostras, 1956. [Back]
. Leopold Auer: My Long Life in Music, 1923, p. 209. [Back]
. Eugčne Ysaďe: Ysaďe, 1980, p. 108. [Back]
. Szymanowski Complete Edition, Series B, Volume 9," pp. 103 -107. [Back]
. Ibid., p. 144. [Back]
. Paweł Kochański and Karol Szymanowski: L'Aube and Danse sauvage pour violon et piano [The Dawn and Wild Dance for Violin and Piano], 1982. [Back]
. Michałowski: Szymanowski, Thematic Catalogue, p. 261. [Back]
. Chylińska: Dzieje przyjazńi [Story of a Friendship], p. 242. [Back]
. Lewis Foreman: A Composer and his Times, 1988, p. 176-177. [Back]
. Martin Risely: The Violin Concertos of Sergei Prokofieff, 1995, pp. 35 and 43. [Back]
. Israel V. Nestyev: Prokofiev, 1960 (1957), p. 140. [Back]
. Foreman: A Composer and his Times, pp. 176-177. [Back]
. Artur Rubinstein: My Many Years, 1980, p. 145. [Back]
. Martens: "Paul Kochanski," p. 78. [Back]
. Ibid., p. 76. [Back]
. Rubinstein: My Many Years, p. 274. [Back]
. "Paul Kochanski, Violinist, Is Dead," The New York Times, January 13, 1934, p. 13, col. 4. [Back]
. Ibid., col. 5. [Back]
Publisher: Polish Music Reference Center.
Editor: Maria Anna Harley.
Design: Maria Anna Harley & Marcin Depinski.
20 July - 22 September 1998.
Comments and inquiries by e-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org