Polish Music Journal
Vol. 4, No. 2, Winter 2001. ISSN 1521 - 6039





THE UNKNOWN PADEREWSKI

ABSTRACTS OF ARTICLES
PMJ, Vol. 4, No. 2 (Winter 2001)

KoniecznaPerkowska PiberWozna-Stankiewicz
Paderewski's TextsAbout Paderewski



Małgorzata Perkowska: "The Unknown Compositions of Ignacy Jan Paderewski"

This article first appeared in Muzyka 33 no. 3 (1988): 21-34. Translated into English by Wanda Wilk.
While preparing the thematic catalogue of Ignacy Jan Paderewski's music, Perkowska researched the compositions' autographs. These are found in the Paderewski Collection at Warsaw's Academy of Music (Paderewski bequeathed his manuscripts to this institution), as well as in the possession of the Fryderyk Chopin Society in Warsaw and the Paderewski Center at Jagiellonian University, Kraków. Two manuscripts of early works have been discovered: the unpublished Stara Suita op. 13 for piano in the Jagiellonian Library, and a Song in F major for violin and piano in the Library of the Poznań Society of Friends of Science. The storerooms of the Royal Palace in Wilanów have also revealed a considerable quantity of Paderewski's manuscripts.

Outside of Poland, the autograph of the opera Manru is held by the Cathedral of Learning of Pittsburgh University, while the autograph of the Violin Sonata is in the Pierpont Morgan Library in New York. The Polish Museum of America in Chicago holds a sketch of the hymn Hej, Orle Biały! while the Library of Congress in Washington, D.C., has the holograph copy of the Minuet in G major op. 14 no. 1. Perkowska described the fates met by various collections of Paderewski's autographs. The manuscripts of some of Paderewski's most important published works are still missing, for instance the Polish Fantasy op. 19, the Symphony in B minor, the Melodies to the poetry by C. Mendes op. 22, the Piano Sonata op. 21, and the Variations and Fugue op. 23.

Among the autographs discovered, Perkowska has identified several previously unknown works not mentioned in the composer's memoirs or biographies. Her study of Paderewski's unpublished letters (1882-1895) to Helena Górska and (1874-1892) to his father (these letters were preserved in a private collection in the U.S. and donated to the Paderewski Center in 1996), and to his friends (letters cited in Andrzej Piber's biography of 1982), has enabled Perkowska to identify and classify the newly discovered manuscripts. The article outlines the current state of research, giving concise background information about the composition of these recently discovered pieces. The list includes music for piano, violin, voice, a string quartet, an orchestral overture, and a suite for string orchestra, among other works.

Link to the Article
Author's Biography
Paderewski's List of Works
Paderewski's Writings
Paderewski: Bibliography
PMJ - Current Issue

bar

Małgorzata Woźna-Stankiewicz: "The Poetry of Mendès in the Songs of Paderewski and French Composers"

Originally published in Warsztat kompozytorski, wykonawstwo i koncepcje polityczne Ignacego Jana Paderewskiego [Composers workshop: Performance and political conceptions of Ignacy Jan Paderewski]. Conference proceedings. Edited by Andrzej Sitarz and Wojciech Marchwica. Musica Iagellonica. Kraków: Uniwersytet Jagiellonski, Katedra Historii i Teorii Muzyki, 1991, 193-208. Translated into English by Maja Trochimczyk.

French "Parnassist" poet, Catulle Mendès is a surprising choice as an author of texts for over one-third of Paderewski's vocal output. The Songs op. 22 present modernist, impressionistic and romantic settings of 12 poems taken from Mendès's collection of Serenades and Sonnets. Paderewski met Mendès in Paris; the poet prepared a French translation of the libretto of Manru; unfortunately it was not deemed of sufficiently good quality to provide material for the opera's staging in France. Despite Paderewski's sudden interest, Mendès was not well known in Poland. Woźna-Stankiewicz presents a detailed history of the poet's Polish reception and his contacts with Paderewski in order to provide a fuller historical context for Paderewski's Songs. Their dedicatee, Marie Trèlat was a well-known singer and a hostess of a Parisian salon, a gathering place of the French intelligentsia, writers, painters, and musicians. The same singer was also the dedicatee of songs by French composers, whose works constitute the main subject of this study. Woźna-Stankiewicz studies in detail song settings of Mendès's poetry composed between 1860 and 1910, especially those by Bizet, Chabrier, Satie, and Saint-Saëns. The author points out the differences between these settings and Paderewski's set, and the variety of approaches to vocal music that they represent (traditions of Melodie, Lied, and other vocal genres).

Link to the Article
Author's Biography
PMJ - Current Issue

bar

Andrzej Piber: "The Reception of Paderewski's Manru in the U.S."

Originally published in Polish, in Warsztat kompozytorski, wykonawstwo i koncepcje polityczne Ignacego Jana Paderewskiego [Composers workshop: Performance and political conceptions of Ignacy Jan Paderewski]. Conference proceedings. Edited by Andrzej Sitarz and Wojciech Marchwica. Musica Iagellonica. Kraków: Uniwersytet Jagiellonski, Katedra Historii i Teorii Muzyki, 1991, 120-133.

This article, written by a long-time archivist of the Paderewski Archives in the Archiwum Akt Nowych in Warsaw and the author of several monographs dedicated to Paderewski's life and career, outlines the circumstances surrounding the premiere of Paderewski's Manru at the Metropolitan Opera in New York on 14 February 1902. Piber cites a large number of press reviews, previews and reports dedicated to this opera and published in New York, Boston, Philadelphia and other American cities in 1901 and 1902. He describes the preparations for the staging, the rehearsals, the selection of soloists, design of costumes and decorations. The article includes numerous quotations illustrating a range of critical and popular responses to Manru. The opera's reception was fraught with controversies; the strongest criticism was addressed at its libretto by Alfred Nossig (denounced as too long and not dramatic enough). Paderewski's apparent indebtness to Wagnerian operas and music dramas was also singled out by some critical voices. Favorable reviews pointed out the colorful stylizations of Slavic and Gypsy folklore, the skillful use of the orchestra and the wide palette of textures and timbres. The vocal writing was also praised, as were both the characterization of the main personalities in the music and their interpretation by the singers.

Link to the Article
Libretto of Manru, Act I
Libretto of Manru, Act II
Libretto of Manru, Act III
Swayne on Manru (1902)
Author's Biography
PMJ - Current Issue

bar

Aleksandra Konieczna: "Stylistic and Dramatic Features of Paderewski's Manru"

Paderewski's opera Manru has been singled out as one of the most important Polish operas composed after Moniuszko. Simultaneously, the work was criticized for its supposed reliance on Wagnerian models. In this paper, the range of Wagnerian inspiration is examined (with examples of the Leitmotifs, coninuous melodies and arioso singing, the use of instrumental introductions to each act, i.e. Vorspiele, characteristic stage props, characters, and musical textures). Paderewski's usage of these element is more original, however, than that of other post-Wagnerians, such as Pfitzer, Schillings, or Siegfried Wagner. He uses an eclectic musical language in Manru in order to illustrate the setting and give detailed psychological portrayals of his characters, the Slavic sorrowful wife, Ulana, the tormented Gypsy husband, Manru, the crippled villain, Urok, and the seductive Gypsy Aza. The harmonic means range from simple triads and tonal relationships to extended sequences of parallel chords, and frequent use of augmented triads to accompany Urok. The melodic use of the "Gypsy" scale with its two augmented seconds serves to reveal the internal strife of Manru, who had rejected his nomadic life and his people for the new family, but abandoned his wife and child to return to the Gypsies. Manru has many common elements with French and Italian operas, especially Bizet's Carmen and Verdi's Othello. The treatment of the folklore from the Polish highlanders (the inhabitants of the Tatra Mountains) resembles that occurring in Moniuszko's opera Halka, composed almost fifty years earlier. Despite the fact that the opera is based on a story by a Polish novelist (Kraszewski), and despite the presence of Polish elements in the music, Manru may not be considered a "national" opera in the sense assigned to this term through the 19th century. With its sombre theme of ethnic intolerance and the tragedy of the main characters, Manru is Paderewski's voice in the great historical dialogue about the role of music in drama. The article was originally published in Warsztat kompozytorski, wykonawstwo i koncepcje polityczne Ignacego Jana Paderewskiego [Composers workshop: Performance and political conceptions of Ignacy Jan Paderewski]. Conference proceedings. Edited by Andrzej Sitarz and Wojciech Marchwica. Kraków: Musica Iagellonica, 1991, 134-148. Translated into English by Maja Trochimczyk.

Link to the Article
Libretto of Manru, Act I
Libretto of Manru, Act II
Libretto of Manru, Act III
Swayne on Manru (1902)
Author's Biography
PMJ - Current Issue

bar

Maja Trochimczyk, ed.: "Selected Writings and Speeches by Paderewski"

The selection of writings by Ignacy Jan Paderewski (1860-1941) reprinted here continues the documents published in the previous issue of the Journal. The text about Fryderyk Chopin is a reprint of a 1911 edition of Paderewski's 1910 speech translated by Laurence Alma-Tadema. The composer gave this lecture at the celebrations of a 100th anniversary of Chopin's birth in Lwów (also known as Lemberg and, presently, Lviv). In 1908, Paderewski commissioned a monument to celebrate the 500th anniversary of the victory of Polish-Lithuanian army over the Teutonic Knights on the fields of Grunwald (known in Germany as Tannenberg). The Grunwald Monument was unveiled in Kraków in 1910 and Paderewski's speech, given on this occasion, was praised for its rhetorical values and political effectiveness. In 1915 Paderewski began a fund-raising campaign in the U.S. to raise charitable donations for the Polish Victims' Relief Fund; the fund itself was established in May 1915 and the selection of Paderewski's texts associated with this effort includes publications in concert program, newspapers, and music journals from May, September and October of that year. These speeches have been gathered from miscellaneous sources, press clippings and concert programs in the collection of the Polish Music Center. Finally, Paderewski's political speech to Polish Americans who met in Chicago under the auspices of the National Security League in 1918 was first published in Józef Orłowski, ed., Ignacy Jan Paderewski i odbudowa Polski, 2 vol. (Chicago: The Stanek Press, 1939-1940).

Paderewski: "Fryderyk Chopin" (1911)
Paderewski's Address at the Grunwald Monument (1910)
Paderewski's Appeals for the Polish Victims' Relief Fund (1915)
Paderewski: Speech at the National Security League Meeting (1918)


bar

Maja Trochimczyk, ed.: "Selected Articles about Paderewski"

The selection of writings by a variety of American and Polish authors documents several aspects of Paderewski's life as a virtuoso pianist, composer, statesman and Polish patriot, as well as a teacher, and friend. Edgar Swayne's overview of Manru appeared in Music (January 1902), in the month preceding the premiere of the opera at the Met. American texts deal with Paderewski's compositional and performing activities. The respected New York music critic, Henry E. Krehbiel wrote analytical notes for Paderewski's American tours in 1895-96, 1899-1900, 1904-05, and 1907-08. His texts about Paderewski's pieces are reprinted from copies of Analytical Notes on M. Paderewski's Programmes issued by Steinway Pianos. Nellie R. Cameron Bates (1914) provides us with a glimpse of a general public's response to Paderewski's recitals; her "country girl" tone is interesting from feminist point of view. Texts by Polish authors come from a special issue of Życie muzyczne i teatralne vol. 2 no. 5/6 (May- June 1935) published in Poznań by Wieńczysław Brzostowski and dedicated to Paderewski. Articles by Franciszek E. Fronczak and Cyryl Ratajski were translated by Wanda Wilk, while articles by Antonina Adamowska, Zygmunt Dygat and Wiktor Łabuński appear in a translation by Maria Piłatowicz. The selection includes:

Egbert Swayne: Paderewski's "Manru" (Music, January 1902)
Henry E. Krehbiel: Program Notes about Paderewski's Music (1895-1908)
Nellie R. Cameron Bates: A Country Girl at a Paderewski Concert (1914)
Franciszek E. Fronczak: Paderewski in Light of Polish Emigration in America (1935)
Józef Ratajski: Paderewski, The Underappreciated (1935)
Antonina Adamowska: The Private Life of Paderewski (1935)
Zygmunt Dygat: A Lesson with Paderewski (1935)
Wiktor Łabuński: A Visit to Paderewski's Pullman (1935)


Copyright 2001 by the Polish Music Journal.
Editor: Maja Trochimczyk. Assistant Editor: Linda Schubert.
Publisher: Polish Music Center, 2001.
Design: Maja Trochimczyk & Marcin Depinski. Editorial Assistance: Zak Ozmo.
Comments and inquiries by e-mail: polmusic@email.usc.edu