The International Metropolitan Observatory Project (IMO) is a global
network of social scientists investigating cities
and their surrounding regions. Organized in 2002 at the initiative of
Vincent Hoffmann-Martinot (CERVL-CNRS/ Sciences
Po Bordeaux) and Jefferey Sellers (University of Southern California,
Los Angeles), the IMO is currently co-directed by
Jefferey Sellers and Daniel Kübler (University of Zürich).
The IMO arises from a need that many researchers have acknowledged
to extend analysis of society and politics to the
extended urbanizing regions that increasingly dominate patterns of settlement
around the world. The Project has a dual aim.
On the one hand it seeks to build a global database of comparable information
on critical aspects of metropolitan regions.
At the same time, a coordinated series of workshops has analyzed crucial
but neglected aspects of the politics and
governance of metropolitan regions from a systematic transnational perspective.
The Project first convened September 28, 2002 in Stuttgart, Germany.
In 2003 the Poject received support
from the French GRALE (Groupement de Recherche sur l'Administration
Locale en Europe) and the Centre
National de Recherche Scientifique to carry out a series of international
workshops on metropolitan topics. Subsequent
workshops have been funded by the Thyssen Foundation and the University
of Southern California Provost's Program
for Advancing Scholarship in the Humanities and Social Sciences. The
workshops have consisted of papers prepared by
representatives from each country according to a jointly developed set
of protocols. Within the participating countries, a
wide variety of national and local funders have helped support the research,
from the Haynes Foundation and the
METRANS Center for Transportation Research in the United States to the
Swiss NCCR Democracy 21, to the
Brazilian Center for Metropolitan Studies.
The first workshop, held in Bordeaux on January 9-10, 2004, included
participants from a total of
sixteen countries in Africa, Asia, Europe, the Middle East and North
America. Participants gave an overview of the
metropolitan transformations currently under way in each country, along
with the political implications. On the
basis of an agreed upon protocol designed to reconcile the international
variations in metropolitan definitions, participants
were then asked to collect and analyze data on metropolitan areas with
populations over 200,000. The analyses
focussed on recent trends toward exurban settlement and metropolitan
polarization, on resemblances to the
stereotypical U.S. metropolitan patterns of suburbanization and segregation,
on effects from metrpolitan settlement
and change on political behavior, and on plans for future workshops.
Those papers were published in
Hoffmann-Martinot and Jefferey Sellers (eds.), Metropolitanization
and Political Change
(Wiesbaden: Verlag fuer Sozialwissenschaften, 2005; French
edition CNRS Press 2007).
The second phase of the project drew on an original dataset of electoral,
demographic and spatial data form 14,000
localities in eleven countries to scrutinize the effects from emerging
metropolitan patterns on changing partisan cleavages
and on voter turnout in national and local elections. Results from this
phase, begun in workshops in Bordeaux in May
2005 and in Stuttgart in January 2007, has now been published in Jefferey
Sellers, Daniel Kübler, Melanie Walter-Rogg
and Alan Walks (eds.), The Political Ecology of the Metropolis
(Colchester and New York: ECPR Press and Columbia
University Press, 2013). The analyses of this volume reveal an emerging
reterritorialization of politics around metropolitan
geographies across the developed world and beyond. One component shows
how patterns of residence in metropolitan
regions account in large measure for new partisan political cleaveages.
A second component, based on the first contextualized
comparative analysis of election turnout in national and local elections,
shows that electoral participation also follows
metropolitan patterns. In both analyses, the variations within and between
metropolitan regions go beyond what the
demographic composition of places can explain. Papers from this project
have been presented at meetings of the International
Political Science Association, the European Consortium for Political
Research, the American Political Science Association,
the Urban Affairs Association and numerous other venues. Project findings
about the metropolitan bases of new political
cleavages were presented at panels of the Amercan Political Science
Association Annual Meeting in Toronto, Canada and the
European Consortium for Political Research Biennial General Conference
in Potsdam, Germany in September 2009. For
information on how to access the data for replication or futher analysis,
The third phase focuses on governance and metropolitan inequality.
Results from this phase are forthcoming in Jefferey
Sellers, Marta Arretche, Daniel Kübler, and Eran Razin (eds.),
Inequality and Governance in the Metropolis: Regimes
of Place Equality and Fiscal Choices in Eleven Countries (Palgrave-Macmillan).
This phase has built on the political,
economic and spatial data already collected in previous phases, and
has expanded the network of participants to leading
scholars working on several large developing countries. The analysis
focuses on the spatial inequality that has increasingly
marked major metropolitan regions of both developed and developing countries.
Fiscal and other data have been
employed to analyze how policies and institutions at national, regional
and metropolitan levels have aggravated
or mitigated disparities in local services across metropolitan regions.
Initial papers from this project were presented at a
workshop at the European Consortium for Political Research Joint Workshops
in Rennes in April 2008. A second
workshop took place in January 2009 at the University of Southern California.
Panels presented cross-national findings
from the study at the International Political Science Association Meeting
in Santiago, Chile in July 2009, at the American
Political Science Association Annual Meeting in Toronto, Canada in September
2009 and at the International Political
Science Association biennial meeting in Madrid, Spain in July 2012.
Subsequent phases of the Project are also under development. The coordinators
welcome feedback as well as inquiries about
opportunities for collaboration in this emerging, increasingly important
International Metropolitan Observatory documents: