The International Journal of Biomedical Science (IJBS, ISSN 1550-9702) is a multidisciplinary peer-reviewed journal published quarterly by the Master Publishing Group. IJBS is dedicated to increasing the understanding of human health and disease. IJBS provides a venue for scientists in all disciplines with the ultimate aim of improving human health. The journal also aims to promote translation of basic research into clinical investigation and convert clinical evidence into practice. The journal features works of exceptional significance in all areas related to the science of medicine, biomedicine, biology, biochemistry, etc., including basic research and clinical investigations. We uphold papers which cross disciplines and encourage papers addressing universal problems of human health.