LABOR FORCE DATA
Labor Force Experience--Males 16 Years and Over
Data on males of working age were selected for separate examination for two reasons. First, male workers in lower-income areas tend to work in jobs that are sensitive to fluctuations in the economy. Second, because of a relative decline over the past several years in the number of jobs that have historically been filled by male workers, there has been a significant decrease in male labor force participation. This has been especially evident in areas where a higher proportion of males are usually employed in "blue-collar" occupations.
An examination of the 1990 census data contained in the following graphs and tables reveals that there was a large concentration of unemployed male workers in areas where the civil unrest occurred. The highest male unemployment rate, 17.2 percent, was recorded in the Florence CDP. Next was the Southeast Planning Area, with a 16.4 percent rate. Eight of the areas showed male unemployment rates that were at least 50 percent above the county average of 7.4 percent, and these same communities accounted for close to three-fourths of the destroyed buildings. A similar pattern emerges when males who were not in the labor force during the 1990 Census are added to the unemployed counts. While countywide data showed that an average of 28.6 percent of all males 16 years and over were not working, in five of the communities that experienced severe damage, over 40 percent of working-age males were without a job. These communities contained two-thirds of the destroyed buildings. (See Appendix Table 1.)
Labor Force Experience--Females 16 Years and Over
The labor force experience of female workers was similar to that for male workers, both in the level and geographic distribution of unemployment. The jobless rate for female workers was 7.3 percent in the 1990 Census, nearly the same as the 7.4 percent rate estimated for male workers. The highest female unemployment rate among the communities in the civil unrest area was in the Southeast Los Angeles Planning Area, where a rate of 19 percent was recorded. Willowbrook had the second highest female unemployment rate at 15.3 percent. (See Appendix Table 2.)
Workers within Occupational Categories
The geographic areas affected by the civil unrest tended to have occupational patterns quite different from those of workers in the rest of the county. (See Appendix Table 3.) In the communities with substantial damage, the Census showed lower concentrations of workers in the higher-paying and higher-prestige jobs, and higher percentages in jobs that were at the opposite and of the scale. In the county as a whole, 27.6 percent of the working population was employed in managerial and professional categories. The proportion in this specialization was less than one-half that rate in eight of the affected communities. Operative and laborer specialties comprised 15.6 percent of all of the county's workers. However, this lower-paid, "blue-collar" category of work was much more prevalent in areas with unrest-related damage. In seven of the affected communities at least 25 percent of the workers were in this occupational category. Areas in which the operative and laborer proportion was at least 50 percent above the county average contained 71 percent of the severely damaged structures.
Workers within Industry Categories
Working residents, in most of the communities within the area of the civil unrest, showed a higher concentration of employment in manufacturing than did workers in the county as a whole. Countywide, 21.1 percent of all employed residents reported working for a manufacturing establishment. Four of the communities, Southeast Planning Area, Florence, Lynwood, and Willowbrook, showed percentages employed in factories at a rate that was at least 50 percent higher than the average. (See Appendix Table 4.)
Travel to Work
While commuting by automobile was the dominant means of transportation used by workers in most areas of the county, in the inner city there were some observable differences. A private vehicle was used by 70.6 percent of all workers residing in the county, while public transportation was used by only 6.4 percent. These proportions changed considerably in data for the lower-income areas where the civil unrest occurred. The percentage using buses was at least double the county average in six of the affected communities. Carpooling was also significantly higher in these areas. (See Appendix Table 5.)
Analysis of the 1992 Los Angeles Civil Unrest
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