USC Libraries

University of Southern California

skip navigation

Archives at USC

« back to Archives at USC Search

Finding aid of the John Money Papers

Finding aid prepared by Johanna Michael, © 2008

Summary Information

ONE National Gay & Lesbian Archives, USC Libraries, University of Southern California
Money, John, 1921-2006
John Money papers
Collection no.
Date [bulk]
Bulk, 1980-1984
Date [inclusive]
1.0 linear foot.
Writings, lectures, course materials, printed materials from research, and miscellaneous items created and collected by psychologist/sexologist Dr. John William Money. The bulk of the collection is a complete carbon-copy set of Money's lectures from his class, "Biosocial Aspects of Human Sexuality" at Johns Hopkins University, in fall 1980. The collection also includes a number of Money's early writings; article off-prints; and his "Autobiographical Statement," later re-titled "Explorations in Human Behavior" and published in the second volume of The History of Clinical Psychology in Autobiography (1993), edited by C. Eugene Walker.

Preferred Citation

Box #, folder #, John Money Papers, Coll2008-023, ONE National Gay and Lesbian Archives, Los Angeles, California.

Return to Table of Contents »


John William Money was born on July 8, 1921, in Morrinsville, Waikato, New Zealand. He grew up in a conservative, evangelical Christian family, which may have influenced his research focus later in life. He received his undergraduate degree in psychology from Victoria University in 1943, then emigrated to the United States to pursue graduate education. He studied social relations in the Psychological Clinic at Harvard University, receiving his Ph.D. in 1952. The next year, he joined the faculty of Johns Hopkins University Medical School, where he taught and carried out sexology research for over 50 years. He founded the Psychohormonal Research Unit at Johns Hopkins University Medical School and coined the term "gender role" in 1955, which he later expanded to "gender-identity/role" (GI/R). Throughout his career, Money authored numerous publications on sexology, including Venuses Penuses in 1986 and the controversial  Man and Woman, Boy and Girl, coauthored with Anke Ehrhardt in 1972. In the latter, Money and Ehrhardt expressed the view that gender was malleable and could be altered through external factors such as prescribed hormones and behavior therapy. To support this hypothesis, Money cited the "John/Joan" case, in which he advised a Canadian couple whose son's genitals had been severely damaged in a circumcision gone awry to raise the child as a female. The family acted according to this advice; the child underwent surgery to construct a vagina and began estrogen treatment. Money followed "Joan's" progress for five years and declared the treatment successful. However, as soon as "Joan" was informed about the treatment at the age of fourteen, he reclaimed a male identity and underwent sex reassignment surgery. Despite this action, "John" remained deeply troubled and committed suicide in 2004. According to his colleagues, Money was very distressed by the outcome of that case and preferred not to re-examine it. Dr. Richard Green, an emeritus professor at the University of California, Los Angeles and one of Money's former colleagues, publicly defended Money's actions, explaining that Money had no way of knowing that the treatment would backfire. Other researchers, however, find fault with Money's research practices regarding the case. Despite this debate, Money's impact in the field of sexology remains undisputed. His research marked the first steps toward a new understanding of gender that is still developing today. Money died of complications from Parkinson's disease on July 7, 2006 in Towson, Maryland. He was survived by eight nieces and nephews. Many originals of his lectures and research are housed at the Kinsey Institute.


Carey, Benedict. "John William Money, 84, Sexual Identity Researcher, Dies." New York Times. 11 July 2006.

John Money Papers, Coll2008-023, ONE National Gay and Lesbian Archives, Los Angeles, California.

Stein, Mark, ed. "Money, John and Anke Ehrhardt." Encyclopedia of Lesbian, Gay, Bisexual, and Transgender History in America. New York: Thompson-Gale, 2004.

Return to Table of Contents »

Scope and Content of Collection

This collection consists of one series, divided into four subsections: Writings, Teaching, Printed Materials and Miscellaneous. Money's writings are arranged chronologically; from early works (1953-1956), to article off-prints (1957-1984), to his Autobiographical Statement (with accompanying curriculum vitae), later titled "Explorations in Human Behavior" for publication in volume two of C. Eugene Walker's compilation, he History of Clinical Psychology in AutobiographyT (1993). Money's course materials from his teaching and administrative experience at Johns Hopkins University and a complete carbon-copy set of his lectures from Fall 1980 are also arranged chronologically by category. A small number of printed materials that Money collected during his research are also included in the collection, arranged by author. The last category contains miscellaneous items, including a copy of a  New York Times article about Money.

Return to Table of Contents »

Administrative Information

Publication Information

ONE National Gay & Lesbian Archives, USC Libraries, University of Southern California
© 2008
909 West Adams Boulevard
Los Angeles, California, 90007
(213) 821-2771


The collection is open to researchers. There are no access restrictions.

Publication Rights

Researchers wishing to publish materials must obtain permission in writing from ONE National Gay and Lesbian Archives as the physical owner. Researchers must also obtain clearance from the holder(s) of any copyrights in the materials. Note that ONE National Gay and Lesbian Archives can grant copyright clearance only for those materials for which we hold the copyright. It is the responsibility of the researcher to obtain copyright clearance for all other materials directly from the copyright holder(s).

Acquisition Information

Donated by John Money in several installments between 1998 and 2001.

Processing Information

Formerly housed in box 103-78. Collection processed by Johanna Michael, May 30, 2008.

Return to Table of Contents »

Controlled Access Headings

Personal Name(s)

  • Money, John, 1921-2006


  • Gender identity
  • Psychosexual development
  • Sex differentiation
  • Sexology

Return to Table of Contents »

Collection Inventory

 Writings 1953-1993   3.0 folders.

Box Folder

 Early Writings 1953-1956 

1 1

 Article Off-prints 1957-1984 

1 2

 Autobiographical Statement/Explorations in Human Behavior 1993 

1 3

 Teaching 1969-1984   25.0 folders.

Box Folder

 Biosocial Aspects of Human Sexuality, Handout 1980 

1 4

 Biosocial Aspects of Human Sexuality, Lectures 1-15 1980 

Box Folder

 Lecture 1 1980 

1 5

 Lecture 2 1980 

1 6

 Lecture 3 1980 

1 7

 Lecture 4 1980 

1 8

 Lecture 5 1980 

1 9

 Lecture 6 1980 

1 10

 Lecture 7 1980 

1 11

 Lecture 8 1980 

1 12

 Lecture 9 1980 

1 13

 Lecture 10 1980 

1 14

 Lecture 11 1980 

1 15

 Lecture 12 1980 

1 16

 Lecture 13 1980 

1 17

 Lecture 14 1980 

1 18

 Lecture 15 1980 

1 19
Box Folder

 Johns Hopkins School of Medicine, Introduction to Psychiatry and the Behavioral Sciences, Course Outline 1969-1970 

1 20

 Johns Hopkins School of Medicine, Psychiatry and Behavioral Sciences, First Year Program 1982-1984 

Box Folder

 Clinical Syndromes Study Guide 1982-1983 

2 1

 Course Outline 1983-1984 

2 2

 Readings 2 1983-1984 

2 3

 Readings 3 1983-1984 

2 4

 Johns Hopkins School of Medicine, Psychiatry and Behavioral Sciences; Year II Program, Course Outline 1971-1975 

Box Folder


2 5


2 6


2 7


2 8

 Printed Materials 1802-1983   8.0 items.

Box Folder

 American Association on Mental Deficiency. Directory, Appendix A: Listing of State and Private Training Schools and Homes for the Retarded 1958 

3 1

 Clive Michael Boutiler v. U.S. Immigration & Naturalization Service. U.S. Supreme Court, october Term, 1966. No. 440. Amicus curiae brief of the Homosexual Law Reform Society of America. 1966 

3 2

 Jaqueline Foroni rendue a son véritable Sexe, ou Rapport, Réflexions et jugement préséntes à l'Académie de Mantoue, par la Classe de Médecine, sur le sexe d'un individu vivant, connu sous le nom de Jaqueline Foroni 1802 

General note


3 3

 Erwin J. Haeberle. The Birth of Sexology; A History in Documents 1983 

3 4

 Magnus Hirshfeld. Was eint und trennt das Menschengeschlecht? 1919 

General note


3 5

 Homophile Studies; ONE Institute Quarterly. Volume 8, No. 22 1970 

3 6

 National Institute of Public Health. Report on the XYY Chromosomal Abnormality 1970 

3 7

 Brad Wilson. Sweet Hollow Cook Book 1968 

3 8
Box Folder

 Miscellaneous 1985-1990 

3 9

Return to Table of Contents »