Center for Muslim-Jewish Engagement

A Partnership between the Hebrew Union College-Jewish Institute of Religion,
Omar Ibn Al Khattab Foundation, & USC Center for Religion and Civic Culture

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JUDAISM ON VIOLENCE AND RECONCILIATION:

AN EXAMINATION OF KEY SOURCES

Reuven Firestone, Hebrew Union College

TEXTS

Exodus 15:3: "YHW is a man of war; YHW is His name. ומְשׁ דָוֹדְי הָמָחְלִמ שׁיִא דָוֹדְי. "

Deut.7:1ff:

1When the Lord your God brings you to the land that you are about to enter and possess, and He dislodges many nations before you -- Hittites, Girgashites, Amorites...seven nations much larger than you -- 2and the Lord your God delivers them to you and you defeat them, you must doom them to total destruction; grant them no terms and show then no mercy. 3You shall not intermarry with them! Do not give your daughters to their sons or take their daughters for your sons. 4For they will turn your children away from Me to worship other gods…

םירבד רפס ,א קרפ.

לֶא ָךיֶהֹלֱא הָֹוהְי ָךֲאיִבְי יִכּ א- ץֶראָָהרֶשֲׁא-אָב הָתּאַ-םִיוֹגּ לַשָׁנְו הָּתְּשִׁרְל הָמָּשׁ- יִרֹמֱאָהְו יִשָׁגְּרִגַּהְו יִתִּחַה ָךיֶנָפִּמ םיִבַּר הָעְבִשׁ יִסוּבְיַהְו יִוִּחַהְו יִזִּרְפַּהְו יִנֲעַנְכַּהְוםיִבַּר םִיוֹגָךֶּמִּמ םיִמוּצֲעַו : םָנָתְנוּ ב םֵרֲחַה םָתיִכִּהְו ָךיֶנָפְל ָךיֶהֹלֱא הָֹוהְיאֹל םָתֹא םיִרֲחַתּ- תיִרְבּ םֶהָל תֹרְכִתםֵנָּחְת אֹלְו :םָבּ ןֵתַּחְתִת אֹלְו ג ָךְתִּבָּךֶנְבִל חַקִּת אֹל וֹתִּבוּ וֹנְבִל ןֵתִּת אֹל) :ד (ֵמ ָךְנִבּ תֶא ריִסָי יִכּ םיִהֹלֱא וּדְבָעְו יַרֲחאַםיִרֵחֲא....

Deut. 3

3So the Lord our God also delivered into our power King Og of Bashan, with all his men, and we dealt them such a blow that no survivor was left. 4At that time we captured all his towns; there was not a town that we did not take from them: sixty towns, the whole district of Argov, the kingdom of Og in Bashan 5– all those towns were fortified with high walls, gates, and bars – apart from a great number of unwalled towns. 6We doomed them as we had done in the case of King Sihon of Heshbon; we doomed every town – men, women, and children.

ג םירבד

ְךֶלֶמ גוֹע תֶא םַגּ וּנֵדָיְבּ וּניֵהֹלֱא דָוֹדְי ןֵתִּיַּו ג וֹל ריִאְשִׁה יִתְּלִבּ דַע וּהֵכַּנַּו וֹמַּע לָכּ תֶאְו ןָשָׁבַּהדיִרָשׂ : אֹל אוִהַה תֵעָבּ ויָרָע לָכּ תֶא דֹכְּלִנַּו ד םיִשִּׁשׁ םָתִּאֵמ וּנְחַקָל אֹל רֶשֲׁא הָיְרִק הָתְיָהןָשָׁבַּבּ גוֹע תֶכֶלְמַמ בֹגְּראַ לֶבֶח לָכּ ריִע : לָכּ ה ַחיִרְבוּ םִיַתָלְדּ הָהֹבְג הָמוֹח תוֹרֻצְבּ םיִרָע הֶלֵּאדֹאְמ הֵבְּרַה יִזָרְפַּה יֵרָעֵמ דַבְל : םֵרֲחַנַּו ו םֵרֲחַה ןוֹבְּשֶׁח ְךֶלֶמ ןֹחיִסְל וּניִשָׂע רֶשֲׁאַכּ םָתוֹאַה םִתְמ ריִע לָכּףָטַּהְו םיִשָׁנּ:

Psalm 34:12-15

Come, my children, listen to me; I will teach you what it is to be in awe of the Lord. Who is one who lusts for life, who desires (long) years of good fortune? Guard your tongue from evil, your lips from deceitful speech. Shun evil and do good. Seek shalom and pursue it.

דל םיליהת ,בי-וט

וּכְל בי-וּעְמִשׁ םיִנָב- הָוֹהְי תאְַרִי יִלםֶכְדֶמַּלֲא :יִמ גי- םיִיַּח ץֵפָחֶה שׁיִאָהבוֹט תוֹאְרִל םיִמָי בֵהֹא : רֹצְנ דיהָמְרִמ רֵבַּדִּמ ָךיֶתָפְֹשוּ עָרֵמ ָךְנוֹשְׁל : וט הֵֹשֲעַו עָרֵמ רוּס- םוֹלָשׁ שֵׁקַּבּ בוֹטוּהֵפְדָרְו:

Isaiah 11:1-9

A shoot shall grow up of the stump of Jesse, a twig shall sprout from his stock.…He shall judge the poor with equity and decide with justice for the lowly of the land. He shall strike down the land with the rod of his mouth and slay the wicked with the breath of his lips. Justice shall be the girdle of his loins, and faithfulness the girdle of his waste. The wolf shall dwell with the lamb, the leopard lie down with the kid. The calf, the beast of prey shall feed together, with a little boy to herd them. The cow and the bear shall graze, their young shall lie down together; and the lion, like the ox, shall east straw. A babe shall play over a viper's hole, and an infant pass his hand over an adder's den. In all of My sacred mount nothing evil or vile shall be done; For the land shall be filled with devotion to the Lord as water covers the sea.

אי והיעשי ,א-ט

ויָשָׁרָשִּׁמ רֶצֵנְו יָשִׁי עַזֶגִּמ רֶטֹח אָצָיְו אהֶרְפִי ...: טַפָשְׁו ד ַחיִכוֹהְו םיִלַּדּ קֶדֶצְבּיֵוְנַעְל רוֹשׁיִמְבּ-הָכִּהְו ץֶראָ- טֶבֵשְׁבּ ץֶרֶאעָשָׁר תיִמָי ויָתָפְֹש ַחוּרְבוּ ויִפּ : הָיָהְו הויָצָלֲח רוֹזֵא הָנוּמֱאָהְו ויָנְתָמ רוֹזֵא קֶדֶצ : וםִע בֵאְז רָגְו-םִע רֵמָנְו ֹשֶבֶכּ- ץָבְּרִי יִדְגִּפְכוּ לֶגֵעְו גֵהֹנ ןֹטָק רַעַנְו וָדְּחַי איִרְמוּ ריםָבּ : וּצְבְּרִי וָדְּחַי הָניֶעְרִתּ בֹדָו הָרָפוּ זלַכאֹי רָקָבַּכּ הֵיְראְַו ןֶהיֵדְלַי-ןֶבֶתּ : חלַע קֵנוֹי עַשֲׁעִשְׁו- תַרוּאְמ לַעְו ןֶתָפּ רֻחהָדָה וֹדָי לוּמָגּ יִנוֹעְפִצ :אֹל ט- וּעֵרָיאֹלְו-ְשַׁילָכְבּ וּתיִח-יִכּ יִשְׁדָק רַה- האְָלָמתֶא הָעֵדּ ץֶראָָה-םיִסַּכְמ םָיַּל םִיַמַּכּ הָוֹהְי:

Isaiah 2:2-4

In the days to come, the Mount of the Lord's House shall stand firm above the mountains and tower above the hills; and all the nations shall gaze on it with joy. And the many peoples shall go and say, 'Come let us go up to the Mount of the Lord, to the House of the God of Jacob; that He may instruct us in His ways and that we may walk in His paths.' For instruction shall come forth from Zion, the word of the Lord from Jerusalem. Thus He will judge among the nations and arbitrate for the many peoples. And they shall beat their swords into plowshares and their spears into pruning hooks; nation shall not take up sword against nation. They shall never again know war.

ב והיעשי

ןֶבּ וּהָיְעַשְׁי הָזָח רֶשֲׁא רָבָדַּה א- ץוֹמאָלַע-םָלָשׁוּריִו הָדוּהְי : הָיָהְו ב | תיִרֲחאְַבּתיֵבּ רַה הֶיְהִי ןוֹכָנ םיִמָיַּה- שׁאֹרְבּ הָוֹהְילָכּ ויָלֵא וּרֲהָנְו תוֹעָבְגִּמ אָשִּׂנְו םיִרָהֶה-םִיוֹגַּה :כְלָהְו ג וּכְל וּרְמאְָו םיִבַּר םיִמַּע וּ |לֶא הֶלֲעַנְו-רַה-לֶא הָוֹהְי- יֵהֹלֱא תיֵבּ ויָתֹחְרֹאְבּ הָכְלֵנְו ויָכָרְדִּמ וּנֵרֹיְו בֹקֲעַירַבְדוּ הָרוֹת אֵצֵתּ ןוֹיִּצִּמ יִכּ- הָוֹהְיםָלָשׁוּריִמ : ַחיִכוֹהְו םִיוֹגַּה ןיֵבּ טַפָשְׁו דִכְו םיִבַּר םיִמַּעְל םיִתִּאְל םָתוֹבְרַח וּתְתּאֹל תוֹרֵמְזַמְל םֶהיֵתוֹתיִנֲחַו-לֶא יוֹג אָשִּׂי-אֹלְו בֶרֶח יוֹגּ-הָמָחְלִמ דוֹע וּדְמְלִי:

Micah 4:1-5

In the days to come, the Mount of the Lord's House shall stand firm above the mountains…(almost verbatim as Isaiah 2:2-4)…And they shall beat their swords into plowshares and their spears into pruning hooks. Nation shall not lift up sword against nation. they shall never again know war. Everyone shall sit under their grapevine or fig tree and with no one to disturb them, for it was the Lord of Hosts who spoke. Though all the peoples walk each in the names of its gods, we will walk in the name of the Lord our God forever and ever.

ד הכימ