This Surah takes its name from v. 33. Al-i-Imran, like the names of many other surahs, is merely a name to distinguish it from other surahs and does not imply that the family of Imran has been discussed in it.
The Period of Revelation
This Surah consists of four discourses The first discourses :-
The first discourse (vv. 1-32) was probably revealed soon after the Battle of Badr.
The second discourse (vv. 33-63) was revealed in 9 A. H. on the occasion of the visit of the deputation from the Christians of Najran.
The third discourse (vv. 64-120) appears to have been revealed immediately after the first one.
The fourth discourse (vv. 121-200) was revealed after the Battle of Uhd.
Though these discourses were revealed at different periods and on different occasions, they are so inter-linked and so inter-connected iii regard to their aim, object and central theme that they make together one continuous whole. This Surah has been especially addressed to two groups-the people of the Book (the Jews and the Christians) and the followers of Muhammad (Allah's peace be upon him).
The message has been extended to the Jews and the Christians in continuation of the invitation in Al-Baqarah, in which they have been admonished for their erroneous beliefs and evil morals and advised to accept, as a remedy, the Truth of the Quran. They have been told here that Muhammad (Allah's peace be, upon him) taught the same right way of life that had been preached by their own Prophets; that it alone was the Right Way, the way of Allah; hence any deviation from it will be wrong even according to their own Scriptures.
The second group, the Muslims, who had been declared to be the best Community in Al-Baqarah and appointed torch-bearers of the Truth and entrusted with the responsibility of reforming the world, have been given additional instructions in continuation of those given in the preceding Surah. The Muslims have been warned to learn a lesson from the religious and moral degeneration of the former communities and to refrain from treading in their footsteps. Instructions have also been given about the reformative work they had to perform. Besides this, they have been taught how to deal with the people of the Book and the hypocrites who were putting different kinds of hindrances in the way of Allah. Above all, they have been warned to guard against those weaknesses which had come to the surface in the Battle Uhd.
The following is the background of the Surah:
- The Believers had met
with all sorts of trials and hardships about which they had been
forewarned in Al- Baqarah. Though they had come out victorious in the
Battle of Badr, they were not out of danger yet. Their victory had
aroused the enmity of all those powers in Arabia which were opposed to
the Islamic Movement. Signs of threatening storms had begun to appear
on all sides and the Muslims were in a perpetual state of fear and
anxiety. It looked as if the whole Arabian world around the tiny state
of Al- Madinah -- which was no more than a village state at that time -- was
bent upon blotting out its very existence. This state of war was also
adversely affecting its economy, which had already been badly
disturbed by the influx of the Muslim refugees from Makkah.
there was the disturbing problem of the Jewish clans who lived in the
suburbs of Al-Madinah. They were discarding the treaties of alliance
they had made with the Holy Prophet after his migration from Makkah.
So much so that on the occasion of the Battle of Badr, these people of
the Book sympathized with the evil aims of the idolaters, in spite of
the fact that their fundamental articles of the Faith -- Oneness of Allah,
Prophethood, Life-after- death -- were the same as those of the Muslims.
After the Battle of Badr, they openly began to incite the Quraish and
other Arab clans to wreak their vengeance on the Muslims. Thus those
Jewish clans set aside their centuries-old friendly and neighborly
relations with the people of Al-Madinah. At last when their
mischievous actions and breaches of treaties became unbearable, the
Holy Prophet attacked the Bani- Qainu-qa'a, the most mischievous of
all the other Jewish clans who had conspired with the hypocrites of
Al-Madinah and the idolatrous Arab clans to encircle the Believers on
all sides. The magnitude of the peril might be judged from the fact
that even the life of the Holy Prophet himself was always in danger.
Therefore his Companions slept in their armors during that period and
kept watch at night to guard against any sudden attack, and whenever
the Holy Prophet happened to be out of sight even for a short while,
they would at once set out in search of him.
- This incitement by
the Jews added fuel to the fire which was burning in the hearts of the
Quraish and they began to make preparations to avenge the defeat they
had suffered at Bad. A year after this an army of 3,000 strong marched
out of Makkah to invade Al-Madinah and a battle took place at the foot
of Mount Uhd. The Holy Prophet came out of Al-Madinah with one
thousand men to meet the enemy. While they were marching to the
battle-field, three hundred hypocrites deserted the army and returned
to Al- Madinah, but there still remained a small band of hypocrites
among the seven hundred who accompanied the Holy Prophet. They played
their part and did their worst to create mischief and chaos in the
ranks of the Believers during the Battle. This was the first clear
indication of the fact that within the fold of the Muslim Community
there was quite a large number of saboteurs who were always ready to
conspire with the external enemies to harm their own brethren.
- Though the devices of the hypocrites had played a great part in the set-back at Uhd, the weaknesses of the Muslims themselves contributed no less to it. And it was but natural that the Muslims should show signs of moral weakness for they were a new community which had only recently been formed on a new ideology and had not as yet got a thorough moral training. Naturally in this second hard test of their physical and moral strength, some weaknesses came to the surface. That is why a detailed review of the Battle of Uhd was needed to warn the Muslims of their shortcomings and to issue instructions for their reform. It should also be noted that this review of the Battle is quite different from the reviews that are usually made by generals on similar occasions.
This Surah is the sequel to, Al-Baqarah and the invitation therein is continued to the people of the Book. In Al- Baqarah the Jews were pointedly invited to accept the Guidance and in this Surah the Christians have particularly been admonished to give up their erroneous beliefs and accept the Guidance of the Quran. At the same time, the Muslims have been instructed to nourish the virtues that may enable them to carry out their obligations and spread the Divine Guidance.
Topics and their Interconnection
In these introductory verses, the fundamental truths about Allah, Revelation and Life-after-death have been reiterated to serve as fitting preliminaries, leading to the main topics discussed in the Surah. 1 - 32
This discourse is particularly addressed to the Christians and invites them to accept Islam. It clears Jesus and his mother not only from the stigma maliciously set upon them by the Jews, but also refutes the erroneous Christian creed of the Divinity of Jesus which had been formulated because of his miraculous birth. For this purpose the instances of John the Baptist to a barren woman and an extremely aged man and that of Adam without father and mother have been cited to show that there is nothing in the birth of Jesus without a father to entitle him to Divinity. 33 - 65
In these verses the people of the Book, the Jews, have been invited to give up their sinister ways and accept the divine Guidance. At the same time the Muslims have been warned to be on their guard against their malicious intentions, erroneous ways and absurd objections. 66 - 101
The Muslims have been instructed to learn lessons from the history of the people of the Book and also to guard themselves against their machinations, and to prepare and train themselves to establish virtue and eradicate evil. 102 - 120
In this portion, a review of the Battle of Uhd has been mad to teach and reassure the Muslims that the machinations of their enemies could do them no harm, if they would practise restraint and fortitude and have fear of Allah. It has been pointed out that the set-back they had suffered was due to the lack of some moral qualities and the existence of some evils. Since the main cause of the defeat was the greed of the archers, guarding the pass, the taking of interest has been prohibited to eradicate this evil. 121 - 175
The main theme of the verses 109 - 120 has been resumed to reassure and encourage the Muslims against the dangerous plots of their enemies. 175 - 189
This is the conclusion of the Surah and is not directly connected with the verses immediately preceding it but with the theme of the Surah as a whole. 190 - 200