The Surah takes its title from the sentence, Wa anzalna' l-hadida, of verse 25.
Period of Revelation
This is unanimously a Madani Surah, and a study of its subject matter shows that it was probably sent down some time during the interval between the Battle of Uhud and the Truce of Hudaibiyah. This was the time when the tiny Islamic State of Madinah had been hemmed in by the disbelievers and the handful of the ill equipped Muslims were entrenched against the combined power of entire Arabia. In this state Islam not only stood in need of the sacrifice of Life from its followers, but it also needed monetary help and assistance. In this Surah a forceful appeal has been made for the same. This view is further strengthened by verse 10 in which Allah has addressed the believers to the effect "Those of you who would spend and fight after the victory can never be equal to those who have spent and fought before the victory." And the same is supported by the traditions that Ibn Marduyah has related on the authority of Hadrat Anas. In respect of the verse: Alam ya'n-i lilladhina aamanu an takhsha'a qulubu- hum li-dhikrillah-i, he says that 17 years after the commencement of the revelation of the Qur'an this verse was sent down to arouse the believers to action. Reckoned thus the period of the revelation of this Surah falls between the 4th and the 5th year after the hijrah.
Theme and Subject Matter
The theme of this Surah is to exhort the Muslims to spend in the cause of Allah. At the most critical juncture of the history of Islam when it was engaged in a life and death struggle against Arab paganism, this Surah was revealed to persuade the Muslim's to make monetary sacrifices in particular, and to make them realize that Islam did not merely consist in verbal affirmation and some outward practices but its essence and spirit is sincerity towards Allah and His Religion. The faith of the one who was devoid of this spirit and who regarded his own self and wealth as dearer to himself than Allah and His Religion, was hollow and therefore of little worth in the sight of Allah.
For this object, first the attributes of Allah Almighty have been mentioned so that the listeners may fully realize as to Who is addressing them. Then, the following themes have been expressed in sequence:
- The inevitable demand of the Faith is that one should not
shirk spending one's wealth for the sake of Allah. This would not only
be contrary to the Faith but also wrong realistically. For the wealth
indeed belongs to Allah, on which man has been given proprietary
rights only as His vicegerent. Yesterday this wealth was in other
people's possession today it is with one particular man, and tomorrow
it will pass into some one else's hand. Ultimately, it will go back to
Allah, Who is the inheritor of everything in the universe. Only that
much of this wealth will be of any use to a man, which he spends in
the cause of Allah during the period it is in his possession.
- Although making sacrifices for the sake of Allah is commendable in any
case, the true worth of these sacrifices is determined by the nature
of the occasion. There is an occasion when the power of paganism is
overwhelming and there is a danger that it might subdue and overcome
Islam completely; there is another occasion when Islam is in a
stronger position in its struggle against un-Islam and the believers
are attaining victories. Both these states are not equal as regards
their respective importance. Therefore, the sacrifices that are made
in these different states would also not be equal. Those who sacrifice
their lives and expend their wealth to further promote the cause of
Islam when it is already strong cannot attain to the rank of those who
struggled with their lives and their wealth to promote and uphold the
cause of Islam when it was weak.
- Whatever is spent for the cause of
the Truth is a loan on Allah, and Allah will not only return it
increasing it manifold but will also give from Himself the best reward
- In the Hereafter the Light shall be bestowed only on those
believers who would have spent their wealth in the cause of Allah. As
for the hypocrites who watched and served only their own interests in
the world, and who least bothered whether the Truth or falsehood
prevailed will be segregated from the believers in the Hereafter
although they might have lived in close association with them in the
world. They will be deprived of the Light, and they will be counted
among the disbelievers.
- The Muslims should not behave like those
followers of the earlier Books, whose lives have been. spent in the
worship of the world and whose hearts have become hardened due to
negligence with the passage of time. He cannot be a believer whose
heart does not melt at the remembrance of Allah and does not bow to
the Truth sent down by Him.
- The sincere upholders of the Truth and
the true witnesses of the Faith in the sight of Allah are only those
believers who spend their wealth in His way sincerely, without any
desire of show.
- The life of this world is only a short lived spring
and a means of pride and show. Its sports and pastimes, its adornments
and decorations, its pride of place, its wealth and possessions, for
which the people try to vie with one another, are transient. Its
likeness is of the crop which flourishes and blooms, then turns pale
and then finally is reduced to chaff. The everlasting life is the life
hereafter when results of great consequence will be announced.
Therefore, if one has to vie with another for something, one should
strive for Paradise.
- Whatever good man meets with and whatever
hardship he suffers in the world, are pre-ordained by Allah. A true
believer is he who does not lose heart in affliction and is not puffed
up with pride in good times. It is the character of a hypocrite and
disbeliever that he is puffed up with pride when Allah favors him
with His blessings, behaved boastfully and shows stinginess when
called upon to spend in the cause of the same God Who blessed him, and
also counsels others to be stingy like himself.
- Allah sent His
Messengers with clear signs and the Book and the Law of Justice so
that the people may adhere to justice; besides, He sent down iron also
so that power may be used to establish the Truth and vanquish
falsehood. Thus, Allah likes to see as to who from among the people
would rise to support and succour His true Religion even at the risk
of their lives. These opportunities Allah has created for man's own
advantage and development; otherwise Allah does not stand in need of
others for His works.
- Prophets came from Allah in the past, and by their preaching some people adopted the Right Path, but most of them persisted in wickedness. Then the Prophet Jesus came, whose teachings brought about many moral improvements in the lives of the people, but his community invented monasticism. Now Allah has sent the Prophet Muhammad (upon whom be His peace and blessings). Those who affirm faith in him and pass their life fearing Allah's accountability, will be given by Allah a double share of His mercy and He will bless them with the Light by which they will see and walk the straight path among the crooked paths met with at every step in the life of this world. Although the followers of the earlier revelation regard themselves as the monopolists of Allah's bounties, the fact remains that Allah Himself controls His bounties He may bless with these whomever He pleases.