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USC Sea Grant thematic focus is "The Urban Ocean." Our unique metropolitan location allows us to conduct research regarding the uses and impacts of large urban population on the marine environment. The publications and videos are intended for researchers, educators, students, resource managers, and others. If you are unable to locate the information you need after looking at our listings please contact the National Sea Grant Library.


New Releases

 

Bioaccumulation Of Organochlorine Contaminants And Ethoxyresorufin-O-Deethylase Activity In Southern California Round Stingrays (Urobatis Halleri) Exposed To Planar Aromatic Compounds

KADY LYONS, RAMON LAVADO, DANIEL SCHLENK, and CHRISTOPHER G. LOWE
California State University Long Beach, Long Beach, California, USA
University of California Riverside, Riverside, California, USA

(Submitted 3 November 2013; Returned for Revision 9 January 2014; Accepted 2 March 2014)

Abstract: While contaminant concentrations have been reported for elasmobranchs around the world, no studies have examined bioaccumulation patterns across male and female age classes. The round stingray (Urobatis halleri) is a local benthic species that forages near areas of high organochlorine contamination and represents a good elasmobranch model. Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), DDT, and chlordanes were measured in juvenile and adult male and female stingrays from areas in southern California, USA (n1/4208), and a nearby offshore island, Santa Catalina (n1/434). Both mainland juvenile male and female stingrays showed a significant dilution effect. After maturity, summed contaminant concentrations significantly increased with size for adult males (median 11.1mg/g lipid wt) and females (5.2 mg/g lipid wt). However, the rate of bioaccumulation was substantially greater in male stingrays than in females, likely a result of the females' ability to offload contaminants to offspring during pregnancy. In addition, males and females showed significant differences in their contaminant profiles, suggesting differential habitat use. Male and female stingrays collected from Santa Catalina Island had significantly lower concentrations (0.51 mg/g and 0.66mg/g lipid wt, respectively), approximately 5 times less than those of mainland animals. Potential toxicity effects mediated through activation of the aryl hydrocarbon receptor were explored through ethoxyresorufin-O-deethylase (EROD) activity assays. Mainland male stingrays exhibited significantly greater EROD activities than Catalina males (481 pmol/min/mg protein and 55 pmol/min/mg protein, respectively); however, activity levels in female stingrays from both locations were comparable (297 pmol/min/mg protein and 234 pmol/min/mg protein, respectively) and lower than those in mainland males. The results suggest that PCBs and/or other structurally related contaminants may be inducing a biological response in mainland males but not females, possibly the result of a dampening effect of estradiol; however, the exact physiological repercussions of exposure remain to be determined. Environ Toxicol Chem 2014;33:1380–1390. # 2014 SETAC

USCSG-R-09-2014
Copies Available: doi: 10.1002/etc.2564
(PDF)

Microbial biogeochemistry of coastal upwelling regimes in a changing ocean

Douglas G. Capone and David A. Hutchins

Coastal upwelling regimes associated with eastern boundary currents are the most biologically productive ecosystems in the ocean. As a result, they play a disproportionately important role in the microbially mediated cycling of marine nutrients. These systems are characterized by strong natural variations in carbon dioxide concentrations, pH, nutrient levels and sea surface temperatures on both seasonal and interannual timescales. Despite this natural variability, changes resulting from human activities are starting to emerge. Carbon dioxide derived from fossil fuel combustion is adding to the acidity of upwelled low-pH waters. Low-oxygen waters associated with coastal upwelling systems are growing in their extent and intensity as a result of a rise in upper ocean temperatures and productivity. And nutrient inputs to the coastal ocean continue to grow. Coastal upwelling systems may prove more resilient to changes resulting from human activities than other ocean ecosystems because of their ability to function under extremely variable conditions. Nevertheless, shifts in primary production, fish yields, nitrogen gain and loss, and the flux of climate-relevant gases could result from the perturbation of these highly productive and dynamic ecosystems.

USCSG-R-10-2014
(PDF)

Global change and the future of harmful algal blooms in the ocean

Fei Xue Fu, Avery O. Tatters, David A. Hutchins

The frequency and intensity of harmful algal blooms (HABs) and phytoplankton community shifts toward toxic species have increased worldwide. Although most research has focused on eutrophication as the cause of this trend, many other global- and regional-scale anthropogenic influences may also play a role. Ocean acidification (high pCO2/low pH), greenhouse warming, shifts in nutrient availability, ratios, and speciation, changing exposure to solar irradiance, and altered salinity all have the potential to profoundly affect the growth and toxicity of these phytoplankton. Except for ocean acidification, the effects of these individual factors on harmful algae have been studied extensively. In this review, we summarize our understanding of the influence of each of these single factors on the physiological properties of important marine HAB groups. We then examine the much more limited literature on how rising CO2 together with these other concurrent environmental changes may affect these organisms, including what is possibly the most critical property of many species: toxin production. New work with several diatom and dinoflagellate species suggests that ocean acidification combined with nutrient limitation or temperature changes may dramatically increase the toxicity of some harmful groups. This observation underscores the need for more in-depth consideration of poorly understood interactions between multiple global change variables on HAB physiology and ecology. A key limitation of global change experiments is that they typically span only a few algal generations, making it difficult to predict whether they reflect likely future decadal- or century-scale trends. We conclude by calling for thoughtfully designed experiments and observations that include adequate consideration of complex multivariate interactive effects on the long-term responses of HABs to a rapidly changing future marine environment.

USCSG-R-06-2014
(PDF)

Short- Versus Long-Term Responses To Changing Co2 In A Coastal Dinoflagellate Bloom: Implications For Interspecific Competitive Interactions And Community Structure

Avery O. Tatters, Astrid Schnetzer, Feixue Fu, Alle Y.A. Lie, David A. Caron, and David A. Hutchins

Increasing pCO2 (partial pressure of CO2) in an "acidified" ocean will affect phytoplankton community structure, but manipulation experiments with assemblages briefly acclimated to simulated future conditions may not accurately predict the long-term evolutionary shifts that could affect inter-specific competitive success. We assessed community structure changes in a natural mixed dinoflagellate bloom incubated at three pCO2 levels (230, 433, and 765 ppm) in a short-term experiment (2 weeks). The four dominant species were then isolated from each treatment into clonal cultures, and maintained at all three pCO2 levels for approximately 1 year. Periodically (4, 8, and 12 months), these pCO2-conditioned clones were recombined into artificial communities, and allowed to compete at their conditioning pCO2 level or at higher and lower levels. The dominant species in these artificial communities of CO2-conditioned clones differed from those in the original short-term experiment, but individual species relative abundance trends across pCO2 treatments were often similar. Specific growth rates showed no strong evidence for fitness increases attributable to conditioning pCO2 level. Although pCO2 significantly structured our experimental communities, conditioning time and biotic interactions like mixotrophy also had major roles in determining competitive outcomes. New methods of carrying out extended mixed species experiments are needed to accurately predict future long-term phytoplankton community responses to changing pCO2.

USCSG-R-07-2014
(PDF)

High CO2 promotes the production of paralytic shellfish poisoning toxins by Alexandrium catenella from Southern California waters

Avery O. Tatters, Leanne J. Flewelling, Feixue Fu, April A. Granholm, David A. Hutchins

In many dinoflagellates, cellular toxin levels have been demonstrated to increase when growth is limited by essential nutrients such as phosphorus. Despite the recognized importance of nutrient limitation to dinoflagellate toxicity, interactions with current and future global environmental change variables have been relatively unexplored. This is a critical question, as dissolution of anthropogenic CO2 emissions into seawater is leading to progressively lower pH values, or ocean acidification. Sea surface temperatures are concurrently increasing, a trend that is also projected to continue in the future. We conditioned a clonal culture of paralytic shellfish poisoning toxin producing Alexandrium catenella (A-11c) isolated from coastal Southern California to factorial combinations of two temperatures, two pCO2 levels, and two phosphate concentrations for a period of eight months. Interactions between these variables influenced growth and carbon fixation rates and although these treatments only elicited minor differences in toxin profile, total cellular toxicity was dramatically affected. Cells conditioned to high pCO2 (levels projected for year 2075) and low phosphate at low temperature (15 8C) were the most toxic, while lower pCO2, higher phosphate levels, and warmer temperature (19 8C) alleviated this toxicity to varying degrees. Overall increased pCO2 generally led to enhanced potency. Our results suggest that future increased ocean acidification may exacerbate the toxic threat posed by this toxic dinoflagellate, especially when combined with nutrient limitation, but that future warmer temperatures could also offset some of this enhanced toxicity. ~ 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

USCSG-R-08-2014
(PDF)

Short- and long-term conditioning of a temperate marine diatom community to acidification and warming

Avery O. Tatters, Michael Y. Roleda, Astrid Schnetzer, Feixue Fu, Catriona L. Hurd, Philip W. Boyd, David A. Caron, Alle A. Y. Lie, Linn J. Hoffmann and David A. Hutchins

In the present-day ocean, anthropogenic CO2 emissions to the atmosphere are driving environmental change processes that are probably unprecedented in their rapidity and scope. These impacts include increased sea surface temperatures due to 'greenhouse' warming, and a decrease in pH due to the direct effects of CO2 uptake on seawater chemistry [1]. It is likely that a selective advantage will be provided for those species that are best able to cope with and respond to these multiple environmental changes [2]. At present, however, the long-term responses of most marine organisms to these global change variables over years or decades are virtually unknown [2].

USCSG-R-11-2014
(PDF)

Evidence of Maternal Offloading of Organic Contaminants in White Sharks (Carcharodon carcharias)

Christopher G. Mull mail, Kady Lyons, Mary E. Blasius, Chuck Winkler, John B. O’Sullivan, Christopher G. Lowe - Published: April 30, 2013 DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0062886

Organic contaminants were measured in young of the year (YOY) white sharks (Carcharodon carcharias) incidentally caught in southern California between 2005 and 2012 (n = 20) and were found to be unexpectedly high considering the young age and dietary preferences of young white sharks, suggesting these levels may be due to exposure in utero. To assess the potential contributions of dietary exposure to the observed levels, a five-parameter bioaccumulation model was used to estimate the total loads a newborn shark would potentially accumulate in one year from consuming contaminated prey from southern California. Maximum simulated dietary accumulation of DDTs and PCBs were 25.1 and 4.73 µg/g wet weight (ww) liver, respectively. Observed ΣDDT and ΣPCB concentrations (95±91 µg/g and 16±10 µg/g ww, respectively) in a majority of YOY sharks were substantially higher than the model predictions suggesting an additional source of contaminant exposure beyond foraging. Maternal offloading of organic contaminants during reproduction has been noted in other apex predators, but this is the first evidence of transfer in a matrotrophic shark. While there are signs of white shark population recovery in the eastern Pacific, the long-term physiological and population level consequences of biomagnification and maternal offloading of environmental contaminants in white sharks is unclear.

USCSG-R-07-2013 http://www.plosone.org/article/info:doi/10.1371/journal.pone.0062886
(Link)

Integrated coastal effects study: Synthesis of findings

Author(s): Steven M. Bay, Doris E. Vidal-Dorsch, Daniel Schlenk, Kevin M. Kelley, Keith A. Maruya and Joseph R. Gully

Concern over the environmental impacts of contaminants of emerging concern (CECs) has increased in recent years as a result of studies showing their occurrence in waste discharges and receiving waters, and instances of fish endocrine disruption associated with some CECs. Limited information is available regarding the types, concentrations, and fate of CECs discharged to the Southern California Bight (SCB) from treated wastewater discharges and their potential for ecological impacts. This study investigated the impacts of CECs from ocean wastewater discharges on SCB fish. Samples of effluent from the four major municipal wastewater treatment plants were collected. In addition, seawater, sediment, and hornyhead turbot (Pleuronichthys verticalis) from the effluent discharge areas and a reference station were also sampled and analyzed for multiple chemical and biological indicators. Low concentrations of many pharmaceutical, personal care products and industrial and commercial compounds were frequently measured in the effluent samples. Some CECs were detected in sediment and seawater collected near the outfall sites, indicating the potential for fish exposure. Seawater CECs were detected at concentrations lower than one part per trillion. Fish livers contained certain types of CECs confirming exposure. Fish plasma hormone analyses suggested the presence of physiological effects including reduced cortisol levels, relatively high levels of male estradiol, and reduced thyroxine. Male fish plasma also contained low levels of vitellogenin. Most fish responses were found at all sites, and could not be directly associated with effluent discharges. However, concentrations of thyroxine were lower at all discharge sites relative to the reference, and estradiol concentrations were lower at three of the four outfall sites. The physiological responses found in this study did not appear to be associated with adverse impacts on fish reproduction or populations. Overall, fish from discharge and reference sites had similar reproductive cycles. Analysis of long-term monitoring data showed that hornyhead turbot populations were stable (or increasing) and that the fish community composition near the outfall discharges was typical of that expected in reference areas.

USCSG-TR-03-2013
(Link) (PDF)

Effects of Pollutants on Bay Fish

Meg Sedlak, Kevin M. Kelley, and Dan Schlenk

Many fish populations are declining in the North Bay and Delta; contaminants may play a role Fish have life histories that make them vulnerable to pollutants PAHs from vehicle exhaust, oil spills, and other sources can reach concentrations that can affect growth, reproduction, and survival of Bay fish Pyrethroid pesticides and other pollutants are suspected to have a role in the "Pelagic Organism Decline" in the northern Estuary and Delta Studies suggest that endocrine disruption may be occurring in the Bay-Delta, but the causes are not entirely clear.

USCSG-TR-02-2013
(Link) (PDF)

Sources and Effects of Endocrine Disruptors and Other Contaminants of Emerging Concern in the Southern California Bight Coastal Ecosystem

Author(s): Steven M. Bay, Doris E. Vidal-Dorsch, Daniel Schlenk, Kevin M. Kelley, Michael E. Baker, Keith A. Maruya and Joseph R. Gully

Thousands of chemicals are in daily use for which little is known about their fate and effects on aquatic life. These compounds include pharmaceuticals and personal care products (PPCPs), current use pesticides (CUPs), natural and synthetic hormones, and industrial and commercial compounds (ICCs). Collectively known as contaminants of emerging concern (CECs), many of these compounds are discharged into coastal waters from point and nonpoint sources and have the potential to cause adverse biological effects. There is little information to assess the ecological impacts of CECs, partly because environmental monitoring programs usually focus on priority pollutants such as trace metals, chlorinated pesticides, PCBs, and petroleum hydrocarbons that historically contaminated coastal waters. Concern over the environmental impacts of CECs has increased in recent years as a result of studies showing their common occurrence in waste discharges and receiving waters, and instances of biological effects such as endocrine disruption on fish and wildlife associated with some CECs. Over a billion gallons of treated municipal wastewater are discharged into southern California coastal waters every day. These discharges represent a potentially significant source of CEC exposure for marine life. However, only limited information is available regarding the types, concentrations, and fate of CECs discharged to the Southern California Bight (SCB) from treated wastewater discharges and their potential for ecological impacts.
USCSG-TR-01-2013

(Link) (PDF)

Evidence of Maternal Offloading of Organic Contaminants in White Sharks (Carcharodon carcharias)

Christopher G. Mull, Kady Lyons, Mary E. Blasius, Chuck Winkler, John B. O'Sullivan, Christopher G. Lowe

Organic contaminants were measured in young of the year (YOY) white sharks (Carcharodon carcharias) incidentally caught in southern California between 2005 and 2012 (n = 20) and were found to be unexpectedly high considering the young age and dietary preferences of young white sharks, suggesting these levels may be due to exposure in utero. To assess the potential contributions of dietary exposure to the observed levels, a five-parameter bioaccumulation model was used to estimate the total loads a newborn shark would potentially accumulate in one year from consuming contaminated prey from southern California. Maximum simulated dietary accumulation of DDTs and PCBs were 25.1 and 4.73 µg/g wet weight (ww) liver, respectively. Observed ΣDDT and ΣPCB concentrations (95±91 µg/g and 16±10 µg/g ww, respectively) in a majority of YOY sharks were substantially higher than the model predictions suggesting an additional source of contaminant exposure beyond foraging. Maternal offloading of organic contaminants during reproduction has been noted in other apex predators, but this is the first evidence of transfer in a matrotrophic shark. While there are signs of white shark population recovery in the eastern Pacific, the long-term physiological and population level consequences of biomagnification and maternal offloading of environmental contaminants in white sharks is unclear.
USCSG-R-07-2013

(Link) (PDF)

Combating Sea-Level Rise In Southern California:
How Local Governments Can Seize Adaptation Opportunities While Minimizing Legal Risk

Megan M. Herzog and Sean B. Hecht

Sea-level rise is a consequence of a warming planet. Anthropogenic greenhouse gas emissions from sources like power plants, motor vehicles, and manufacturing processes accumulate in the earth's atmosphere and trap heat, contributing to a rise in the mean global temperature. The increased temperature causes ocean water to expand thermally and land ice to melt into the ocean, resulting in the phenomenon of sea-level rise. In its 2007 Synthesis Report, the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change projected the pace of sea-level rise to increase over the coming decades, and cautioned that even if anthropogenic greenhouse gas emissions are stabilized, thermal expansion of the ocean would cause sea levels to continue to rise for centuries into the future. Thus, a changing coast is unavoidable. Global sea-level rise will increase the risk of coastal flooding, tidal inundation, storm damage, shoreline erosion, saltwater intrusion, and wetland loss, among other impacts.

PDF

Urban Mariner, Volume 4, Number 1
USC Sea Grant 40th Anniversary Special Edition Retrospective in honor of Dr. Burt Jones

Editors: P. Grifman, J. Hart, C. Stevenson PDF
Author: C. Stevenson
USCSG-TR-02-2012

Status of Metal Contamination in Surface Waters of the Coastal Ocean off Los Angeles, California since the Implementation of the Clean Water Act

Author(s): Emily A. Smail, Eric A. Webb, Robert P. Franks, Kenneth W. Bruland and Sergio A. Sañudo-Wilhelmy

In order to establish the status of metal contamination in surface waters in the coastal ocean off Los Angeles, California, we determined their dissolved and particulate pools and compared them with levels reported in the 1970s prior the implementation of the Clean Water Act. These measurements revealed a significant reduction in particulate toxic metal concentrations in the last 33 years with decreases of100-fold for Pb and 400-fold for Cu and Cd. Despite these reductions, the source of particulate metals appears to be primarily anthropogenic as enrichment factors were orders of magnitude above what is considered background crustal levels. Overall, dissolved trace metal concentrations in the Los Angeles coastal waters were remarkably low with values in the same range as those measured in a pristine coastal environment off Mexico's Baja California peninsula. In order to estimate the impact of metal contamination on regional phytoplankton, the internalization rate of trace metals in a locally isolated phytoplankton model organism (Synechococcus sp. CC9311) was also determined showing a rapid internalization (in the order of a few hours) for many trace metals (e.g., Ag, Cd, Cu, Pb) suggesting that those metals could potentially be incorporated into the local food webs.
USCSG-R-03-2012
doi/10.1021/es2023913

Canopy-Forming Kelps as California's Coastal Dosimeter: 131I from Damaged Japanese Reactor Measured in Macrocystis pyrifera

Author(s): Steven L Manley and Christopher G. Lowe

The Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Plant, damaged by an earthquake and tsunami on March 11, 2011 released large amounts of 131I into the atmosphere, which was assimilated into canopy blades of Macrocystis pyrifera sampled from coastal California. The specific activity calculated to the estimated date of deposition/assimilation ranged from 0.6 to 2.5 Bq gdwt–1, levels greater than those measured from kelps from Japan and Canada prior to the release. These 131I levels represent a significant input into the kelp forest ecosystem. Canopy-forming kelps are a natural coastal dosimeter that can measure the exposure of the coastal environment to 131I and perhaps other radioisotopes released from nuclear accidents. An organizational mechanism should be in place to ensure that they are sampled immediately and continuously after such releases.
USCSG-R-02-2012
doi/10.1021/es203598r

An elasmobranch maternity ward: female round stingrays Urobatis halleri use warm, restored estuarine habitat during gestation

Author(s): K. E. Jirik and C. G. Lowe

The habitat use and movements of the round stingray Urobatis halleri were compared between shallow restored and natural habitats of the Anaheim Bay Estuary (CA, U.S.A.) in relation to water temperature. Restored habitat remained significantly warmer than natural habitat from spring through to autumn. Strong sexual segregation occurred in the restored habitat with mature female U. halleri forming large unisex aggregations in summer, during months of peak seasonal water temperatures, and males only present during spring. Most mature females collected from restored habitat during months of high abundance were determined to be pregnant using non-invasive field ultrasonography. Tagged females typically spent <14 days in the restored habitat, using the habitat less as seasonal water temperatures decreased. Females tended to emigrate from the estuary by mid-August, coinciding with the time of year for parturition. The elevated water temperatures of the restored habitat may confer an energetic cost to male U. halleri, but females (particularly pregnant females) may derive a thermal reproductive benefit by using warm, shallow habitats for short periods of time during months of peak water temperatures. These findings have management implications for the design of coastal habitat restoration projects and marine protected areas that incorporate thermal environments preferred by aggregating female elasmobranchs.
USCSG-R-01-2012
doi/10.1111/j.1095-8649.2011.03208.x


Information Guides

 

studentusingscopeUSC Sea Grant One-Pagers

Fact sheets about the USC Sea Grant Program and the main projects that we are currently involved in. Information about teacher workshops and "The Urban Ocean" is included.

To download the latest, click HERE

 

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beachguide Guides for Area Beaches

 

 

 

Los Angeles Clickable Map | Orange County Clickable Map


careersbookMarine Science Careers

How you can get involved with protecting the oceans and waterways.

 

 

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waterwisecoverWater Wise

Safety for the Recreational Boater

 

 

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wheelchairridercoverA Wheelchair Rider's Guide

By Erick & Elisa Mekiten

 

 

 

 

 

 

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MASLMarine & Aquatic Science Literacy:
Educating the 21st-Century Workforce

A Report from the National Sea Grant Network

 

 


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Don't Release A Pest

Susan Zaleski, Dr. Linda Walters, Phyllis Grifman

dvdcoverOn a pier by the ocean a little girl is about to 'set free' her fish, but finds out how her good intentions could go wrong.

Animated film targeting pet owners, specifically those that have aquarium tanks, to not release their pets and plants into the environment because they may become invasive. The film uses the invasion of Caulerpa taxifolia as an example for why people should not release pets or plants into the environment.

Animated film can also be used as a teaching tool along with our curriculum that meets state of California and National Science standards!

USCSG-ME-03-2007
(N/C)

 

Caulerpa Species Identification Key

Susan Zaleski, Dr. Linda Walters, Phyllis Grifman

Caulerpa Identification Guide

USCSG-ME-02-2007
Cost of Shipping

Monitoring Rocky Shores

Murray, Steven N., Ambrose, Richard F., Dethier, Megan N.

The purpose of this book is to provide interested investigators with the information needed to develop methods and procedures for carrying out key elements of a rocky intertidal field-sampling program. Critical discussion and evaluation of the various elements of an effective rocky intertidal field-sampling program are provided in the ensuing chapters. The book was written for research and agency scientists, agency manager, and advanced university students who might benefit from consolidated discussions and reviews of important sampling issues and field procedures for designing and evaluating field monitoring and impact studies performed on rocky intertidal macro invertebrates, seaweeds, and sea grasses. Emphasis is placed on describing and discussing options for held methods and procedures, with a focus on their use in monitoring programs and impact studies. Users are required to formulate their own study goals and study designs. Clearly, any effective study program must have clear goals and objectives and invoke robust study designs.

USCSG-TR-01-2007

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Previous Publications

 

Order Information



Marine Education (K-12)

Fish Invaders at Gypsy Point: Katie and George Learn about Alternatives to Aquarium Dumping

Authors: G.V. Nimnualrat, A.M. Wotkyns, G.H. Zaleski
Editor(s): Walters, L., Zaleski, S.

This book was born out of a need to explain to our youngest home aquarium owners the importance of not releasing pets and plants from their fish tanks. As many of the home aquariums in the United States are "owned" by children 12 years old or younger, we consider it imperative to provide scientifically accurate, age-appropriate information that promotes environmental stewardship in the best way possible – by creating story books that are fun for families to read together!
USCSG-ME-01-2010

A New Home for an Old Friend Responsible Aquarium Stewardship

Authors: Caffery, S., Escue, D.
Editor(s): Walters, L., Zaleski, S.

This book was born out of a need to explain to our youngest home aquarium owners the importance of not releasing pets and plants from their fish tanks. As many of the home aquariums in the United States are “owned” by children 12 years old or younger, we consider it imperative to provide scientifically accurate, age-appropriate information that promotes environmental stewardship in the best way possible—by creating story books that are fun for families to read together!
USCSG-ME-01-2009 - First 2 Copies Complimentary, Additional Copies $5.00 each

Don't Release A Pest

Susan Zaleski, Dr. Linda Walters, Phyllis Grifman

dvdcoverOn a pier by the ocean a little girl is about to 'set free' her fish, but finds out how her good intentions could go wrong.

Animated film targeting pet owners, specifically those that have aquarium tanks, to not release their pets and plants into the environment because they may become invasive. The film uses the invasion of Caulerpa taxifolia as an example for why people should not release pets or plants into the environment.

Animated film can also be used as a teaching tool along with our curriculum that meets state of California and National Science standards!

USCSG-ME-03-2007
(N/C)

Island Explorers

USC Sea Grant has created a new curriculum for teaching marine science education in grades 3-6, and can be adapted for other grade levels. Island Explorers is currently being used and evaluated by Sea Grant. Information about the curriculum is available by contacting Lynn Whitley.

Environmental Education: Making A Difference

Grifman, Phyllis and Jill Ladwig, Coastal Zone '95, Billy L. Edge, Editor, Published by the American Society of Civil Engineers, p. 282-83, 1995. ($2.00)
USCSG-R-01-95

Environmental Education: Making A Difference

Grifman, Phyllis and Jill Ladwig, A video program and brochure produced by the Sea Grant Programs of the University of Southern California and the University of Hawaii, 1994. ($10.00)
USCSG-ME-01-94

Wet and Wild: Six Bilingual Supplementary Marine Education Curriculum Guides for Teachers, Grades K-6

Six units, each in English and Spanish, contain introduction of background information for teachers, approximately 25 multidisciplinary lesson plans in each unit and a list of reference books and films. Published in association with the National Evaluation, Dissemination and Assessment Center for Bilingual Education, California State University, Los Angeles. Units may be ordered individually (see prices below) or as a complete set for $85.00.
USCSG-ME-CS-83

Unit 1: The Physical Ocean (Wet, Wild and Deep) 171 pp. ($10.00)
USCSG-ME-01-83

Unit 2: Ocean Management (Who Owns the Sea?) 66 pp. ($8.00)
USCSG-ME-02-83

Unit 3: Research (Innerspace Explorers) 146 pp. ($10.00)
USCSG-ME-03-83

Unit 4: The Biological Ocean (Hello Down There!) 180 pp. ($20.00)
USCSG-ME-04-83

Unit 5: The Economic Sea (Riches of the Sea) 150 pp. ($18.00)
USCSG-ME-05-83

Unit 6: Marine Ecology (You Scratch My Back...I'll Scratch Yours) 188 pp. ($23.00)
USCSG-ME-06-83

Dimensions of the Sea: Marine Education Slide Presentations With Narratives

a. The Physical Ocean. (13 slides-$11.00) - USCSG-ME-01-83S
b. Ocean Management. (15 slides-$12.00) - USCSG-ME-02-83S
c. Ocean Research. (15 slides-$12.00) - USCSG-ME-03-83S
d. The Biological Ocean. (22 slides-$16.50) - USCSG-ME-04-83S
e. The Economic Sea. (27 slides-$20.00) - USCSG-ME-05-83S
f. Marine Ecology. (44 slides-$33.00) - USCSG-ME-06-83S

Each set contains high quality 35mm color slides on the marine community and environment, with a written narrative which can be adapted to the appropriate grade level. Available singly or as a package for $95.00.
USCSG-ME-CS-83S

(Narrative available in English and Spanish) - USCSG-ME-04-82

Tuga the Turtle.

Bjur, Dorothy M. This children's book is in Grade Two Braille with large letters. It tells the story of a sea turtle who visits a tide pool and learns about tidal animals. A cooperative effort of The Braille Institute America, Los Angeles; the Los Angeles County Superintendent of Schools Office; and USC Sea Grant. ($6.00)
USCSG-ME-03-82

Mini-Information Booklets (Bilingual).

a. Tidepool Animals/Los animales que viven in las pozas de la marea.
b. Sharks and Other Sea Creatures/Los tiburones y otros animales marinos.
c. Fantastic Marine Animals/Fantasticos animales marinos.

Each booklet contains approximately 50 mini articles, in both English and Spanish, about marine animals, their characteristics and behavior. (Set of three: $12.00) USCSG-ME-02-82

Marine Studies Idea Book: For Teachers, Grades K-6.

A resource book of ideas and activities for the development of lesson plans by teachers, available in either English or Spanish for use in bilingual and international programs. ($8.00 each; specify English or Spanish when ordering.)
USCSG-ME-01-82

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Marine Education Studies

 

Taxonomic diversity and geographic distributions of aquarium-traded species of Caulerpa (Chlorophyta: Caulerpaceae) in southern California, USA

Susan Frisch Zaleski, Steven N. Murray. ($2.00) or PDF
USCSG-R-03-2006.

Attitudes Toward Marine Wildlife Among Residents of Southern California's Urban Coastal Zone

Jennifer Wolch., et. al. USCSG-TR-01-2001
($20.00)

For the online results of the survey, please click here

Marine Animal Oriented Organizations, Cultural Diversity, and Attitudes Toward Marine Wildlife
View Abstract

Lassiter, Unna I., Department of Geography. USC Sea Grant, 2000 (48 pages).
($2.00)
USCSG-TR-07-2000

Attitudes Toward Marine Wildlife: A Study of Culturally Diverse Focus Groups
View Abstract

Lassiter, Unna and Jennifer R. Wolch, Department of Geography. USC Sea Grant, 1999 (44 pages). ($2.00)
USCSG-TR-01-99

Attitudes Toward Marine Wildlife: Designing a Focus Group Analysis for Culturally Diverse Settings
View Abstract

Lassiter, Unna, Jennifer R. Wolch, and Alec Brownlow, Department of Geography. USC Sea Grant, 1998 (35 pages). ($2.00)
USCSG-TR-07-98

Cultural Diversity, Cultural Conflict, and Attitudes Toward Marine Wildlife
View Abstract

Whitley, Lyndell N., Jennifer R. Wolch, and Roger Salisch, Department of Geography. USC Sea Grant, 1998 (50 pages). ($2.00)
USCSG-TR-O6-98

Attitudes Toward Marine Wildlife Among Visitors to an Urban Science Museum
View Abstract

Whitley, Lyndell N., Jennifer R. Wolch, and Roger Salisch, USC Department of Geography. USC Sea Grant, 1998 (37 pages). ($2.00)
USCSG-TR-O5-98

Designing the "Attitudes Toward Marine Wildlife” Survey
View Abstract

Whitley, Lyndell N., Unna Lassiter, and Jennifer R. Wolch, USC Department of Geography. USC Sea Grant, 1998 (42 pages). ($2.00)
USCSG-TR-O4-98

Cultural Diversity and Attitudes Toward Marine Wildlife: A Conceptual Framework
View Abstract

Whitley, Lyndell N. and Jennifer R. Wolch, USC Department of Geography. USC Sea Grant, 1998 (41 pages). ($2.00)
USCSG-TR-O3-98

Cultural Diversity and Attitudes Toward Marine Wildlife

Whitley, Lyndell N., M.A. thesis, USC Department of Geography. USC Sea Grant, 1998. ($15.00)
USCSG-TD-01-98

The USC Sea Grant Pathfinder Program

Yoder, Susan E., Coastal Zone '95, Billy L. Edge, Editor, Published by the American Society of Civil Engineers, p. 284-85, 1995. ($2.00)
USCSG-R-02-95


Marine Recreation and Safety

 

Pocket Guide to Los Angeles Area Beaches

Clickable Maps

Pocket Guide to Orange County Beaches

Clickable Maps

Microbiological water quality at non-human influenced reference beaches in southern California during wet weather

John F. Griffith, Kenneth C. Schiff, Gregory S. Lyon, Jed A. Fuhrman

Although urban wet weather discharges may have elevated concentrations of fecal indicator bacteria impacting water quality at swimming beaches, not all of these bacteria may arise from human sources. In this study, the contribution of non-human fecal indicator bacteria was quantified by sampling coastal reference beaches in southern California. Samples were collected at beaches near stormwater discharges from undeveloped watersheds and analyzed for total coliform, Escherichia coli, and enterococci. Surfzone samples exceeded water quality thresholds >10 times more frequently during wet weather than dry weather. Exceedences were greatest <24 h following rainfall, then steadily declined on successive days. Early season storms exceeded thresholds more frequently, and by greater magnitude, compared to late season storms. Large storms exceeded thresholds more frequently than smaller-sized storms, partly due to the breaching of sand berms. When discharges did reach the surf zone, bacterial concentrations in the wave wash were correlated with watershed bacterial flux.

©2009 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved

PDF

The Aquarium Hobby Industry and Invasive Species: Has Anything Changed?

Author(s): Linda Walters, Rachel Odom and Susan Zaleski

Between 2000 and 2006, the marine macroalgal genus Caulerpa was in the forefront of invasion biology conversations resulting from introductions of C taxifolia in the Mediterranean Sea and coastal waters of California and Australia; C racemosa in the Mediterranean Sea and Canary Islands waters; and C brachypus in Florida waters. In California, eradication of two infestations of C taxifolia required 6 years and over US$7 million, with "success" declared in 2006 (Walters 2009). In the paper titled "E-commerce and Caulerpa: unregulated dispersal of invasive species" (Front Ecol Environ 2006; 4[2]: 75–79), Walters et al. hypothesized that species within the Caulerpa genus were being dispersed by professional aquarists and amateur hobbyists. By investigating local and internet retail purchases (including transactions on eBay), my colleagues and I determined that the aquarium hobbyist industry readily transported members of this genus throughout the US. The seller listed the correct genus and species of the material they offered only 10.6% of the time, and fewer than 1% of sellers provided information on the dangers of releasing unwanted aquarium organisms into coastal waters.
USCSG-R-05-2011

The Impact of Intense Recreational Fishing Pressure on Spawning Aggregations of Barred San Bass (Paralabrax Nebulifer) off the Los Angeles Metropolitan Area

Author(s): Larry G. Allen, Ph.D.

The barred sand bass (Paralabrax nebulifer) has become one of the staples of the near shore recreational fishing fleet of southern California, an area that is populated by more than 20 million people. Since the late 1970s, the barred sand bass (commonly referred to simply as "sand bass") has consistently ranked among the top five species in the southern California marine recreational fish catch. From 2000-2003 sand bass ranked first or second in the recreational fishery off southern California only being supplanted once by Pacific (=chub) mackerel during that time.

However, since the year 2004 catches of barred sand bass have fallen off precipitously. This valuable marine resource is the target of a highly directed fishery on spawning aggregations, mostly by lower income urban fishers who can afford a modest price for a boat ticket. The impact of the intensive fishing on this critically important species off the heavily urbanized coasts of Los Angeles and Orange counties is totally unknown.

The major sand bass fishing sites in the Southern California Bight include the Silver Strand, Del Mar, San Onofre, the Huntington Flats, the inshore portion of northern Santa Monica Bay off Pacific Palisades, Santa Monica, and the Ventura Flats. Estimates of annual barred sand bass landings from all sport fishing activities (shore, pier, private boat, and Commercial Passenger Fishing Vessels, CPFVs) from 1980 to 2006 averaged 822,000 fish and ranged as high as 2,122,000 in 1988. Between 1988 and 2002 catches remained relatively stable with peaks in 1989 (1,296,000), 2000 (1,130,000), and 2002 (1,062,000). By 2008 and 2009, annual catches in southern California waters had fallen off to 130,000 and 106,000 fish (Figure 1). From 1980 on, CPFVs and private boats have taken the vast majority of sand bass while fishing the summer spawning aggregations (Figure 2). As fishing effort targeting barred sand bass has increased, concern has been voiced that the stock is becoming over-exploited. The recent decline in catches in this major recreational fishery is cause for great concern.
USCSG-TR-05-2010

PDF

Caulerpa Species Identification Key

Susan Zaleski, Dr. Linda Walters, Phyllis Grifman

Caulerpa Identification Guide

USCSG-ME-02-2007
Cost of Shipping

Beach Recreation, Cultural Diversity and Attitudes toward Nature

Jennifer Wolch and Jin Zhang. ($2.00)
USCSG-R-03-2004

Tiered Approach For Identification Of A Human Fecal Pollution Source At A Recreational Beach: Case Study At Avalon Bay, Catalina Island, California

Alexandria B. Boehm, Jed A. Fuhrman, Robert D. Mr_e and Stanley B. Grant. ($2.00)
USCSG-R-10-2003

Executive Summary, Review Panel Report:
Huntington Beach Phase III Final Draft Report
March 21, 2003

Phase III of the Huntington Beach Shoreline Contamination Investigation re-focused attention on the OCSD sewage outfall, with specific hypotheses concerning onshore transport of the sewage plume. (Download PDF HERE)
USCSG-TR-02-2003

Generation of Enterococci Bacteria in a Coastal Saltwater Marsh and Its Impact on Surf Zone Quality

S.B. Grant, et al. ($2.00)
USCSG-R-01-2001

Huntington Beach Closure Investigation:
Technical Review

This report is the result of a technical review of the source investigation studies conducted during the closure of Huntington Beach in the summer of 1999. ($5.00)
USCSG-TR-01-2000. Or click here for the PDF version!

Living on the Edge: Vietnamese Fishermen in Southern California

Knoll, Bernd, M.A. thesis, USC Department of Anthropology. USC Sea Grant, 1997. ($10.00)
USCSG-TD-01-97

Vietnamese Fishing Safety

Knoll, Bernd, A training video to improve safety practices among Vietnamese fishermen in San Pedro and Ventura harbors. In Vietnamese. Complimentary.
USCSG-AS-01-97

Proceedings of Dive Computer Workshop

Lang, Michael and R.W. Hamilton, editors. Proceedings of a workshop sponsored by the AAUS, USC Sea Grant and California Sea Grant, September 26-28, 1988, Santa Catalina Island, California. USC Sea Grant, 231pp. ($15.00)
USCSG-TR-01-89

Shallow Water Diving Accidents at Southern California Ocean Beaches: Demographic, Sedimentologic, Medical, Legal and Management Perspectives

Osborne, Robert H., ed. Published by the Sea Grant Program, University of Southern California, 1988. ($8.00)
USCSG-TR-01-87

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Coastal Ocean Processes

Urban Mariner, Volume 3, Number 2
A Little Urban Harbor Reveals Big Mysteries

Editors: P. Grifman, J. Hart, C. Stevenson
Author: C. Stevenson
http://urbanmariner.urbanocean.org/images/stories/pdfs/um7_caron_onlinepdf_9-30-11.pdf
USCSG-TR-02-2011

Spatiotemporal development of physical, chemical, and biological characteristics of stormwater plumes in Santa Monica Bay, California

Author(s): Alina A. Corcoran, Kristen M. Reifel, Burton H. Jones, Rebecca F. Shipe

This study characterized stormwater plume development and associated phytoplankton dynamics in a coastal marine ecosystem through shipboard monitoring. We focused on plumes within Santa Monica Bay, California (USA), a coastal system that is subject to rapid pulses of untreated runoff from the urbanized watershed of Los Angeles during the winter rainy season. The physical, chemical, and biological signatures of stormwater plumes were tracked over time after each of 4 precipitation events ranging in magnitude from 1.5 cm to 9 cm. Low salinity surface plumes persisted in Santa Monica Bay for at least 2 to 5 days over spatial scales of up to 15 km. This is consistent with a 6-day residence time for surface water plume parcels, which was estimated from a drifter trajectory in the bay. Shipboard sampling and salinity measurements in the surf zone showed that plumes often persisted even longer nearshore. Plume waters were generally characterized by higher concentrations of dissolved nitrogen, colored dissolved organic matter, and higher light attenuation than non-plume waters. The magnitude of the effect of stormwater runoff on phytoplankton dynamics was dependent on the size of each storm and subsequent residence time of runoff within the bay. Rain events led to increases in primary productivity, phytoplankton biomass, and specifically, increases in diatom biomass, as measured by concentrations of biogenic silica.
USCSG-R-01-2011

Predicting the effects of increasing temporal scale on species composition, diversity, and rank-abundance distributions

Author(s): Adam Tomašových and Susan M. Kidwell

Paleoecological analyses that test for spatial or temporal variation in diversity must consider not only sampling and preservation bias, but also the effects of temporal scale (i.e., time averaging). The species-time relationship (STR) describes how species diversity increases with the elapsed time of observation, but its consequences for assessing the effects of time-averaging on diversity of fossil assemblages remain poorly explored. Here, we use a neutral, dispersal-limited model of metacommunity dynamics, with parameters estimated from living assemblages of 31 molluscan data sets, to model the effects of within-habitat time-averaging on the mean composition and multivariate dispersion of assemblages, on diversity at point (single station) and habitat scales (pooled multiple stations), and on beta diversity. We hold sample size constant in STRs to isolate the effects of time-averaging from sampling effects. With increasing within-habitat time-averaging, stochastic switching in the identity of species in living (dispersal-limited) assemblages (1) decreases the proportional abundance of abundant species, reducing the steepness of the rank-abundance distribution, and (2) increases the proportional richness of rare, temporally short-lived species that immigrate from the neutral metacommunity with many rare species. These two effects together (1) can shift the mean composition away from the non-averaged (dispersal-limited) assemblages toward averaged assemblages that are less limited by dispersal, resembling that of the metacommunity; (2) allow the point and habitat diversity to increase toward metacommunity diversity under a given sample size (i.e., the diversity in averaged assemblages is inflated relative to non-averaged assemblages); and (3) reduce beta diversity because species unique to individual stations become shared by other stations when limited by a larger but static species pool. Surprisingly, these scale dependent changes occur at fixed sample sizes and can become significant after only a few decades or centuries of time-averaging, and are accomplished without invoking ecological succession, environmental changes, or selective postmortem preservation. Time-averaging results in less inflation of diversity at habitat than at point scales; paleoecological studies should thus analyze data at multiple spatial scales, including that of the habitat where multiple bulk samples have been pooled in order to minimize time-averaging effects. The diversity of assemblages that have accumulated over 1000 years at point and habitat scales is expected to be inflated by an average of 2.1 and 1.6, respectively. This degree of inflation is slightly higher than that observed in molluscan death assemblages at these same spatial scales (1.8 and 1.3). Thus, neutral metacommunity models provide useful quantitative constraints on directional but predictable effects of time-averaging. They provide minimal estimates for the rate of increase in diversity with time-averaging because they assume no change in environmental conditions and in the composition of the metacommunity within the window of averaging.
USCSG-R-05-2010

Hydrographic and Particle Distributions Over The Palos Verdes Continental Shelf:  spatial, seasonal and daily variability

B. H. Jones, M. A. Noble, T. D. Dickey. ($2.00)
USCSG-R-01-2004

Coastal Pollution Hazards In Southern California Observed By SAR Imagery: Stormwater Plumes, Wastewater Plumes, And Natural Hydrocarbon Seeps

DiGiacomo, P.M., Washburn, L., Holt, B., and Jones B.H.($2.00)
USCSG-R-06-2003

Spatial Scales and Evolution of Stormwater Plumes in Santa Monica Bay

Washburn, L.; McClure, K.A.; Jones, B.H.; Bay, S.M. ($2.00)
USCSG-R-08-2003)

Internal tide effects on a sewage plume at Sand Island, Hawaii

Petrenko, A.A., B.H. Jones, T.D. Dickey, P. Hamilton. Continental Shelf Research 20(2000): 1-13.
USCSG-R-03-2000


El Niño Storms and the Morphodynamic Response of Two Cobble Beaches

Lorang, Mark S., Steven L. Namikas, James P. McDermott, and Douglas J. Sherman, Coastal Sediments '99 Proceedings of the Conference ASCE. (1999): 922-937.
USCSG-R-02-2000


Study of the Impact of Stormwater Discharge on Santa Monica Bay

Bay, Steven, Burton H. Jones, and Kenneth Schiff, 1999, USC Sea Grant. ($5.00)
USCSG-TR-02-99

In Situ Measurements of Chlorinated Hydrocarbons in the Water Column off the Palos Verdes Peninsula, California

Zeng, Eddy. Y., Charlie C. Yu, and Kim Tran, Environmental Science and Technology, 1999, 33, 392-398. ($2.00)
USCSG-R-01-99

Stormwater Runoff into Santa Monica Bay: Identification, Impact and Dispersion

Jones, Burton and Libe Washburn, Stormwater Runoff into Santa Monica Bay: Sources and Impacts. Papers from a USC Sea Grant Symposium at California and the World Ocean '97. Request this article from collection. ($2.00)
USCSG-R-01-98

Stormwater Runoff into Santa Monica Bay: Impacts on Physical Structure, Optical Characteristics, and Biological Responses of the Coastal Ocean

Jones, B., L.Washburn, S. Bay, and K. Schriff, Problems of the "Urban Ocean"-Managing Runoff in Los Angeles Coastal Waters: Abstracts from a USC Sea Grant Symposium at Coastal Zone '97. Request this article from collection. ($2.00)
USCSG-R-02-98

Physical and Biological Dynamics of Sewage Outfall Plumes in the Coastal Region: An Intergrated Observational Approach

Jones, B.H., T.D. Dickey, L. Washburn and D. Manov, Water Pollution II: Modeling, Measuring and Prediction, L.C. Wrobel and C.A. Brebbia, Eds., Southampton, Boston: Computational Mechanics Publications, 1993, pp. 527-34. ($2.00)
USCSG-R-02-94

An Experiment in Two-Way Communication with a Multi-variable Moored System in Coastal Waters

Dickey, T.D., R.H. Douglass, D. Manov and D. Bogucki, P.C. Walker and P. Petrelis, Journal of Atmospheric and Oceanic Technology, Vol. 10, No. 4, pp. 637-44, August 1993, 1993 American Meteorological Society. ($2.00)
USCSG-R-01-93

Mixing, Dispersion, and Resuspension in Vicinity of Ocean Wastewater Plume

Washburm, Libe, Burton H. Jones, Alan Bratkovich, T.D. Dickey and Ming-Sue Chen, Journal of Hydraulic Engineering, Volume 118 (January, 1992): 38-58. ($2.00)
USCSG-R-06-92

The Emergence of Concurrent High-Resolution Physical and Bio-optical Measurements in the Upper Ocean and their Applications

Dickey, Tommy D., Review of Geophysics, Volume 29, No. 3 (August 1991):383-413. ($2.00)
USCSG-R-05-92

Variability of Physical, Chemical, and Biological Parameters in the Vicinity of an Ocean Outfall Plume

Jones, B.H., A. Bratkovich, T. Dickey, G. Kleppel, A. Steele, R. Iturriaga and I. Haydock, Stratified Flows, Proceedings of the Third International Conference on Stratified Flows, February 3-5, 1987, Pasadena, CA. American Society of Civil Engineers. ($2.00)
USCSG-R-03-92

Sampling and Analysis of Trace Metals in Sediment Interstitial Waters

Fairey, Russell, Ph.D. Dissertation, USC Department of Geological Sciences. USC Sea Grant, 1992. ($15.00)
USCSG-TD-01-92

Measurements of Nutrient and Metal Fluxes from the Sea Floor in the Area Around the White's Point Sewage Outfall, Los Angeles, California

Berelson, William M. and Kenneth S. Johnson, Reprinted from Coastal Zone '91, Proceedings of 7th Symposium on Coastal Ocean Management ASCE/Long Beach, CA, July 8-12,1991, pp. 101-11. ($2.00)
USCSG-R-03-91

Moored Systems for Time Series Observations of Bio-optical and Physical Variability in the Coastal Ocean

Dickey, T. D. and D. V. Manov, Reprinted from Coastal Zone '91, Proceedings of 7th Symposium on Coastal Ocean Management ASCE/Long Beach, CA, July 8-12, 1991, pp. 86-100. ($2.00)
USCSG-R-04-91

The Dispersion of Ocean Outfall Plumes: Physical and Biological Dynamics

Jones, Burton H., Libe Washburn and Yicun Wu, Reprinted from Coastal Zone '91, Proceedings of 7th Symposium on Coastal Ocean Management ASCE/Long Beach, CA, July 8-12, 1991, pp. 74-85. ($2.00)
USCSG-R-05-91

Mixing and Dispersion Processes in the Vicinity of an Ocean Outfall System in Southern California

Wu, Yican, Libe Washburn and Burton H. Jones, Reprinted from Coastal Zone '91, Proceedings of 7th Symposium on Coastal Ocean Management ASCE/Long Beach, CA, July 8-12, 1991, pp. 124-34. ($2.00)
USCSG-R-06-91

Order Information


Marine Biology/Ecology

 

Urban Mariner, Volume 4, Number 1
USC Sea Grant 40th Anniversary Special Edition Retrospective in honor of Dr. Burt Jones

Editors: P. Grifman, J. Hart, C. Stevenson PDF
Author: C. Stevenson
USCSG-TR-02-2012

Status of Metal Contamination in Surface Waters of the Coastal Ocean off Los Angeles, California since the Implementation of the Clean Water Act

Author(s): Emily A. Smail, Eric A. Webb, Robert P. Franks, Kenneth W. Bruland and Sergio A. Sañudo-Wilhelmy

In order to establish the status of metal contamination in surface waters in the coastal ocean off Los Angeles, California, we determined their dissolved and particulate pools and compared them with levels reported in the 1970s prior the implementation of the Clean Water Act. These measurements revealed a significant reduction in particulate toxic metal concentrations in the last 33 years with decreases of100-fold for Pb and 400-fold for Cu and Cd. Despite these reductions, the source of particulate metals appears to be primarily anthropogenic as enrichment factors were orders of magnitude above what is considered background crustal levels. Overall, dissolved trace metal concentrations in the Los Angeles coastal waters were remarkably low with values in the same range as those measured in a pristine coastal environment off Mexico's Baja California peninsula. In order to estimate the impact of metal contamination on regional phytoplankton, the internalization rate of trace metals in a locally isolated phytoplankton model organism (Synechococcus sp. CC9311) was also determined showing a rapid internalization (in the order of a few hours) for many trace metals (e.g., Ag, Cd, Cu, Pb) suggesting that those metals could potentially be incorporated into the local food webs.
USCSG-R-03-2012
doi/10.1021/es2023913

Canopy-Forming Kelps as California's Coastal Dosimeter: 131I from Damaged Japanese Reactor Measured in Macrocystis pyrifera

Author(s): Steven L Manley and Christopher G. Lowe

The Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Plant, damaged by an earthquake and tsunami on March 11, 2011 released large amounts of 131I into the atmosphere, which was assimilated into canopy blades of Macrocystis pyrifera sampled from coastal California. The specific activity calculated to the estimated date of deposition/assimilation ranged from 0.6 to 2.5 Bq gdwt–1, levels greater than those measured from kelps from Japan and Canada prior to the release. These 131I levels represent a significant input into the kelp forest ecosystem. Canopy-forming kelps are a natural coastal dosimeter that can measure the exposure of the coastal environment to 131I and perhaps other radioisotopes released from nuclear accidents. An organizational mechanism should be in place to ensure that they are sampled immediately and continuously after such releases.
USCSG-R-02-2012
doi/10.1021/es203598r

An elasmobranch maternity ward: female round stingrays Urobatis halleri use warm, restored estuarine habitat during gestation

Author(s): K. E. Jirik and C. G. Lowe

The habitat use and movements of the round stingray Urobatis halleri were compared between shallow restored and natural habitats of the Anaheim Bay Estuary (CA, U.S.A.) in relation to water temperature. Restored habitat remained significantly warmer than natural habitat from spring through to autumn. Strong sexual segregation occurred in the restored habitat with mature female U. halleri forming large unisex aggregations in summer, during months of peak seasonal water temperatures, and males only present during spring. Most mature females collected from restored habitat during months of high abundance were determined to be pregnant using non-invasive field ultrasonography. Tagged females typically spent <14 days in the restored habitat, using the habitat less as seasonal water temperatures decreased. Females tended to emigrate from the estuary by mid-August, coinciding with the time of year for parturition. The elevated water temperatures of the restored habitat may confer an energetic cost to male U. halleri, but females (particularly pregnant females) may derive a thermal reproductive benefit by using warm, shallow habitats for short periods of time during months of peak water temperatures. These findings have management implications for the design of coastal habitat restoration projects and marine protected areas that incorporate thermal environments preferred by aggregating female elasmobranchs.
USCSG-R-01-2012
doi/10.1111/j.1095-8649.2011.03208.x

Abundance, habitat use and movement patterns of the shovelnose guitarfish (Rhinobatos productus) in a restored southern California estuary

Author(s): Thomas J. Farrugia, Mario Espinoza and Christopher G. Lowe

Coastal elasmobranchs such as the shovelnose guitarfish (Rhinobatos productus) seasonally use bays and estuaries for mating, pupping and feeding. However, many human-populated coastal areas have been developed, making them unavailable to coastal fish populations. The Full Tidal Basin (FTB) of the Bolsa Chica Ecological Reserve, California, USA, was completed in 2006, with the aim to restore lost estuarine habitat in southern California. Monthly abundance surveys conducted inside the FTB between June 2008 and September 2009 showed that shovelnose guitarfish were present throughout the year. Over 96% of the individuals caught were juveniles and these were most abundant in waters between 208C and 248C. Concurrently, 23 shovelnose guitarfish were fitted with coded acoustic transmitters and continuously tracked within the FTB for 16 months. Telemetry data showed individuals remained inside the FTB for, on average, 73.9 days (range 15–172 days), and made few movements between the FTB and the ocean. Tagged individuals disproportionately used mud habitats and waters at temperatures of 228C, both of which are more common in the FTB than the neighboring coastal ocean. The present study examined the structure and functionality of a restored estuary and suggests that the FTB is important habitat for a benthic predator, a promising result three years after restoration.
USCSG-R-06-2011

Comparing Solid Phase Microextraction and Polyethylene Passive Samplers for Measuring Ultra-low Aqueous Concentrations of Regulated Organic Pollutants

Author(s): Jaime M. Sayre, Rachel G. Adams, Wenjian Lao and Keith A. Maruya

Solid phase microextraction (SPME) fibers and low-density polyethylene (PE) passive samplers were co-exposed in spiked water experiments and in an impacted urban waterway to compare their performance in detecting ultra-trace levels of waterborne organic pollutants. Detections of nine model
hydrophobic organic compounds (HOCs) using PE was greater than for SPME for spiked aqueous concentrations (Cw) less than 0.1 ng/L. The greater sensitivity of PE was confirmed in situ, with detectable levels as low as 1 pg/L for selected polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) congeners. In laboratory studies, concentrations of targeted polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), PCBs and chlorinated pesticides detected by SPME were within a factor of 2 on average to those measured using liquid-liquid extraction (LLE), while PE measurements were within a factor of 4 of LLE and were biased low, possibly due to uncertainties in PE equilibrium-partitioning coefficients. When in situ PE-measured concentrations
were corrected for disequilibrium using performance reference compounds, the average ratio of SPME to PE for in situ concentrations was 1.8, indicating good overall agreement between the two passive
samplers. In situ Cw values for SPME and PE were 70% (n = 4) and 210% (n = 6) on average of operationally dissolved Cw values determined on XAD resin with values for individual chemicals ranging from 20 to 140% (SPME/XAD) and from 27 to 590%. (PE/XAD). Although uncertainties (e.g., error associated with laboratory-measured equilibrium constants and corrections for disequilibrium) surrounding calibration parameters and equilibrium have not been fully resolved, these results indicate that both SPME and PE show promise as ambient sampling tools for contaminants of regulatory concern in the aquatic environment.
USCSG-R-06-2010 [sic]

Spatial Gradients in Plant Leaf Wax D/H Across a Coastal Salt Marsh in Southern California

Author(s): Isabel C. Romero and Sarah J. Feakins

Coastal salt marsh ecosystems contain strong environmental gradients that are anticipated to influence the D/H ratios recorded in the leaf waxes of salt-tolerant plants. We characterized the molecular and hydrogen isotopic composition of alkanes in plant and sediment samples as well as the D/H ratios of environmental and plant waters across an elevation and inundation gradient in a southern Californian, coastal salt marsh. We sampled the dominant salt marsh plant species: Salicornia virginica, Arthrocnemum subterminale and Jamuea carnosa (all succulents), as well as Monanthochloe littoralis and Limonium californicum (nonsucculents). Plant xylem water hydrogen isotopic compositions indicate a shift in source waters from meteoric influences at upland sites (δD value –20‰) to seawater dominated values (0‰) at lowland areas. We found leaf water D enrichment relative to xylem water ranging from mean δD values of +54‰ (upland) to +28‰ (lowland), interpreted as a reduction of transpiration with increasing inundation time. This has the effect of increasing the net fractionation between source water and leaf wax product across the environmental gradient from mean values of –101‰ (upland) to –134‰ (lowland), with an attenuated signal recorded in the δD values of plant leaf wax n-alkanes (–122‰to –136‰). These results constrain the hydrogen isotopic composition of salt marsh organic matter that may contribute to marine carbon budgets of the Santa Barbara Basin, and further indicate the potential for plant leaf waxes to resolve paleoenvironmental change, including sea level change, in sediment cores from salt marsh ecosystems.
USCSG-R-04-2011

Testing a New Acoustic Telemetry Technique to Quantify Long-Term, Fine-Scale Movements of Aquatic Animals

Author(s): Mario Espinoza, Thomas J. Farrugia, Dale M. Webber, Frank Smith, Christopher G. Lowe

The evolution and improvement of novel applications on acoustic telemetry technology are driven mainly by the need to address more complex behavioral, ecological and physiological questions. A new Vemco VR2W Positioning System (VPS) is described and tested here using an array of 16 VR2W acoustic monitoring receivers and 8 fixed synchronizing transmitters. VPS positioning algorithm is based on the 3-receiver time-difference-of-arrival (TDOA) algorithm used by the existing Vemco VRAP system, extended to work with an array of three or more receivers that do not have synchronized clocks. The positional accuracy and performance of the VPS was estimated on a stationary and a slow-moving coded transmitter, and on two free-swimming elasmobranch species. Mean positional accuracy (±SD) of VPS estimates from a stationary transmitter deployed at several locations within the receiver array was 2.64 ± 2.32 m. Positional error was significantly lower inside (2.13 ± 1.31 m) than outside the array (5.12 ± 4.11 m; p < 0001). There were no significant differences in positional accuracy between stationary and moving tests (4.09 ± 2.53 m; p = 0.067). Furthermore, home range estimates and movement parameters of two elasmobranch species tracked simultaneously with VPS and active tracking were statistically similar (p > 0.05). Our results suggest that the positional accuracy of the VPS is comparable to active tracking; however, researchers must consider specific environmental and biological variables when using the VPS. Additionally, the number, layout and proximity of acoustic receivers and synchronizing transmitters can improve considerably the performance of the VPS. The VPS provides a more efficient, less expensive approach to study and quantify fine-scale, long-term movements and habitat use of multiple individuals simultaneously, with the potential for improving our understanding on ecological and behavioral population level processes in aquatic environments.
USCSG-R-02-2011

Comparing Solid Phase Microextraction and Polyethylene Passive Samplers for Measuring Ultra-low Aqueous Concentrations of Regulated Organic Pollutants

Author(s): Jaime M. Sayre, Rachel G. Adams, Wenjian Lao and Keith A. Maruya

Solid phase microextraction (SPME) fibers and low-density polyethylene (PE) passive samplers were co-exposed in spiked water experiments and in an impacted urban waterway to compare their performance in detecting ultra-trace levels of waterborne organic pollutants. Detections of nine model
hydrophobic organic compounds (HOCs) using PE was greater than for SPME for spiked aqueous concentrations (Cw) less than 0.1 ng/L. The greater sensitivity of PE was confirmed in situ, with detectable levels as low as 1 pg/L for selected polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) congeners. In laboratory studies, concentrations of targeted polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), PCBs and chlorinated pesticides detected by SPME were within a factor of 2 on average to those measured using liquid-liquid extraction (LLE), while PE measurements were within a factor of 4 of LLE and were biased low, possibly due to uncertainties in PE equilibrium-partitioning coefficients. When in situ PE-measured concentrations
were corrected for disequilibrium using performance reference compounds, the average ratio of SPME to PE for in situ concentrations was 1.8, indicating good overall agreement between the two passive
samplers. In situ Cw values for SPME and PE were 70% (n = 4) and 210% (n = 6) on average of operationally dissolved Cw values determined on XAD resin with values for individual chemicals ranging from 20 to 140% (SPME/XAD) and from 27 to 590%. (PE/XAD). Although uncertainties (e.g., error associated with laboratory-measured equilibrium constants and corrections for disequilibrium) surrounding calibration parameters and equilibrium have not been fully resolved, these results indicate that both SPME and PE show promise as ambient sampling tools for contaminants of regulatory concern in the aquatic environment.
USCSG-R-06-2010

ftp://ftp.sccwrp.org/pub/download/DOCUMENTS/AnnualReports/2010AnnualReport/ar10_045_056.pdf

Home range, habitat use, and site fidelity of barred sand bass within southern California marine protected area

Author(s): Tom J. Mason and Christopher G. Lowe

Barred sand bass (Paralabrax nebulifer) is an important recreational species in southern California, which may benefit from marine protected areas. Understanding species movement patterns is a key component to identifying if a species will benefit from marine protected areas. Acoustic telemetry methods coupled with a GIS were used to quantify the home range, site fidelity, and habitat use of barred sand bass at the Catalina Marine Science Center Marine Life Refuge located at Santa Catalina Island, California. Barred sand bass utilized soft-sediment habitats within close proximity to rocky reefs and had home ranges that averaged 10,003m2 ±4773m2 (±SD). During the day, individuals generally used multiple areas on or near reefs, and at night repeatedly used one area over soft-sediment habitat. Fifty percent of the acoustically tagged individuals exhibited year round fidelity to the study site indicating that even small marine protected areas may be an effective management strategy.
USCSG-R-04-2010

http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.fishres.2010.07.008

The Effects of Temporal Resolution on Species Turnover and on Testing Metacommunity Models

Author(s): Tomašových, Adam; Kidwell, Susan M.

Patterns of low temporal turnover in species composition found within paleoecological time series contrast with the high turnover predicted by neutral metacommunity models and thus have been used to support non-neutral models. However, these predictions assume temporal resolution on the scale of a season or year, whereas individual fossil assemblages are typically time averaged to decadal or centennial timescales. We simulate the effects of time averaging by building time-averaged assemblages from local dispersal-limited, non-averaged assemblages and compare the predicted turnover with observed patterns in mollusk and ostracod fossil records. Time averaging substantially reduces temporal turnover such that neutral predictions converge with those of trade-off and density-dependent models, and it tends to decrease species dominance and increase the proportion of rare species. Observed turnover rates are comparable to an appropriately scaled neutral model: patterns of high community stability can be produced or reinforced by time averaging alone. The community attributes of local time-averaged assemblages approach those of the metacommunity. Time-averaged assemblages are thus unlikely to capture attributes arising from processes operating at small spatial scales, but they should do well at capturing the turnover and diversity of metacommunities and thus will be a valuable basis for analyzing the large-scale processes that determine metacommunity evolution.
USCSG-R-03-2010

http://dx.doi.org/10.1086/651661

Preservation of Spatial and Environmental Gradients by Death Assemblages

Author(s): Tomašových, Adam; Kidwell, Susan M.

Although only a few studies have explicitly evaluated live-dead agreement of species and community responses to environmental and spatial gradients, paleoecological analyses implicitly assume that death assemblages capture these gradients accurately. We use nine data sets from modern, relatively undisturbed coastal study areas to evaluate how the response of living molluscan assemblages to environmental gradients (water depth and seafloor type; "environmental component" of a gradient) and geographic separation ("spatial component") is captured by their death assemblages. We find that:

1. Living assemblages vary in composition either in response to environmental gradients alone (consistent with a species-sorting model) or in response to a combination of environmental and spatial gradients (mass-effect model). None of the living assemblages support the neutral model (or the patch-dynamic model), in which variation in species abundance is related to the spatial configuration of stations alone. These findings also support assumptions that mollusk species consistently differ in responses to environmental gradients, and suggest that in the absence of postmortem bias, environmental gradients might be accurately captured by variation in species composition among death assemblages. Death assemblages do in fact respond uniquely to environmental gradients, and show a stronger response when abundances are square-root transformed to downplay the impact of numerically abundant species and increase the effect of rare species.

2. Species' niche positions (position of maximum abundance) along bathymetric and sedimentary gradients in death assemblages show significantly positive rank correlations to species positions in living assemblages in seven of nine data sets (both square-root-transformed and presence-absence data).

3. The proportion of compositional variation explained by environmental gradients in death assemblages is similar to that of counterpart living assemblages. Death assemblages thus show the same ability to capture environmental gradients as do living assemblages. In some instances compositional dissimilarities in death assemblages show higher rank correlation with spatial distances than with environmental gradients, but spatial structure in community composition is mainly driven by spatially structured environmental gradients.

4. Death assemblages correctly identify the dominance of niche metacommunity models in mollusk communities, as revealed by counterpart living assemblages. This analysis of the environmental resolution of death assemblages thus supports fine-scale niche and paleoenvironmental analyses using molluscan fossil records. In spite of taphonomic processes and time-averaging effects that modify community composition, death assemblages largely capture the response of living communities to environmental gradients, partly because of redundancy in community structure that is inherently associated with multispecies assemblages. The molluscan data sets show some degree of redundancy as evidenced by the presence of at least two mutually exclusive subsets of species that replicate the community structure, and simple simulations show that between-sample relationships can be preserved and remain significant even when a large proportion of species is randomly removed from data sets.
USCSG-R-02-2010

http://dx.doi.org/10.1666/07081.1

Fidelity of variation in species composition and diversity partitioning by death assemblages: time-averaging transfers diversity from beta to alpha levels

Author(s): Tomašových, Adam; Kidwell, Susan M.

Despite extensive paleoecological analyses of spatial and temporal turnover in species composition, the fidelity with which time-averaged death assemblages capture variation in species composition and diversity partitioning of living communities remains unexplored. Do death assemblages vary in composition between sites to a lesser degree than do living assemblages, as would be predicted from time-averaging? And is the higher number of species observed in death relative to living assemblages reduced with increasing spatial scale? We quantify the preservation of spatial and temporal variation in species composition using 11 regional data sets based on samples of living molluscan communities and their co-occurring time-averaged death assemblages. (1) Compositional dissimilarities among living assemblages (LA) within data sets are significantly positively rank-correlated to dissimilarities among counterpart pairs of death assemblages (DA), demonstrating that pairwise dissimilarity within a study area has a good preservation potential in the fossil record. Dissimilarity indices that downplay the abundance of dominant species return the highest live-dead agreement of variation in species composition. (2) The average variation in species composition (average dissimilarity) is consistently smaller in DAs than in LAs (9 of 11 data sets). This damping of variation might arise from DAs generally having a larger sample size, but the reduction by ~10–20% mostly persists even in size-standardized analyses (4 to 7 of 11 data sets, depending on metric). Beta diversity expressed by the number of compositionally distinct communities is also significantly reduced in death assemblages in size-standardized analyses (by ~25%). This damping of variation and reduction in beta diversity is in accord with the loss of temporal resolution expected from time-averaging, without invoking taphonomic bias (from differential preservation or postmortem transportation) or sample-size effects. The loss of temporal resolution should directly reduce temporal variation, and assuming time-for-space substitution owing to random walk within one habitat and/or temporal habitat shifting, it also decreases spatial variation in species composition. (3) DAs are more diverse than LAs at the alpha scale, but the difference is reduced at gamma scales because partitioning of alpha and beta components differs significantly between LAs and DAs. This indicates that the effects of time-averaging are reduced with increasing spatial scale. Thus, overall, time-averaged molluscan DAs do capture variation among samples of the living assemblage, but they tend to damp the magnitude of variation, making them a conservative means of inferring change over time or variation among regions in species composition and diversity. Rates of temporal and spatial species turnover documented in the fossil record are thus expected to be depressed relative to the turnover rates that are predicted by models of community dynamics, which assume higher temporal resolution. Finally, the capture by DAs of underlying variation in the LA implies little variation in the net preservation potential of death assemblages across environments, despite the different taphonomic pathways suggested by taphofacies studies.
USCSG-R-01-2010

Utilizing magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) to assess the effects of angling-induced barotrauma on rockfish (Sebastes)

Bonnie L. Rogers, Christopher G. Lowe, Esteban Fernandez-Juricic, and Lawrence R. Frank

The physical consequences of barotrauma on the economically important rocklish (Sebastes) were evaluated with a novel method using T2-weighted magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) in combination with image segmentation and analysis. For this pilot study, two fishes were captured on hook-and-line from 100 m, euthanized, and scanned in a 3 Tesla human MRI scanner. Analyses were made on each fish, one exhibiting swim bladder overinflation and exophthalmia and the other showing low to moderate swim bladder overinflation. Air space volumes in the body were quantified using image segmentation techniques that allow definition of individual anatomical regions in the three-dimensional MRIs. The individual exhibiting the most severe signs of barotrauma revealed the first observation of a gas-filled orbital space behind the eyes, which was not observable by gross dissection. Severe exophthalmia resulted in extreme stretching of the optic nerves, which was clearly validated with dissections and not seen in the other individual. Expanding gas from swim bladder overinflation must leak from the swim bladder, rupture the peritoneum, and enter the cranium. This MRI method of evaluating rockfish following rapid decompression is useful for quantifying the magnitude of intemal barotrauma associated with decompression and complementing studies on the effects of capture and discard mortality of rockfishes.
USCSG-R-02-2008 - PDF of entire paper, courtesy of Canadian Journal of Fisheries and Aquatic Sciences

Fine-scale movement patterns, site fidelity, and habitat selection of ocean whitefish (Caulolatilus princeps)

Lyall F. Bellquist, Christopher G. Lowe, Jennifer E. Caselle

The fishery for California groundfishes is managed using broad species complexes, although some non-groundfish species are managed similarly due to the perception of shared behavioral characteristics. This study integrates acoustic telemetry and a GIS to quantify movement patterns of one such species, the ocean whitefish (Caulolatilus princeps) in a marine protected area. Seventeen ocean whitefish were tagged and actively tracked over multiple 24-h periods to measure fine-scale movement patterns. Home ranges based on 95% kernel utilization distributions averaged 20,439±28,492 (±S.D.)m2. Fish were active during the day, foraging over sand habitat at depths averaging 21±8m, but were inactive at night, taking refuge near rocky reefs at depths averaging 15±7m. Seventeen additional fish were tagged with coded acoustic transmitters and passively tracked using automated underwater acoustic receivers for up to 1 year. Approximately 75% of these fish exhibited long-term (1 year) fidelity to home ranges in the study area. Results suggest that MPAs can be an effective means of protecting populations of ocean whitefish and based on their habitat associations, ocean whitefish can be managed separately from other reef associated groundfishes.
© 2007 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
USCSG-R-01-2008 - PDF

Blooms of Pseudo-nitzschia and domoic acid in the San Pedro Channel and Los Angeles Harbor areas of the Southern California Bight, 2003-2004

Astrid Schnetzer, Peter E. Miller, Rebecca A. Schaffner, Beth A. Stauffer, Burton H. Jones, Stephen B. Weisberg, Paul M. DiGiacomo, William M. Berelson and David A. Caron

Abundances of Pseudo-nitzschia spp. and concentrations of particulate domoic acid (DA) were determined in the Southern California Bight (SCB) along the coasts of Los Angeles and Orange Counties during spring and summer of 2003 and 2004. At least 1,500 km2 were affected by a toxic event in May/June of 2003 when some of the highest particulate DA concentrations reported for US coastal waters were measured inside the Los Angeles Harbor (12.7 mg DA L-1). Particulate DA levels were an order of magnitude lower in spring of 2004 (February and March), but DA concentrations per cell at several sampling stations during 2004 exceeded previously reported maxima for natural populations of Pseudo-nitzschia (mean = 24 pg DA cell-1, range = 0 - 117 pg DA cell-1). P. australis dominated the Pseudo-nitzschia assemblage in spring 2004.  Overall, DA-poisoning was implicated in >1,400 mammal stranding incidents within the SCB during 2003 and 2004. Ancillary physical and chemical data obtained during our regional surveys in 2004 revealed that Pseudo-nitzschia abundances, particulate DA and cellular DA concentrations were inversely correlated with concentrations of silicic acid, nitrogen and phosphate, and to specific nutrient ratios. Particulate DA was detected in sediment traps deployed at 550 and 800 m depth during spring of 2004 (0.29 - 7.6 mg DA (g sediment dry weight)-1).  The highest DA concentration in the traps was measured within one week of dramatic decreases in the abundances of Pseudo-nitzschia in surface waters.
USCSG-TR-01-2008 - $2.00 PDF

River plume patterns and dynamics within the Southern California Bight

Jonathan A. Warrick1, Paul M. DiGiacomo2, Stephen B. Weisberg, Nikolay P. Nezlin, Michael J. Mengel3, Burton H. Jones4, J.Carter Ohlmann5, Libe Washburn5, Eric J. Terrill6 and Katie L. Farnsworth1

Stormwater river plumes are important vectors of marine contaminants and pathogens in the Southern California Bight. Here we report the results of a multi-institution investigation of the river plumes across eight major river systems of southern California. We used in situ water samples from multi-day cruises in combination with MODIS satellite remote sensing, buoy eteorological observations, drifters, and HF radar current measurements to evaluate the dispersal patterns and dynamics of the freshwater plumes. River discharge was exceptionally episodic, and the majority of storm discharge occurred in a few hours. The combined plume observing techniques revealed that plumes commonly detach from the coast and turn to the left, which is the opposite direction of Coriolis influence.

Although initial offshore velocity of the buoyant plumes was ~50 cm s-1 and was influenced by river discharge inertia (i.e., the direct momentum of the river flux) and buoyancy, subsequent advection of the plumes was largely observed in an alongshore direction and dominated by local winds. Due to the multiple day upwelling wind conditions that commonly follow discharge events, plumes were observed to flow from their respective river mouths to down-coast waters at rates of 20 - 40 km d-1.


Lastly, we note that suspended-sediment concentration and beam-attenuation were poorly correlated with plume salinity across and within the sampled plumes (mean R2 = 0.12 and 0.25, respectively), while colored dissolved organic matter (CDOM) fluorescence was well correlated (mean R2 = 0.56), suggesting that CDOM may serve as a good tracer of the discharged freshwater in subsequent remote sensing and monitoring efforts of plumes. PDF

The effects of barotrauma on the catch-and-release survival of southern California nearshore and shelf rockfish (Scorpaenidae, Sebastes spp.) (in press)

Erica T. Jarvis and Christopher G. Lowe

Two experiments were used to assess initial capture survival and short-term post-release survival of line-caught (range 18 to 225 m) southern California rockfish following recompression. Occurrence of external and internal signs of barotrauma was characterized across all species. Despite species-specific differences in the extent of barotrauma observed, initial capture survival of 19 rockfishes held in a live well for a 10 min period following capture was 68% overall. Overall survival of 17 rockfishes following recompression in cages for two days was also 68%. Short-term survival varied across species (range 36% to 82%) as well as the occurrence of external signs of barotrauma. The degree of external signs of barotrauma was not a significant predictor of initial capture survival or short-term survival. The most significant predictor of short-term survival was surface holding time, with short-term survival increasing with decreasing surface holding time. These results suggest assisted release of rockfishes, with short surface holding times, can significantly increase post-release survival and could potentially enhance rockfish conservation.
USCSG-R-03-2008 PDF

A Forensic and Phylogenetic Survey of Caulerpa Species (Caulerpales, Chlorophyta) from the Florida Coast, Local Aquarium Shops, and E-Commerce: Establishing A Proactive Baseline for Early Detection

Wytze T. Stam, Jeanine L. Olsen, Susan Frisch Zaleski, Steven N. Murray, Katherine R. Brown and Linda J. Walters

Baseline genotypes were established for 256 individuals of Caulerpa collected from 27 field locations in Florida (including the Keys), the Bahamas, US Virgin Islands, and Honduras, nearly doubling the number of available GenBank sequences. On the basis of sequences from the nuclear rDNAITS 1+2 and the chloroplast tufA regions, the phylogeny of Caulerpa was reassessed and the presence of invasive strains was determined. Surveys in central Florida and southern California of >100 saltwater aquarium shops and 90 internet sites revealed that >50% sold Caulerpa. Of the 14 Caulerpa species encountered, Caulerpa racemosa was the most common, followed by Caulerpa sertularioides, Caulerpa prolifera, Caulerpa mexicana, and Caulerpa serrulata. None of the >180 field-collected individuals(representing 13 species) was the invasive strain of Caulerpa taxifolia or C. racemosa. With one exception (a sample of C. racemosa from a shop in southern California belonged to the invasive Clade III strain), no invasive strains were found in saltwater aquarium stores in Florida or on any of the internet sites. Although these results are encouraging, we recommend a ban on the sale of all Caulerpa species (including ‘‘live rock’’) because: morphological identification of Caulerpa species is unreliable (>12% misidentification rate) and invasive strains can only be identified by their aligned DNA sequences, and because the potential capacity for invasive behavior in other Caulerpa species is far from clear. The addition of the Florida region to the genetic data base for Caulerpa provides a valuable proactive resource for invasion biologists as well as researchers interested in the evolution and speciation of Caulerpa.
USCSG-R-03-2007 - $3.00

The Effects Of Barotrauma On The Catch-And-Release Survival Of Southern California Nearshore And Shelf Rockfishes (Scorpaenidae, Sebastes Spp.)

Erica T. Jarvis ~ May 2007

Three experiments were used to assess initial capture survival, and short- and long-term post-release survival of line-caught (18 to 225 m) southern California rockfish following recompression. Initial capture survival of 19 rockfishes held in a live well for a 10 min period following capture was 68% overall (95% CI: 60% to 75%; n = 168). Two-day survival of 17 rockfishes following recompression in cages was also 68% overall (95% CI: 62% to 73%; n = 256). External and internal signs of barotrauma were not significant predictors of initial capture survival or short-term survival. The most significant predictor of short-term survival was surface holding time (logistic regression model:Χ 2 = 8.63, p = 0.003, OR = 0.95). Fish recaptures and 2-year monitoring data of acoustically tagged rockfish (n = 84) provided evidence of long-term post-release survival of rockfish of at least 690 days.

PDF of Thesis

Article in SLATE
(A News Publication of the American Academy of Underwater Sciences)

 

Estimating Dissolved Inorganic Carbon Concentrations from Salinity in San Francisco Bay for Use in 14C – Primary Production Studies

A. E. Parker, J. Fuller, R. C. Dugdale

One of the most fundamental measurements used for characterizing marine environments is primary production, the production of organic matter from inorganic constituents (most commonly through photosynthesis). Primary production estimates are typically made using the radioactive carbon -14 tracer technique introduced by Steeman Nielsen (1952) where the investigator adds a trace amount of radioactive carbon to a water sample and quantifies the radioactive enrichment of particulate organic matter during an incubation period. The technique is dependent upon precise determination of both radioactive enrichment and ambient dissolved inorganic carbon (DIC) concentration in the sample. While determining radioactivity is relatively easy with the use of a liquid scintillation counter, direct determination of DIC concentrations is often more difficult as few laboratories have the necessary instrumentation available. Traditionally in oceanic studies, DIC concentrations were based on a constant approximate value of 2000 μmol L-1 (i.e. Eppley & Sharp, 1975; Sharp, personal communication, see “Notes”) or based on measurements of salinity and pH (Parsons et al., 1984). These methods of approximation can be made within a salinity range of 22 – 33 psu (Parsons et al., 1984) and are therefore of limited use for work in estuaries, such as the San Francisco estuary (SFE), where salinity varies between 0 and >33 psu. Previous 14C based estimates of primary production in the SFE required direct determination of DIC concentrations (e.g. Cole & Cloern, 1984, Jassby et. al.2002).
USCSG-R-08-2007 - $2.00 - PDF

The Role of Ammonium and Nitrate in Spring Bloom Development in San Francisco Bay

Richard C. Dugdale, Frances P. Wilkerson, Victoria E. Hogue, and Albert Marchi

The substantial inventory of nitrate (NO3) in San Francisco Bay (SFB) is unavailable to the resident phytoplankton most of the year due to the presence of ammonium (NH4) at inhibitory concentrations that prevents NO3 uptake. Low annual primary productivity in this turbid estuary is generally attributed to the poor irradiance conditions. However, this may not be the only cause; spring phytoplankton blooms occur irregularly in north SFB only when NH4 concentrations are low, <4 μmol L−1 and NO3 uptake by phytoplankton occurs. Field measurements and enclosure experiments confirm the NH4 inhibition process to be the cause of low NO3 utilization most of the year. Detailed analysis of spring blooms in three embayments of SFB over 3 years shows a consistent sequence of events that result in bursts of chlorophyll. The first requirement is improved irradiance conditions through stabilization of the water column by stratification or reduced tidal activity. Second, NH4 concentrations must be reduced to a critical range, 1 to 4 μmol L−1 through dilution by precipitation and by phytoplankton uptake. This enables rapid uptake of NO3 and subsequent increase in chlorophyll. The resulting bloom is due to both the initial uptake of NH4 and the subsequent uptake of NO3. The NO3 uptake step is crucial since it is the larger nitrogen source and uptake occurs at higher rates than that for NH4 at the concentrations that occur in SFB. Existing models of light-limited, non-nutrient limited productivity in SFB require modification to include the NH4 inhibition effect. From measured NH4 uptake rates and initial concentrations, calculations can be made to predict the length of time that favorable irradiance conditions are required for the phytoplankton population to reduce ambient NH4 concentrations to non-inhibiting concentrations and allow bloom formation to begin. For Suisun Bay, the time required is so long that blooms are unlikely in any season. For San Pablo and Central Bays, these times are too long in summer but sufficiently short in spring to allow bloom development, depending on the ambient NH4 concentration prior to the productivity season. NH4 sources to SFB are primarily anthropogenic, from agricultural drainage and sewage treatment plants, and if not sufficiently diluted by runoff and precipitation can prevent development of the spring phytoplankton bloom. Attention should be paid to the form of N making up dissolved inorganic nitrogen (DIN) in nutrient-rich estuaries.
USCSG-R-07-2007 - $2.00 - PDF

Elevated body temperatures of adult female Leopard Sharks, Triakis semifasciata, while aggregating in shallow nearshore embayments: Evidence for behavioral thermoregulation?

Barbara V. Hight, Christopher G. Lowe

The leopard shark, Triakis semifasciata, is an abundant nearshore elasmobranch, ranging from Baja California, Mexico to Oregon, USA. Mature female leopard sharks have been observed aggregating in shallow embayments throughout California; however, it is unclear why only females aggregate in these shallow areas. The goal of this study was to determine if mature female leopard sharks selectively occupy the warmest areas of a shallow embayment, if free-ranging leopard sharks' body temperatures are significantly warmer during the day than at night, and to quantify temporal use of these shallow habitats. Visual observations of sharks' fine-scale movements within the shallows of Big Fisherman's Cove Marine Life Refuge (Santa Catalina Island) aggregation site indicated that sharks preferred the warmest areas of the embayment and moved to warmer locations over the course of the day (p<0.05). Active and passive acoustic tracking, along with archival transponder technology (Vemco: V13, V13-R256, VX32TP-CHAT tags respectively) of 16 sharks caught and tagged within this aggregation were used to monitor core body temperature, swimming depth, and movements. Sharks had significantly higher core body temperatures in the late afternoon (1700 h–2000 h) during the summer, showed increased fidelity to thermal refuges during the day and increased movement away from these refuges at night (χ2, p<0.05). Seasonal variations in warm, shallow water usage were also observed. Elevated core body temperature of mature female leopard sharks using warm shallow embayments will likely augment metabolic and physiological functions such as digestion, somatic growth, and possibly reproduction.
USCSG-R-05-2007 - $2.00 (order form PDF)

Effects of temperature on dark respiration and the photosynthetic responses of Caulacanthus ustulatus (Rhodophyta), a new member of the southern California intertidal flora

Victor M. Galvan, Steven N. Murray

In the summer of 2000 Caulacanthus ustulatus was first observed in southern California waters. Since then, this species has become very abundant at several intertidal sites where it grows on articulated corallines, rockweed stipes, rock, mussel shells, and barnacles. Here we provide the first reports of the effects of temperature on dark respiration rates and the photosynthetic responses of southern California specimens of C. ustulatus. Maximum photosynthetic rates (P max) ranged from 4.54 (≠ 0.35 SE) to 3.75 (± 0.29) mg O2g-1 dwt h-1 but did not vary significantly (ANOVA; P = 0.29) over the tested temperatures (11, 14, 17 and 20 °C). Light-limited slopes (α) ranged from 0.0696 (± 0.01 SE) to 0.0582 (± 0.01) but also did not vary significantly (ANCOVA; P = 0.86) with temperature. Similarly, temperature had not significant effect (ANOVA; P = 0.46) on dark respiration rates, which ranged from 0.78 ± (0.16 SE) to 0.44 (± 0.11) mg O2g-1 dwt h-1 . Ic ranged from 12.8 (± 0.29 SE) at 17 °C to 7.1 (± 1.66) μmol m-2 s-1 at 11 °C. These data show that the photosynthetic performance of C. ustulatus is similar over the range of temperatures encountered in southern California and along the remainder of the California coast and suggest that C. ustulatus is able to grow and likely establish populations throughout the entire region.
USCSG-R-04-2007 - $2.00

 

 

Elemental signatures in the vertebral cartilage of the round stingray, Urobatis halleri, from Seal Beach, California

Loraine F. Hale, John V. Dudgeon, Andrew Z. Mason, Christopher G. Lowe

Although numerous studies have utilized elemental analysis techniques for age determination in bony fishes, little work has been conducted utilizing these procedures to verify age assessments or temporal periodicity of growth band formation in elasmobranchs. The goal of this study was to determine the potential of laser ablation inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry (LA-ICP-MS) to provide information on the seasonal deposition of elements in the vertebrae of the round stingray collected from Seal Beach, California. Spatially resolved time scans for elements across the round stingray vertebrae showed peaks in calcium intensity that aligned with and corresponded to the number of seasonal growth bands identified using standard light microscopy. Higher signals of calcium were associated with the wide opaque bands while lower signals of calcium corresponded to the narrow translucent bands. While a close alignment between the numbers of calcium peaks and annual growth bands was observed in round stingray samples aged 5 years or younger, this relationship was less well defined in vertebral samples from round stingrays over 11 years old. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first study of its kind to utilize ICP-MS to verify age assessments and seasonal band formation in an elasmobranch. The results from this preliminary study indicate that LA-ICP-MS elemental analysis of the vertebral cartilage of the round stingray may have potential to independently verify optically derived age assessments and seasonal banding patterns in elasmobranch vertebrae.

©Springer Science+Business Media B.V. 2006
USCSG-R-02-2007 - PDF

Caudal Spine Shedding Periodicity and Site Fidelity of Round Stingrays, Urobatis halleri (Cooper), at Seal Beach, California: Implications for Stingray-related Injury Management

Christopher G. Lowe, Greg J. Moss, Greg Hoisington, IV, Jeremy J. Vaudo, Daniel P. Cartamil, Megan M. Marcotte, and Yannis P. Papastamatiou

Natural caudal spine replacement rates, population size and site fidelity of round stingrays, Urobatis halleri (Cooper), at Seal Beach, California were determined to evaluate the efficacy of clipping of caudal spines of stingrays to reduce injury to human beachgoers. Of the 2,183 stingrays caught, clipped, tagged, and released at Seal Beach, only 13 (0.06%) were recaptured over a threeyear period, indicating a large, mobile population. Natural spine replacement occurred between August–October, when a majority of rays were found with two spines. Monthly catch rates of rays were variable, but positively correlated with the number of injuries reported by beachgoers. There was no significant reduction in stingray-related injuries to beach goers at Seal Beach over the period when stingray caudal spine clipping was conducted.
USCSG-R-01-2007 - $3.00 - PDF

An Integrated Geochemical and Hydrodynamic Model for Tidal Coastal Environments

Jian Peng, Eddy Y. Zeng. ($2.00) or PDF abstract
USCSG-R-06-2006

Phytoplankton Blooms and Nitrogen Productivity in San Francisco Bay

Frances P. Wilkerson, Richard C. Dugdale, Victoria E. Hogue, and Albert Marchi. ($2.00) or PDF
USCSG-R-05-2006

Optimization of Stormwater Filtration at the Urban/Watershed Interface

J. Aaron Hipp, Oladele Ogunseitan, Raul Lejano, and C. Scott Smith. ($2.00)
USCSG-R-04-2006

Movement patterns of the round stingray Urobatis halleri (Cooper) near a thermal outfall

J. J. Vaudo, C. G. Lowe. ($2.00)
USCSG-R-02-2006

Rapid Detection of Enteroviruses in Small Volumes of Natural Waters by Real-Time Quantitative Reverse Transcriptase PCR

Jed A. Fuhrman, Xiaolin Liang, and Rachel T. Noble. ($2.00)
USCSG-R-01-2006

Passive Acoustic Telemetry Technology: Current Applications and Future Directions - Results of the VR2 workshop held on Catalina Island

Heupel, Michelle; Simpfendorfer, Colin; Lowe, Christopher. ($4.00)
USCSG-TR-01-2006

The effects of experimental bait collection and trampling on a Mytilus californianus mussel bed in southern California

Jayson R. Smith, Steven N. Murray. ($2.00)
USCSG-R-08-2005

Abundance and Distribution of the Round Stingray, Urobatis halleri, near a Heated Effluent Outfall

Gregory Hoisington IV, Christopher G. Lowe. ($2.00)
USCSG-R-07-2005

An Up Close Look at Marine Life in the San Pedro Bay Ports: A Summary by the USC Sea Grant Program on the Marine Ecosystem of the Ports of Long Beach and Los Angeles

Phyllis Grifman and Judith Lemus. ($4.00)
USCSG-TR-01-05

Coastal Pollution Hazards in Southern California Observed by SAR Imagery: Stormwater Plumes, Wastewater Plumes, and Natural Hydrocarbon Seeps

Paul M. DiGiacomo, Libe Washburn, Benjamin Holt and Burton H. Jones. ($2.00)
USCSG-R-06-2005

Evaluation of New, Rapid Microbial Methods for Measuring Recreational Water Quality

John F. Griffith, Stephen B. Weisberg and Charles D. McGee. ($2.00)
USCSG-R-05-2005

Evaluation of Microbial Source Tracking Methods Using Mixed Fecal Sources In Aqueous Test Samples

John F. Griffith, Stephen B. Weisberg and Charles D. McGee. ($2.00)
USCSG-R-04-2005

A Comparative Study of Culture-Independent, Library-Independent Genotypic Methods of Fecal Source Tracking

Katharine G. Field, Eunice C. Chern, Linda K. Dick, Jed Fuhrman, John Griffith, Patricia A. Holden, Michael G. LaMontagne, Betty Olson, Michael T. Simonic. ($2.00)
USCSG-R-03-2005

Caudal Spine Replacement and Histogenesis in the Round Stingray, Urobatis halleri

Petra K. E. Johansson, Thomas G. Douglass, and Christopher G. Lowe. ($2.00)
USCSG-R-01-2005

New Insights In The Taxonomy Of The Ceramium Sinicola Complex: Resurrection Of Ceramium Interruptum (Ceramiaceae, Rhodophyta)

T. O. Cho, S. Fredericq, S. N. Murray, S. M. Boo. ($2.00)
USCSG-R-04-2004

Marine Planktonic Archaea Take Up Amino Acids

C. C. Ouverney and J. A. Fuhrman. ($2.00)
USCSG-R-13-2003

Bacterial Diversity in Shallow Oligotrophic Marine Benthos and Overlying Waters: Effects of Virus Infection, Containment, and Nutrient Enrichment

I. Hewson, G. A. Vargo, and J. A. Fuhrman. ($2.00)
USCSG-R-12-2003

Rapid Virus Production and Removal as Measured with Fluorescently Labeled Viruses as Tracers

Rachel T. Nobel and Jed A. Fuhrman. ($2.00)
USCSG-R-11-2003

Movement Patterns, Home Range, And Habitat Utilization Of Adult Kelp Bass Paralabrax Clathratus In A Temperate No-Take Marine Reserve

Christopher G. Lowe, Darin T. Topping, Daniel P. Cartamil, Yannis P. Papastamatiou. ($2.00)
USCSG-R-09-2003

Variation In Owl Limpet Lottia Gigantea Population Structures, Growth Rates, And Gonadal Production On Southern California Rocky Shores

Kido, J. S., Murray, S. N. ($2.00)
USCSG-R-05-2003

Assimilation Efficiency, Gut Morphology and pH, and Digestive Enzyme Activity of Atherinops affinis (Teleostei: Atherinopsidae), a Stomachless Omnivore Feeding on Macro Algae

Elaine A. Logothetis. ($2.00)
USCSG-TD-02-2003

Trophic Position of Estuarine and Kelp-Bed Populations of the Omnivorous Silverside Fish Atherinops affinis (Teleostei: Atherinopsidae) from Southern California: Analyses of Dietary Items and 15N and 13C Stable Isotopes

Darryl R. Smith. ($2.00)
USCSG-TD-01-2003

In Situ Measurements Of Polychlorinated Biphenyls In The Waters Of San Diego, California

Eddy Y. Zeng, Jian Pen, David Tsukada, and Teh-Lung Ku. ($2.00)
USCSG-R-01-2003

Detection of respiratory enzyme activity in Giardia cysts and Cryptosporidium oocysts using redox dyes and immunofluoresce techniques

Rodolfo Iturriaga, Sean Zhang, Gregory J. Sonek, and Henry Stibbs ($2.00)
USCSG-R-03-2001. See the review of this study from Biophotonics International

No-take reserve networks: sustaining fishery populations and marine ecosystems

Murray, Steven N. et al., Fisheries. (1999): 24(11): 11-25. ($2.00)
USCSG-R-01-2000

Marine Viruses and Their Biogeochemical and Ecological Effects

Fuhrman, Jed A., Nature (1999). 399: 541-548. ($2.00)
USCSG-R-03-99

Combined Microautoradiography-16S rRNA Probe Technique for Determination of Radioisotope Uptake by Specific Microbial Cell Types In Situ

Ouverney, Cleber C. and Jed A. Fuhrman, Appl. Environ. Microbiol. (1999): 65: 1746-1752. ($2.00)
USCSG-R-02-99

Detection of Human Pathogenic Viruses in Santa Monica Bay Seawater: Any correlation to presence and nubmers of fecal coliforms?

Noble, Rachel T, John F. Griffith, and Jed A. Fuhrman, Problems of the "Urban Ocean"-Managing Runoff in Los Angeles Coastal Waters: Abstracts from a USC Sea Grant Symposium at Coastal Zone '97. Request this article from collection. ($2.00) USCSG-R-02-98

Symbiotic role of the viable but nonculturable state of Vibrio fischeri in Hawaiian coastal seawater

K.-H. Lee and E.G. Ruby, Appl. Environ. Microbiol. (1998): 61: 278-283. ($2.00)
USCSG-R-06-98

The Vibrio fischeri-Euprymna scolopes light organ association: current ecological paradigms

Ruby, E.G. and K.-H. Lee. Appl. Environ. Microbiol. (1998): 64:805-812. ($2.00)
USCSG-R-05-98

Factors influencing food choice by the seaweed-eating marine snail Norrisia norrise (Trochidea)

Wakefield, R.L. and S.N. Murray, Marine Biology (1998) 130: 631-42. ($2.00)
USCSG-R-04-98

Patterns of Reproduction, Genetic Diversity, and Genetic Differentiation in California Populations of the Geniculate Coralline Alga Lithothrix aspergillum (Rhodophyta)

Pearson, Elizabeth A. and Steven N. Murray, J. Phycol (1997) 33:753-63. ($2.00)
USCSG-R-03-98

Sources of Energy for Increased Metabolic Demand During Metamorphosis of the Abalone Haliotis refescens (Mullusca)

Shilling, Fraser M, Ove Hoegh-Guldberg, and Donal T. Manahan, Biological Bulletin, Vol. 191: 402-412. ($2.00)
USCSG-R-08-97

Use of SYBR Green I for Rapid Epiflourescence Counts of Marine Viruses and Bacteria

Noble, Rachel T. and Jed A. Fuhrman, Aquatic Microbial Ecology, Accepted September 1997. ($2.00)
USCSG-R-07-97

Estimates of Production and Loss of Viruses in Seawater from Tracer Studies

Noble, Rachel T. and Jed A. Fuhrman, Accepted for ASLO/AGU, February 1998, San Diego. ($2.00)
USCSG-R-06-97

Carbon and Nitrogen Uptake Response to Light by Phytoplankton During an Upwelling Event

Kudela, Raphael M., William P. Cochlan and Richard C. Dugdale, Journal of Plankton Research, Vol. 19, No. 5, p. 609-630, 1997. ($2.00)
USCSG-R-03-97

A New Technique for the Determination of Spectral Reflectance of Individual and Bulk Particulate Suspended Matter in Natural Water Samples

Iturriaga, Rodolfo, Juli Berwald and Gregory Sonek, Ocean Optics XIII, Halifax, Nova Scotia, Canada, 22-25 October 1996, SPIE Vol. 2963, pp. 455-460. ($2.00)
USCSG-R-02-97

Virus Decay and Its Causes in Coastal Waters

Noble, R.T. and J.A. Fuhrman, Applied and Environmental Microbiology, American Society for Microbiology, Vol. 63, No. 1, pp. 77-83, January 1997. ($2.00)
USCSG-R-01-97

Proceedings of a Special Symposium: Coastal Watersheds and their Effects on the Ocean Environment

Yoder, Susan E. and John H. Dorsey, editors, Presented at the Annual Meeting of the Southern California Academy of Sciences, May 5, 1995, Bulletin of the Southern California Academy of Sciences, Volume 95, Number 1, April 1996 (58 pages). ($2.00)
USCSG-TR-01-96

Laboratory and Field Responses of Algal Nitrate Reductase to Diel Periodicity in Irradiance, Nitrate Exhaustion, and the Presence of Ammonium

Berges, John A., William P. Cochlan and Paul J. Harrison, Marine Ecology Progress Series, Inter-Research 1995, Vol. 124:259-269, Published August 10, 1995. ($2.00)
USCSG-R-01-96

Predicting Recruitment of Temperate Reef Fishes in Response to Changes in Macrophyte Density Caused by Disturbance

Carr, Mark H., Theory and Application in Fish Feeding Ecology, D.J. Stouder, K.L. Fresh and R.J. Feller (eds.) The Belle W. Baruch Library in Marine Science, Number 18, University of South Carolina Press, Columbia, South Carolina, p. 255-269, 1994. ($2.00)
USCSG-R-07-94

Variability of Nitrate Uptake Capacity in Macrocystis Pyrifera (Laminariales, Phaeophyta) with Nitrate and Light Availability

Kopczak, Charles D., J. Phycol., 30, pp. 573-580, 1994. ($2.00)
USCSG-R-06-94

Effects of Macroalgal Dynamics on Recruitment of a Temperate Reef Fish

Carr, Mark H., Ecology, 75(5), 1994, pp. 1320-1333, 1994 by the Ecological Society of America. ($2.00)
USCSG-R-05-94

Conceptual Issues Relevant to Marine Harvest Refuges: Examples from Temperate Reef Fishes

Carr, Mark H. and Daniel C. Reed, Can. J. Fish. Aquat. Sci., Vol. 50, 1993, pp. 2019-2028. ($2.00)
USCSG-R-04-94

Implications of Dissolved Organic Material in Seawater for the Energetics of Abalone Larvae Haliotis rufescens: A Review

Manahan, Donal T. and William B. Jaeckle, Abalone of the World: Biology, Fisheries and Culture, S.A. Shepherd, M.J. Tegner and S.A. Guzman del Proo, Eds., Fishing News Books, 1992, pp. 95-106. ($2.00)
USCSG-R-03-94

Experimental Manipulations of the Organic Composition of Seawater: Implications for Studies of Energy Budgets in Marine Invertebrate Larvae

Jaeckle, William B. and Donal T. Manahan, J. Exp. Mar. Biol. Ecol., 156 (1992) 273-284, 1992 Elsevier Science Publishers. ($2.00)
USCSG-R-01-94

Predation Deterrence in Marine Sponges: Laboratory Versus Field Studies

Bakus, Gerald and Bruce A. Schulte, Bulletin for Marine Science, Volume 50, No.1 (1992):205-211. ($2.00)
USCSG-R-08-92

Perspectives on the Marine Environment

Grifman, Phyllis M. and Susan E. Yoder, editors. Proceedings from a Symposium on the Marine Environment of Southern California, held May 10, 1991 at the University of Southern California. ($15.00)
USCSG-TR-01-92

Variation in Nitrogen Physiology and Growth Among Geographically Isolated Populations of the Giant Kelp, Macrocystis Pyrifera (Phaeophyta)

Kopczak, Charles D., Richard C. Zimmerman and James N. Kremer, Reprinted from Journal of Phycology, 27 (1991): 149-58. ($2.00)
USCSG-R-01-91

Patterns, Mechanisms, and Consequences of Recruitment of a Temperate Marine Reef Fish

Carr, Mark H. Ph.D. Dissertation, June 1991. 190 pp. ($15.00)
USCSG-TD-01-91
(Abstract only, $2.00 - USCSG-TD-01A-91)

Growth and Energy Imbalance During the Development of a Lecithotrophic Molluscan Larva (Haliotis rufescens)

Jaeckle, W.B. and D.T.Manahan. Reprinted from Biological Bulletin, Marine Biological Laboratory, Woods Hole, MA, 177 (1989): 237-46. ($2.00)
USCSG-R-02-90

Feeding by a "Non-feeding" Larva: Uptake of Dissolved Amino Acids from Sea Water by Lecithotrophic Larvae of the Gastropod Haliotis rufescens

Jaeckle, W.B. and D.T. Manahan. Reprinted from Marine Biology, 103 (1989): 87-94. ($2.00)
USCSG-R-03-90

Adaptations by Invertebrate Larvae for Nutrient Acquisition from Seawater Manahan, D.T. Reprinted from American Zoologist, 30 (1990): 147-60. ($2.00)
USCSG-R-04-90

Dissolved Organic Material in Seawater: Implications for the Energetics of Abalone Larvae (Haliotis rufescens)

Manahan, D.T., and W.B. Jaeckle. Reprinted from First International Symposium on Abalone Biology, Fisheries, and Culture (in press 1990) ($2.00)
USCSG-R-05-90

Amino Acid Fluxes to and from Sea Water in Axenic Veliger Larvae of a Bivalve (Crassostrea Gigas)

Manahan, Donal T. Reprinted from Marine Ecology Progress Series, 53 (1989): 247-55. ($2.00)
USCSG-R-03-89

Order Information



Coastal Management / Marine Policy

Rising to the Challenge
Results of the 2011 California Coastal Adaptation Needs Assessment

Author(s): Juliette A Finzi Hart, Phyllis M. Grifman, Susanne C. Moser, Adina Adbeles, Monique R. Myers, Susan C. Schlosser, Julia A. Ekstrom

Sea level along most of California's coast is already rising and the best science available suggests it will continue to rise at an increasing rate in the future. In addition, climate change will bring higher air and water temperatures, changes in precipitation and runoff, thus changes in water supplies and quality, and more extreme tides and storm surges that will aggravate coastal flooding and erosion. While uncertainty remains as to how these changes will unfold in any one place along the coasts and embayments of California, further change is assured.

Are coastal professionals preparing for these changes? This report presents results of a survey of California coastal managers that shows that neither the state nor coastal communities are standing by until science and policy questions are settled. Communities along both the open ocean coast and along bay and estuarine shorelines are beginning to plan for climate change impacts. Despite scientific uncertainties and the economic challenges of recent years, they are rising to the challenge of coastal climate change. In light of already experienced changes, and the scientifically robust projections of additional and accelerating impacts of climate change in the future, this survey aimed to assess coastal professionals' concerns with climate change impacts, their activities to date to plan and prepare for them, and the needs and barriers they encounter in planning for climate change.

In an unprecedented collaboration of 15 organizations who share an interest in the sustainable management and stewardship of the state's coastal and marine resources, a survey was prepared. The results will inform their efforts to provide appropriate trainings and technical assistance to coastal professionals and to link them to the resources and tools that already exist.

Nearly 600 coastal professionals along California's open ocean, bay, delta, and estuarine coastlines, from a range of communities, regional, state and federal government agencies, as well as the civic and private sectors were surveyed in the summer and fall of 2011 to understand:
• Current coastal management challenges
• Concerns, knowledge, and actions to prepare for climate change impacts, and
• Information, technical assistance, and training needs to support adaptation planning and implementation.
USCSG-TR-01-2012

Effectiveness of the California State Ban on the Sale of Caulerpa Species in Aquarium Retail Stores in Southern California

Author(s): Stephanie Diaz, Jayson R. Smith, Susan F. Zaleski and Steven N. Murray

The invasion of the aquarium strain of the green alga Caulerpa taxifolia and subsequent alteration of community structure in the Mediterranean Sea raised awareness of the potential for non-native seaweeds to impact coastal communities. An introduction of C. taxifolia in southern California in 2000, presumably from the release of aquarium specimens, cost *$7 million for eradication efforts. Besides C. taxifolia, other Caulerpa species being sold for aquarium use also may have the potential to invade
southern Californian and U.S. waters. Surveys of the availability of Caulerpa species in southern California aquarium retail stores in 2000–2001 revealed that 26 of 50 stores sold at least one Caulerpa species (52 %) with seven stores selling C. taxifolia. In late 2001, California imposed a ban on the importation, sale, or possession of nine Caulerpa species; the City of San Diego expanded these regulations to include the entire genus. To determine the effectiveness of the California ban, we resurveyed Caulerpa availability at 43 of the 50 previously sampled retail stores in southern California in *2006, *4 years following the ban. Of the 43 stores, 23 sold Caulerpa (53 %) with four stores selling C. taxifolia. A v2 test of frequency of availability before and after the California ban suggests that the ban has not been effective and that the aquarium trade continues to represent a potential vector for distributing Caulerpa specimens, including C. taxifolia. This study underscores the need for increased enforcement and outreach programs to increase awareness among the aquarium industry and aquarium hobbyists.
USCSG-R-04-2012

doi/10.1007/s00267-012-9860-3

Classification of California Estuaries based on Natural Closure Patterns: Templates for Restoration and Management

Author(s): David Jacobs, Eric D. Stein, Travis Longcore

Determining the appropriate design template is critical to coastal wetland restoration. In seasonally wet and semi-arid regions of the world coastal wetlands tend to close off from the sea seasonally or episodically, and decisions regarding estuarine mouth closure have far reaching implications for cost, management, and ultimate success of coastal wetland restoration. In the past restoration planners relied on an incomplete understanding of the factors that influence estuarine mouth closure. Consequently, templates from other climatic/physiographic regions are often inappropriately applied. The first step to addressing this issue is to develop a classification system based on an understanding of the processes that formed the estuaries and thus define their pre-development structure. Here we propose a new classification system for California estuaries based on the geomorphic history and the dominant physical processes that govern the formation of the estuary space or volume within them. The classification system uses geologic origin, exposure to littoral process, and watershed size and runoff characteristics as the basis of a conceptual model that predicts likely frequency and duration of closure of the estuary mouth. We then begin to validate the proposed model by investigating historical documentation of three representative estuaries to determine if their pre-development condition was consistent with the structure predicted by the classification. In application of the model, eight closure states, based on elevation of barriers to tidal access, were defined. These states can be determined from historic, maps descriptions and photography. These states are then used to validate models of closure state frequency for different classes of estuaries based on the classification. Application of the classification model suggests that under natural conditions, the vast majority of California estuaries experience some degree of closure, and most spend a preponderance of time in the closed condition. In this state, stream flow rather than tidal influence is the most critical variable controlling mouth opening. Individual estuaries exist in a variety of closure states over multiyear to multi-decadal time frames. An estuary may exist in a given closure state for periods of time ranging from days to years. The distribution of closure states for an estuary over time can be used to guide management decisions based on dominant closure and hydrodynamics of the system. Success of future estuarine restoration projects could be improved by incorporating consideration of mouth closure dynamics.
USCSG-TR-04-2010

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Reducing the Threat of Ship Strikes on Large Cetaceans in Santa Barbara Channel and Channel Islands National Marine Sanctuary: Three Case Studies

Leslie Abramson, Elizabeth Petras

In order to facilitate the involvement of the shipping industry as a stakeholder in the process of cooperative policy-making as well as support the Channel Islands National Marine Sanctuary (CINMS) and the Sanctuary Advisory Council (SAC) in its efforts to make science-based, cooperative policy decisions the study was undertaken. In it we will identify the social, economic and political constraints influencing the commercial shipping industry through interaction with the Southern California Marine Exchange, Terminal Operators and Shipping Agents in the Port of Long Beach. It is intended to clarify the various jurisdictions and stakeholders involved in commercial shipping behavior within Santa Barbara Channel and outline possible actions which could be implemented by these groups and agencies. The research will compile and analyze potential management actions in terms of economic and political feasibility versus expected ecological benefits. Is the potential risk reduction worth the cost to industry? Is it possible to create effective outreach and education materials for both the SAC and the shipping industry?
USCSG-TR-01-2009

Bring That Rockfish Down!

Christina Johnson and Erica Jarvis

barotraumaSea Grant and the California Department of Fish and Game are partners on a new brochure for anglers, explaining how and why to return rockfish to depth quickly. A PDF of the brochure can be downloaded at no cost. You may also request a hardcopy by mail. Contact: Christina S. Johnson, 858-822-5334, csjohnson@ucsd.edu

 

This brochure was a collaborative effort of California Sea Grant, Oregon Sea Grant and University of Southern California Sea Grant. Printing was funded by the California Department of Fish and Game.

PDF | Online Version

 

 

Status, Environmental Threats, and Policy Considerations for Invasive Seaweeds for the Pacific Coast of North America

Steve N. Murray, Linda Fernandez, José A. Zertuche-González

This report was prepared for the Commission on Environmental Cooperation at the request of Hans Hermann, Head of the CEC’s Conservation of Biodiversity Program. The goals of this report were to review the status of knowledge concerning invasive seaweeds for the Pacific coast of North America and to analyze the potential threats to the environment posed by these species; in additional, the aim was to examine selected policies and to suggest possible policy options for improving the ability of Canada, Mexico and the United States to address these threats. The contents of this report, including its recommendations, solely represent the opinions and findings of he authors, and do not necessarily reflect the views or policies of the Commission on Environmental Cooperation or the governments of Canada, Mexico and the United States.
USCSG-TR-02-2007 - $2.00

Assessing Policy Effectiveness in Preservation of Beaches in Ventura County, California and South Coastal Maine

Lameka, R.A.; Van Arsdol, Jr., M. D.; Constable, A.; Davis, W. J.; Fippinger, P. B.; Kopetski, M.A.; LaBrash, J.A.; Levey, J.L.; Pederson, K.K.; Stark, C.P.; Walsh, E.K.; Mageean, D.M. ($2.00)
USCSG-R-07-2003

USC Sea Grant Strategic Plan 2003-2008. (Download PDF HERE)
USCSG-TR-01-2003

Attitudes Toward Marine Wildlife Survey Highlights

Jennifer Wolch

Highlights presents survey results and their implications for public policy and future research. These should be of particular interest to museums, aquariums, and educators who develop environmental education and outreach materials for diverse public audiences. The contents of the series will be electronically mailed periodically over a period of four months, starting with this introductory issue. The complete collection is available here at the USC SeaGrant website.

Related to USCSG-TR-01-2001

Emerging Trends In Beach Erosion And Sand Rights Law ­ Impacts Of Rising Sea Level On Coastal Populations In Califorina And Maine*

D.M. Mageean, A. Constable, and M. D. Van Arsdol. ($2.00)
USCSG-R-04-2003

Sand Rights '99 Bringing Back The Beachs, "Resolving Beach Conflicts In California and Maine"

Nicole Ricci, Maurice D. Van Arsdol, Jr., Angela Constable, Deirdre M. Mageean. ($2.00)
USCSG-R-02-2003

Contingent Valuation Of Marine Protected Areas: Southern California Rocky Intertidal Ecosystems

Darwin C. Hall, Jane V. Hall and Steven N. Murray. ($2.00)
USCSG-R-01-2002

Local Population Impacts and Mitigation of Sea Level Rise

Maurice D. Van Arsdol, Jr., et. al. ($2.00)
USCSG-R-02-2001

Human visitation and the frequency and potential effects of collecting on rocky intertidal populations in southern California marine reserves.

Murray, Steven N., Teri Gibson Denis, Janine S. Kido, and Jayson R. Smith. CalCOFl Rep., 40(1999): 100-106.
USCSG-R-05-2000

Designing the Ocean Policy Future: An Essay on How I Am Going To Do That

Friedheim, Robert. Ocean Development & International Law 31(2000): 183-195.
USCSG-R-04-2000

Problems of the ‘Urban Ocean’ -- Managing Runoff in Los Angeles Coastal Waters

Abstracts from a USC Sea Grant Symposium at Coastal Zone ‘97, July 19-25, 1997, Boston, MA. ($2.00)
USCSG-R-02-98

Stormwater Runoff into Santa Monica Bay: Sources and Impacts

Papers from a USC Sea Grant Symposium at California and the World Ocean ‘97, March 24-27, 1997, San Diego, CA. ($2.00)
USCSG-R-01-98

California’s Coastal Natural Hazards

Ewing, Lesley and Douglas J. Sherman, editors, Proceedings of a Conference hosted by the California Shore and Beach Preservation Association and the University of Southern California Sea Grant Program, November 12-14, 1997, Santa Barbara, California. USC Sea Grant, October 1998 (165 pages). ($20.00)
USCSG-TR-01-98

Human Impacts on California’s Coastal Sediment Supply

Sherman, Douglas J, California and the World Ocean ‘97, Proceedings of the Conference American Society of Civil Engineers, March 24-27, 1997, San Diego, California. ($2.00)
USCSG-R-09-97

Demographic Responses to Sea Level Rise in California

Constable, A, M.D. Van Arsdol, Jr., D.J. Sherman, J. Wang, P.A. McMullin-Messier and L. Rollin, World Resource Review 1997, Vol. 9:32-44. ($2.00)
USCSG-R-05-97

Effectiveness of Marine Life Refuges on Southern California Shores

Murray, Steven N., California and the World Ocean ‘97, Proceedings of the Conference American Society of Civil Engineers, March 24-27, 1997, San Diego, California. ($2.00)
USCSG-R-04-97

International Perspectives on Coastal Ocean Space Utilization

Grifman, Phyllis and James Fawcett, Proceedings of the Second International Symposium on Coastal Ocean Space Utilization, April 2-4, 1991, Long Beach, California, USC Sea Grant, 1993 (789 pages). ($20.00)
USCSG-TR-01-93

Managing the Second Phase of Enclosure

Friedheim, Robert L., Ocean and Coastal Management, Volume 17 (1992): 217-236. ($2.00)
USCSG-R-07-92

Fishing Negotiations at the Third United Nations Conference on the
Law of the Sea

Friedheim, Robert L., Ocean Development and International Law, 22(1991): 209-57. ($2.00)
USCSG-R-02-92

Perspectives on the Marine Environment

Grifman, Phyllis, and Susan Yoder, Proceedings of the Symposium on the Marine Environment of Southern California, presented at the Annual Meeting of the Southern California Academy of Sciences, May 10-11, 1991, Los Angeles, California, USC Sea Grant, 1992 (130 pages). ($15.00)
USCSG-TR-01-92

Redefining Local Government Power: The Influence of Informal Powers in Challenging Joint Implementation of a State Coastal Plan.

Fawcett, James A. Reprinted from Policy Studies Review, 6(12): 330-39, 1986. ($2.00)
USCSG-R-01-88

Fishery Regulation with Harvest Uncertainty

Mirman, Leonard J.and Daniel F. Spulber. Reprinted from International Economic Review 26(3):731-746, October 1985 ($2.00)
USCSG-R-02-86

The Multicohort Fishery Under Uncertainty

Spulber, Daniel F. Reprinted from Marine Resource Economics 1(3):265-282. 1985 ($2.00)
USCSG-R-08-85

Uncertainty and Markets for Renewable Resources

Mirman, Leonard, and Daniel F. Spulber. Reprinted from Journal of Economic Dynamics and Control 8(1984):239-264. ($2.00)
USCSG-R-04-85

Affordable Housing in California's Coastal Zone: A Tale of State Authority vs. Local Autonomy

Bryant, Donald C. Jr., and P.C. Emmi. Reprinted from Coastal Management Journal 12(4):323-357, 1984 ($2.00)
USCSG-R-02-85

The Two Science Communities and Coastal Wetlands Policy

LeVine, James Brian (aka: James Yumeji). Ph.D. Dissertation. December 1984. 413 pp. $22.00
USCSG-TD-02-84
(Abstract only, 7 pp., $2.00 - USCSG-TD-02A-84)

But a Faded Dream: Federal Coastal Policy in the '80's

Fawcett, James A. Reprinted from Proceedings of Oceans '84, September 10-12, 1984. pp. 878-883. ($2.00)
USCSG-R-07-84

The Selection and Management of Coral Reef Preserves

Bakus, Gerald J. Reprinted from Ocean Management 8(1982/83):305-316. ($2.00)
USCSG-R-01-84

The Intergovernmental Politics of Coastal Planning

Wingo, Lowdon, and James A. Fawcett. Reprinted from the Proceedings of the Third Symposium on Coastal and Ocean Management, American Society of Civil Engineers (ASCE), San Diego, California, June 1-4, 1983, pp. 1651-1665. (2.00)
USCSG-R-05-83

Environmental Mitigation of Dredge and Fill Projects: A Case Study of Coos Bay/North Bend, Oregon

Muretta, Peri, and Willard Price. Reprinted from Coastal Zone Management Journal 10(3):223-254, 1982. ($2.00)
USCSG-R-03-83

The Use of Decision-Making in Environmental Studies

Bakus, Gerald J., et al. Reprinted from Advances in Environmental Research, IEO, Kota, India, 1982, pp. 79-91. ($2.00)
USCSG-R-02-83

Decision Making: With Applications for Environmental Management

Bakus, Gerald J., et al. Reprinted from Environmental Management 6(6):493-504, 1982 ($2.00)
USCSG-R-01-83.

Organizing for Marine Policy: Some Views From Organization Theory

Ross, Stuart A. Reprinted from Making Ocean Policy: The Politics of Government Organization and Management, Francis W. Hoole, Robert L. Friedheim and Timothy M. Hennessey (eds.), Boulder, Colorado: Westview Press Inc., 1982, pp. 91-111. ($2.00)
USCSG-R-07-82

Economic and Fiscal Impacts of Metropolitan Decentralization: The Southern California Case

Richardson, Harry W., and Peter L. Gordon. Reprinted from Environment and Planning A. 11:643-654, 1979. ($2.00)
USCSG-R-01-82

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Marine and Coastal Engineering

Managing Runoff to Protect Natural Streams: The Latest Developments on Investigation and Management of Hydromodification in California

Eric D. Stein, Susan Zaleski. ($2.00)
USCSG-TR-02-2006

Stormwater Mitigation for Architects and Developers

Judith D. Lemus, Ph.D., Joseph Devinny, Ph.D., Achva Stein, ASLA, Sourojit Dhar, and Fethiye Ozis. (Download PDF HERE)
USCSG-TR-01-2004

The Effects of Exposure Time and Mass Transport on the Corrosion Kinetics of Cu Alloys in Seawater

Mansfeld, F., Liu, H. Shih, B. Little, presented at The Electrochemical Society 180th Meeting, 1991. ($2.00)
USCSG-R-10-92

Evaluation of Polarization Curves for Copper Alloys Exposed to Natural and Artificial Seawater

Mansfeld, F., G. Liu, C.H. Tsai, H. Shih, B. Little, presented at Corrosion ‘92, Houston Texas, 1992. ($2.00)
USCSG-R-09-92

The Effect of Laser Machining on the Strength of Si_3_N_4_

Tao, Hongyi. Ph.D. Dissertation, December 1989. 150 pp. $15.00
USCSG-TD-01-90
(Abstract only, $2.00 - USCSG-TD-01A-90)

A New Model for Precipitation at Moving Interphase Boundaries

Todd, J.A., Pansen Li and Stephen M. Copley. Reprinted from Metallurgical Transactions 19A(1988): 2133-38, Carnegie Mellon University. ($2.00)
USCSG-R-06-88

Application of a New Model to the Interphase Precipitation Reaction in Vanadium Steels

Li, Pansen, Judith A. Todd. Reprinted from Metallurgical Transactions, 19A(1988): 2139-51, Carnegie Mellon University. ($2.00)
USCSG-R-05-88

A New Mechanism of Crack Closure in Cathodically Protected ASTM A710 Steel

Todd, J.A., P. Li, G. Liu and V. Raman. Reprinted from Scripta Metallurgica 22(1988): 745-50. Pergamon Journals. ($2.00)
USCSG-R-04-88

The Anomalous Behavior of the Runup of Cnoidal Waves

Synolakis, Costas E., Manad Kumar Deb and James Eric Skjelbreia. Reprinted from The Physics of Fluids, 31(1)(1988): 3-5. American Institute of Physics. ($2.00)
USCSG-R-03-88

The Interphase Precipitation Reaction: Kinetics, Mechanisms and Resulting Mechanical Properties

Li, Pansen. Ph.D. Dissertation, December 1987. 150 pp. $15.00
USCSG-TD-01-88
(Abstract only, $2.00 - USCSG-R-01A-88)

Microstructural Studies of Corrosion Fatigue Cracks in ASTM A710

Todd, J.A., P. Li, G. Liu, and V. Raman. Reprinted from Third International Conference, Environmental Degradation of Engineering Materials. Proceedings of Conference April 13- 15, 1987 at Pennsylvania State University. ($2.00)
USCSG-R-02-87

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Ports and Marine Transportation

PORT CONTINUITY PLANNING - Maintaining the Region’s Economic Lifeblood
Proceedings of a Conference on Maritime Cargo Security

James A. Fawcett, Editor

This conference is the second sponsored by USC Sea Grant on the issue of maritime cargo security. The meetings would not have been possible without the generous support of the NOAA Coastal Services Center, Margaret Davidson, Esq., Director.

Maritime cargo security is an especially important issue in southern California, home to the Ports of Los Angeles and Long Beach, the busiest marine cargo seaport in the United States. The conference on which this proceedings reports was, furthermore, made relevant by the diligent efforts of a wise and dedicated steering committee, whose members are noted below. FuturePorts, an organization advocating robust port and supporting infrastructure, a strong economy and green port technology, was instrumental in connecting the theme of the conference to the users of the ports. Elizabeth Warren, its Executive Director, served as an indispensable co-chair of the entire enterprise.
USCSG-TR-04-2007 - PDF

Port Governance and Privatization in the United States: Public Ownership and Private Operation.

In M. Brooks and K. Cullinane (Eds.), Devolution, Port Governance and Port Performance, Research in Transportation Economics,Vol. 17

James A. Fawcett

USCSG-R-06-2007
Available through Amazon.com and Elsevier

Leaping Ahead: The Ports of Los Angeles and Long Beach Embark on an Ambitious Course--the’2020’ Plan

Heikkila, Eric J., Peter Gordon and Harry W. Richardson, Portus, Volume 6, No.2 (Spring 1991): 14-20. ($2.00)
USCSG-R-02-92

Seaport Management and State Policy

Fawcett, James, Willard Price and Kathleen West, California Policy Choices, John J. Kirlin and Donald R. Winkler, eds, School of Public Administration, University of Southern California, 1991, pp.199-230. ($2.00)
USCSG-R-01-92

Are Port Growth and Coastal Management Compatible?

Fawcett, James A. and Henry S. Marcus, Reprinted from Coastal Management (19): 275-95. Taylor Francis. ($2.00)
USCSG-07-91

L. A. and Long Beach: A Tale of Two Ports With "2020" Vision

Fawcett, James A., Reprinted from Oceanus, 32(3) (1989): 79-84. ($2.00)
USCSG-R-01-90

A Model of the Market for Public Port Services in the United States

West, Kathleen. Ph.D. Dissertation, December 1988. 174 pp. $15.00
USCSG-TD-01-89
(Abstract only, $2.00 - USCSG-TD-01A-89)

A General Model of a Spatial Duopoly With Entry Barriers.

Yoon, Juhyun. Ph.D. Dissertation, June 1989. 108 pp. $15.00
USCSG-TD-02-89
(Abstract only $2.00 - USCSG-TD-02A-89)

The Shipping Act of 1984: A Debate of the Issues

Grifman, Phyllis, ed. Proceedings of a Conference sponsored by the Federal Maritime Institute and the USC Sea Grant Program, February 18-19, 1988, Long Beach, California. Published by the Sea Grant Program, University of Southern California, 1988. ($20.00)
USCSG-TR-01-88

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Paul Hall Memorial Lectures

A Call to Action -- Again

Cassidy, Duane H., A Program of the Paul Hall Memorial Endowement, University of Southern California. Presented April 22, 1993, Washington, D.C. ($3.00)
USCSG-LS-01-93

Where There Is No Vision...

Gibson, Andrew E., A Program of the Paul Hall Memorial Endowment, University of Southern California. Presented April 21, 1992, Washington, D.C. ($3.00)
USCSG-LS-01-92

In Search of an Enduring Maritime Policy

Whitehurst, Jr., Clinton H., A Program of the Paul Hall Memorial Endowment, University of Southern California. Presented at The International Symposium on Coastal Ocean Space Utilization II. April 4, 1991. Long Beach, California. ($3.00)
USCSG-LS-01-91

A Legacy of Leadership

Brand, Herbert, A Program of the Paul Hall Memorial Endowment, University of Southern California. Presented February 18, 1988, Long Beach, California. ($3.00)
USCSG-LS-01-88

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Videos and Slides

Videos

 

Don't Release A Pest

Susan Zaleski, Dr. Linda Walters, Phyllis Grifman

dvdcoverOn a pier by the ocean a little girl is about to 'set free' her fish, but finds out how her good intentions could go wrong.

Animated film targeting pet owners, specifically those that have aquarium tanks, to not release their pets and plants into the environment because they may become invasive. The film uses the invasion of Caulerpa taxifolia as an example for why people should not release pets or plants into the environment.

Animated film can also be used as a teaching tool along with our curriculum that meets state of California and National Science standards!

USCSG-ME-03-2007
(N/C)

 

 

Between a Rock and a Hard Placedvdcover

Winter Bonnin, Crystal Cove State Park

Growing coastal populations mean increased recreation on fragile rocky shores, and a need for fostering awareness and appreciation of these habitats by large numbers of visitors.

The purpose of this video is to ensure the preservation of healthy tidepools by encouraging responsible behavior of students and teachers during field trips. The goal is to educate students, tourists and locals so that they can enjoy the precious resources found in these delicate ecosystems while respecting their fragility. Produced in Orange County, California, and narrated by local authorities, the video includes children's comments. The video is designed as a teacher resource to be used in classrooms preparing for field trips to the coast.

USCSG-ME-01-01
($10.00)

Watch it on YouTube

 

 

Environmental Education: Making A Difference

Grifman, Phyllis and Jill Ladwig. A video program and brochure produced by the Sea Grant Programs of the University of Southern California and the University of Hawaii, 1994.

USCSG-ME-01-94
($10.00)

 

Vietnamese Fishing Safety

Knoll, Bernd. A training video to improve safety practices among Vietnamese fishermen in San Pedro and Ventura harbors. In Vietnamese.

USCSG-AS-01-97
(Complimentary, N/C)


Slides

Dimensions of the Sea: Marine Education Slide Presentations With Narratives

a. The Physical Ocean. (13 slides-$11.00)
b. Ocean Management. (15 slides-$12.00)
c. Ocean Research. (15 slides-$12.00)
d. The Biological Ocean. (22 slides-$16.50)
e. The Economic Sea. (27 slides-$20.00)
f. Marine Ecology. (44 slides-$33.00)

Each set contains high quality 35mm color slides on the marine community and environment, with a written narrative which can be adapted to the appropriate grade level. Available singly or as a package for $95.00.(Narrative available in English and Spanish)

USCSG-ME-04-82


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