Contaminant-Related Thyroid Disruption In Wild Fish In Southern And Northern California: Cause And Effect Evaluations ~ K. Kelley, J. Reyes, J. Armstrong
Project R\ CE-31
Despite well documented chemical contamination in a large number of coastal California environments, the biological impacts of such contaminants are not well understood. In recent years, an increasing number of studies have determined that several industrial, domestic and pharmaceutical chemicals can alter endocrine systems (?environmental endocrine disruption?). Classified as endocrine-disrupting compounds (EDCs), these chemicals alter the regulation of physiological systems, resulting in impaired homeostasis and adaptation, risking health and survival (Mattheissen and Law, 2002; Matthiessen, 2003; Hotchkiss et al., 2008; Wingfield, 2008). These issues have raised substantial concerns internationally, let alone regionally.
The Role Of Small Upstream Reservoirs In Trapping Organic Carbon, Nutrients, And Metals In The San Francisco Bay Area ~ L. Rademacher, K. Faul
Whereas the nature and sources of urban water quality impairments are well studied, questions remain about how watershed modifications resulting from urbanization and management practices impact biogeochemical cycling of these water quality impairments in small upstream reservoirs. Whether these upstream urban reservoirs act as "sources" or "sinks" of contaminants ultimately controls water quality of discharge into the "urban ocean". With more than 50% of the world's population living in cities and 75% of California's population living on the coast, there is a growing imperative to understand the role of urban watershed/reservoir systems in biogeochemical cycling of carbon, nutrients, and metals and how this role may change in response to factors such as climate change and continued urbanization. The San Francisco Bay (SFB) area is one example of an increasingly urbanizing region with a long history of pollution pressures. Few studies investigate the role small urban watershed/reservoir systems, such as those in Oakland CA or the over 250 reservoirs in the SFB area, play in contributing to or mitigating inputs to the SFB system. Additionally, few studies focus on how local authorities might best manage small ephemeral or perennial reservoir systems based on biogeochemical cycling in their specific system. We proposed to address these needs.
Resolving the annual pattern of algal toxins in coastal waters off Los Angeles ~ A. Schnetzer, D. Caron
Project R\ CE-30
Southern California waters are impacted by recurring harmful algal blooms (HABs). These blooms can disrupt the food chain, cause low-oxygen conditions that lead to fish kills in embayments and harbors, and create a threat to animal and human health. The most toxic algae that are commonly observed in Southern California waters are diatoms within the genus Pseudo-nitzschia and dinoflagellates within the genus Alexandrium. Members of both genera are capable of producing potent neurotoxins that can be transferred through the food chain. Domoic acid (DA), the toxin produced by Pseudo-nitzschia, has been implicated in bird and mammal strandings and/or deaths of several hundreds of animals in recent years. Our previous research has demonstrated that the region surrounding the port of Los Angeles may be a 'hotspot' for Pseudo-nitzschia and DA toxicity events. Very recently we confirmed the presence of Alexandrium and saxitoxins (STX) south and north of the LA harbor at Newport pier and in Redondo Beach harbor, but at this time, we do not know the extent of these phenomena in these environments or in the port of Los Angeles. Understanding the spatiotemporal dynamics of HAB species requires sensitive methods that can characterize toxic events from bloom initiation to demise. Determining abundances of toxic algae traditionally requires detailed microscopy to identify and enumerate cells and considerable taxonomic expertise. This limits the number of samples that can be processed. Additionally, simple toxin detection methods, especially those that facilitate in situ monitoring, are only now becoming routinely available. We propose to document abundance dynamics for the most toxic Southern California HAB species (Pseudo-nitzschia and Alexandrium) inside the Los Angeles harbor, at Newport Pier, in Redondo Beach harbor and at Wrigley Pier on Catalina Island. This task will be accomplished by employing species-specific state-of–the-art molecular approaches for identification and enumeration in concert with newly-developed toxin detection methods including a protocol for continued tracking of phycotoxins in situ. Finally, we will employ the same molecular approaches to analyze archived samples to test for differences in the frequency and duration of DA and/or STX toxicity events inside the Los Angeles Harbor compared to the adjacent San Pedro Channel.
Successful Adaptation: Identifying effective Process and Outcome Characteristics and Practice-Relevant Metrics ~ S. Moser, P. Matson, A. Snover, D. Lach
Project R\ HR-01
Climate change is expected to have numerous wide-reaching environmental, economic and social impacts that will play out differently depending on context. Coastal areas are likely to be disproportionately affected by temperature increases, precipitation changes, and climate-related hazards due to sea-level rise and severe storms. They will experience increased rates of coastal erosion, flooding and permanent coastal inundation; coastal ecosystem loss or changes; ocean acidification and shifting marine species distributions; and loss of unique cultural and natural resources resulting in socioeconomic and emotional impacts related to the loss of valued areas and amenities, and dislocation (NRC 2010a; Adger et al. 2011, Agyeman et al. 2009; IPCC 2007). All coastal areas will likely incur significant impacts due to permanent loss of coastal areas or resources, and growing expenses related to coastal protection, but rural communities, often economically dependent on fishing industries and coastal tourism, and often lacking in institutional capacity, may be particularly vulnerable. Clearly, many coastal communities will face difficult choices and trade-offs in the decades to come as sea level rises at faster-than-historical rates. They will be forced to adopt more stringent or altogether new strategies to strengthen and retain their overall ecological, economic and social resilience, and these will very likely produce winners and losers. And as sea levels inexorably rise over the foreseeable future, the proportion of losers may well mount.
The Value of Habitat Diversity in Marine Reserves: Spiny Lobster and Sheephead Use of the Intertidal Zone at the Santa Catalina Island MPA ~ C. Robles, C. Garza
Project R\ CE-33
A guiding principle in the design of Marine Protected Areas is that a diversity of habitats must be included to provide the complete range of ecosystem services to otherwise exploited species. This is especially true of species that use different habitats at different times in their reproductive cycles. A case in point, is the spiny lobster Panulirus interrruptus, which supports intense commercial and sport fisheries in the Southern California Bight. Prior work in the Santa Catalina Marine Protected Area by the Principle Investigators indicates that high densities of spiny lobsters forage in the intertidal zone on nocturnal high tides in late spring and summer. The timing of this phenomenon coincides with post-recruitment peaks in the abundances of the lobsters' prey, juvenile mussels and other shelled invertebrates. During the season of high intertidal use, female lobsters incur the energetic demands of mating, egg laying, brooding, and molting. Approximately, 75% of the intertidal foragers are recently mated or brooding females (Robles, unpublished data), suggesting that the intertidal habitat plays an important role in the life cycle of this heavily exploited species.
Will A Warmer, More Acidic Ocean Lead To Increased Pseudo-Nitzschia Bloom Toxicity In The Southern California Bight? ~ D. Hutchins, F. Fu
Project R\ CE-34
In recent years, the coastal ocean in the Los Angeles area has been heavily impacted by harmful blooms of the toxic diatom Pseudo-nitzschia spp. Marine food web accumulation of the neurotoxin domoic acid has led to massive wildlife mortalities and risks to ecosystem, human, and economic health along this heavily populated coastline. Our preliminary data suggest that elevated seawater CO2 can strongly stimulate the production of domoic acid by Pseudo-nitzschia cells, leading to potentially much more toxic blooms. Thus, anthropogenic enrichment of the ocean with CO2 (e.g., ocean acidification) could greatly exacerbate the already substantial damage that these harmful algal blooms do to marine life ranging from shellfish to finfish and mammals in the Southern California region. However, almost nothing is currently known about how the toxicity of Pseudo-nitzschia species will be affected by increasing CO2 in combination with other concurrent climate change variables, such as sea surface warming and changes in nutrient supplies and light fields. This project will examine domoic acid production by cultured and natural populations of local Pseudo-nitzschia species under simulated future ocean conditions of temperature, CO2 (pH), irradiance, and nutrient availability. This information will allow marine resource managers to better predict and help prepare for the potentially much more toxic harmful algal blooms that may occur along the Southern California coastline in the future.
The Ecosystem Impacts Of Kelp Forest Habitat Restoration, Including Important Fishery Species ~ D. Pondella, T. Ford, J. Claisse, J. Williams, L. Fink
Project R\ CE-35
Kelp forest ecosystems are iconic and productive features along the coast of California with services that span a wide array of consumptive (e.g., commercial and recreational fishing) and non-consumptive (e.g., tourism, scuba diving and diminishing coastal erosion) uses. Giant Kelp (Macrocystis pyrifera) forms a 3-dimensional habitat supporting roughly 716 species. One-fourth of California marine organisms depend on it for some part of their life history (Graham 2004). The importance of kelp as a habitat for fish species is enormous; this habitat functions as nursery habitat for newly settled juvenile fishes and has a demonstrated value as a refuge from predation (Dayton 1985; Steneck et al. 2002). Drift kelp and associated dissolved organic matter provide an energetic resource to populations of species both within and around kelp beds (Duggins et al. 1989; Tegner and Dayton 2000; Graham et al. 2007). These habitats support fisheries for a number of invertebrates (e.g., sea urchins, spiny lobster) and finfish [e.g., Kelp Bass (Paralabrax clathratus), California Sheephead (Semicossyphus pulcher)] (CDFG 2010), in addition to Giant Kelp being harvested itself for a variety of human uses. Through both fishing activities and non-consumptive uses, California's ocean-related activities support the state economy by bringing in 40+ billion dollars a year in revenue (Kildow and Colgan 2005).
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