1506: Beginning of St. Peter's, Vatican City, principal and largest Christian church, under Donato Bramante; the present structure was largely completed by 1626, when it was dedicated by Pope Urban VII.

1544: The first illustration of a camera obscura appears in print; Leonardo had included a diagram of one in a 1519 manuscript, but did not claim the invention, which dates from Grecian times (Aristotle referred to the essential principle).

1643-1715: Louis XIV reigns as King of France; because of the brilliance of his court, he is known as "the Sun King" and "Le Grand Monarque."

1710: Saint Paul's Cathedral, London, begun on the ashes of the great fire of London (1665) in 1668 by English architect Christopher Wren, is completed.

1759: British seize Quebec from French; opposing commanders Wolfe and Montcalm are both killed in battle.

1770s: Industrial revolution begins in England.

1775-1783: American Revolution brings 13 colonies on the Atlantic coast independence from Great Britain.

1793: French revolutionary Jean Paul Marat is stabbed to death in his bath by Charlotte Corday, a royalist sympathizer.

1807: The first known illustration of a camera lucida, a camera obscura that, by means of a prism or mirriors and often a microscope, causes the virtual image to appear as if projected on a flat surface so that an outline might be traced.

1816: French flagship "Medusa" founders off the African coast with a loss of more than 100 lives; the resulting scandal, trial and verdicts expose class prejudice in France.

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