Contents of Recent Issues
Volume 16, No. 2 (August 1998)
Anne-Michelle Ketteridge and Maureen Fordham, "Flood
in Two Communities in Scotland: Lessons from European Research," pp. 119-143.
In January 1993 and December 1994, two areas of Scotland experienced extensive flooding and large-scale evacuation of a spontaneous and unstructured nature. Both the flooding and the evacuation left their traumatic mark on the householders. The research reported here was qualitative, with the objective of investigating the evacuation process inductively-how it operated on the ground, what were the problems, and how the process could be enhanced to maximize effectiveness for those who have to experience the consequences. This long-term or extended process of evacuation is described and discussed in detail in this paper, where it is emphasized that evacuation is not complete until everyone has returned home. The elderly, children, and women are also identified by the research as groups which suffered particularly as a result of the poorly executed evacuation and which require special attention. Policy and practical recommendations are drawn from the research, which may be equally applicable to future floods in the U.K., Europe, and elsewhere. (AA)
Richard Stuart Olson, Robert A. Olson, and Vincent T. Gawronski,
"Night and Day: Mitigation Policymaking in Oakland, California,
Before and After the Loma Prieta Earthquake," pp. 145-179.
The 1989 Loma Proeta earthquake was a watershed event for all of the communities it affected but perhaps more so for Oakland, California, where it had a fundamental and enduring impact on the decision agenda of city government. This paper explains (1) local government inaction on earthquake safety in Oakland before the disaster and then (2) how and why a political coalition was formed to develop a series of city ordinances to abate the hazard posed by earthquake-damaged buildings as well as by a class of structures (unreinforced masonry) known to be particularly earthquake-vulnerable. (AA)
Sharon Rae Jenkins, "Emergency Medical Workers' Mass
Incident Stress and Psychological Recovery," pp. 181-197.
This study was designed to identify 36 emergency medical workers' most common stress reactions and recovery processes after a heavy-fatality mass shooting incident, and to relate stressors, reactions, and recovery resources to workers' major symptoms and satisfaction with their role in the incident. Anxiety/worry (28 percent), anger/hostility (22 percent), sleep disturbances (22 percent), and obsessive-compulsive preoccupations (19 percent) were common in the first week post-event. Coworkers provided the most commonly sought (by 94 percent) and consistently effective social support; counselors were as effective but used by only 50 percent. Victim contact, low helplessness, high social support availability for "anything," and joking about the incident were related to workers' satisfaction with the role they played in the incident. Interventions for emergency medical personnel after mass casualty events should target anxiety and hostility symptoms, sleep disturbances, obsessive-compulsive preoccupations, and helpless feelings; encourage global social support, especially among coworkers; provide voluntary counseling; and include family members. (AA)
John A. Cross, "A Half Century of Hazards Dissertation
Research in Geography," pp. 199-212.
Geographic study of hazards has gained considerable prominence in the fifty years since Gilbert White's Human Adjustments to Floods dissertation was published. Over 130 hazards dissertations have been written in the U.S. and Canada, and hazards articles have gained greater acceptance in major journals. Although White and several of his students served as advisers for nearly a fifth of these dissertation, most hazards dissertations represent efforts by students whose advisers have neither written nor advised a previous hazards dissertation. The majority of hazards dissertation writers obtain employment in positions where they are unable to advise future hazards dissertation writers, thus the production of the next generation of hazards geographers may be in peril. (AA)
Book reviews by:
Britt Marie Drottz-Sjoeberg on E. L. Quarantelli and K. Popov
Proceedings of the United States-Former Soviet Union Seminar on Social Science Research on Mitigation for and recovery from Disasters and Large scale Hazards, pp. 217-218.
Richard Stuart Olson on Thomas A. Birkland, After
Setting, Public Policy, and Focusing Events, pp. 219-220.
Thomas Birkland on Barclay Jones (ed.), Economic Consequences
of Earthquakes: Preparing for the Unexpected, pp. 221-222.
Jennifer Wilson and Arthur Oyola-Yemaiel on Hugh W. Stephens,
The Texas City Disaster, 1947, pp. 223-224.