USC School of Policy, Planning, and Development

Cumulative Index

This is a temporary version of the IJMED's online Cumulative Index containing a listing of articles and their abstracts, listed alphabetically by authors' last names.

A | B | C | D | E | F | G | H | I | J | K | L | M | N | O | P | Q | R | S | T | U | V | W | Y

Volume 1, No. 1 (March 1983) through Volume 25, No. 3 (November 2007)

Abe, Kitao and Ryoichi Kazama, "A Psychological Analysis of the Evacuation Behavior at the Great Sakata Fire," Vol. 3, No. 1 (March 1985): 133-146.

This research studied human behavior in the great Sakata Fire. The fire, fanned by a violent wind at the time, burned continuously in the center of the city for about 12 hours. Although it rained that night, the fire was massive and spread extensively. The research focus was on: (1) the recognition of the fire: about what time was it noted, how the fire was reported, and what were the early forecasts about it; (2) the behavior of people seeking refuge: the period of preparation for refuge, the state of the fire at the time, what people thought of doing and how; (3) information: the means used to obtain information about the fire, and rumor behavior; and (4) social disorganization: whether or not there was panic and looting behavior, details about it, and reasons why it occurred. The fire spread at a speed of about 100 m/h, which was rather slow in spite of the strong wind. This condition is considered as the reason for the relatively smooth evacuation of people, the lack of any great panic, and the few deaths and injuries. (AA)

Abdolrasulnia, Maziar, see Ginter, Peter M., W. Jack Duncan, Lisa C. McCormick, Andrew C. Rucks, Martha S. Wingate, and Maziar Abdolrasulnia.

Agramonte, Elsa, see Aguirre, B.E., Rogelio Saenz, John Edmiston, Nan Yang, Dietra Stuart, and Elsa Agramonte.

Aguirre, Benigno, "Evacuation as Population Mobility," Vol. 1, No. 3 (November 1983): 415-437.
An analytical perspective is used to examine the relationship of human evacuation and migration. The first part of the paper focuses on the variables of distance, permanence and voluntarism used to distinguish evacuation from migration, to point out that the lack of interest in evacuation by students of migration, partly on the basis of the assumed clear-cut differences in these three dimensions, is unwarranted. The second part of the paper identifies three models which would provide a basis for a synthesis of the two types of geographical mobility: evacuations and migrations as residential displacements, as the result of subjective decision-making processes triggered by stressors, and as instances of collective behavior. (AA)

Aguirre, Benigno, "Evacuation in Cancun during Hurricane Gilbert," Vol. 9, No. 1 (March 1991): 31-45.

This paper describes the evacuation of the population of Cancun, Mexico, during Hurricane Gilbert and identifies some of the correlates of their evacuation behavior.  The information was collected during a post-disaster visit conducted one week after impact (September 13, 1988) and as part of a survey a year later of a random sample of 431 persons 18 years old and older who resided in Cancun at the time of the disaster.  The majority of the evacuees found shelter in the homes of friends, neighbors, and relatives and were gone from their homes a week or less.  Socioeconomic status (SES) and higher numbers of family contacts did not increase the probability of evacuation.  The environmental context and physical characteristics of residences are significant variables impacting on the perceptions of risk and on subsequent evacuation behavior. (AA)

Aguirre, Benigno E., "PRESIDENTIAL ADDRESS: Can Sustainable Development Sustain Us?", Vol. 20, No. 2 (August 2002): 111-125.

This paper presents a review of Disasters by Design, the recent, influential second U.S. national assessment of research on natural and technological hazards that takes stock of the disciplinary knowledge and policy issues in the field of disasters. It identifies four analytical matters left unresolved in its central theme on the importance of sustainable development for disaster mitigation, having to do with the dual emphasis on the local and on the global, cultural change, the implicit assumptions that planners and social engineers know best, and the consensual model of politics. It also identifies some practical problems that the adoption of a sustainable development framework advocated by the report may pose for the specialty. (AA)

Aguirre, Benigno E., "Reply," Vol. 20, No. 2 (August 2002): 139.

Aguirre, Benigno E., "Introduction," Vol. 20, No. 3 (November 2002): 289-292.

The recently completed meetings of the International Research Committee on Disasters (IRCD) in Brisbane and Melbourne, Australia, coinciding with the activities of the committee during the meetings of the International Sociological Association (ISA), are without doubt the most successful meetings in the history of the committee. Their success can be traced to the superb organizational work of Andrew Coghlan and Joe Scanlon, the extraordinary hospitality and good will of Emergency Management Australia (EMA) and the EMA Institute, and the general intellectual cordiality and openness of the participants. The participants were from many walks of life, from private practice, national emergency management and international agencies, and from universities and research centers on various continents. Each in her or his way contributed to the luster of the proceedings. This special issue of the IJMED reflects the intent of the workshop, a sharing of Australian and other research, and occurs in conjunction with a parallel special issue of the Australian Journal of Emergency Management now under preparation. It is not meant to be all inclusive of the scholarship present during the meetings, for the papers underwent peer reviews and some of the initial presentations could not be rewritten by their authors in time for their inclusion in this special issue; others have been accepted for publication elsewhere. There is a varying degree of thematic continuity among the five articles that make up this special issue, captured by three underlying themes. The first two articles, by Gabriel and by Buckle and his associates, explore disaster management issues in Australia and the innovations that are taking place in Australian thinking about disasters, in what constitutes an enviable perspective if compared to other countries’ efforts to mitigate disaster losses. A third article, by Handmer, also uses material from Australia to examine with exceeding rigor and discernment the complexities of disaster loss estimation practices. The final two articles, by Norman and Cole and by Scanlon, explore, respectively, emergency management issues in England and Wales and in Canada in the aftermath of the September 11, 2001, terrorist attacks.

Aguirre, Benigno E., “Cuba’s Disaster Management Model: Should It Be Emulated?” Vol. 23, No. 3 (November 2005): 55–71.

The article offers a criticism of the point of view that disaster programs in Cuba should be emulated by other countries.  It shows the relationship that exists between disaster vulnerability and resilience, to shed light on the promises as well as the problems of using Cuba as a model to emulate in social development.  Cuba has an excellent record when it comes to disaster preparedness and response involving warning and evacuation, in which governmental control of the population is used very effectively to minimize the potential morbidity and mortality of hurricanes and tropical storms.  It nevertheless has a very poor record in dealing with disaster reconstruction, recovery, and mitigation as well as with solving slow onset chronic problems and vulnerabilities of the population.  (AA)

Aguirre, Benigno and David Bush, "Disaster Programs as Technology Transfers: The Case of Puerto Rico in the Aftermath of Hurricane Hugo," Vol. 10, No. 1 (March 1992): 161-178.

This paper identifies a set of processes which characterized the organized response to Hurricane Hugo in Puerto Rico.  It uses insights generated from the technology transfer literature to compare the relative effectiveness of three disaster mitigation programs in Puerto Rico and to generalize to the likely difficulties inherent in international disaster mitigation programs emanating from core societies.  In Puerto Rico the services of the Weather Service Forecasting Office and the computer model used to evacuate and shelter populations worked well.  However, the coastal management program has had mixed success at best.  This paper attempts to identify the causes of the differential effectiveness of these three programs by showing the similarities between the WSFO program and the SLOSH computer model and their differences from the coastal management program.  It also considers other elements in the disaster response system that did not work as well: sheltering, long-term emergency housing, and lifeline protection.  (AA)

Aguirre, B. E., Rogelio Saenz, John Edmiston, Nan Yang, Dietra Stuart, and Elsa Agramonte, "Population and the Detection of Weak Tornadoes," Vol. 12, No. 3 (November 1994): 261-278.

This paper uses the National Severe Storms Forecast Center’s information on 31,969 tornado segments occurring in the continental U.S. during the 1950-1990 period, and ecological information from the U.S. Census on all counties experiencing tornadoes during this period to model the occurrence of weak tornadoes which are most likely to go unreported. The relative complexity of the demographic pattern of counties is insignificantly related to the proportion of counties with weak storms. Metropolitan and other urban counties do not have higher odds of weak tornadoes than rural counties. Inferentially, these results fail to support the prevailing interpretation in the scientific literature of the existence of a noncausal relationship between the frequency of tornado occurrence and demographic complexity of places. An alternative interpretation is suggested. (AA)

Aguirre, B. E., Dennis E. Wenger, Thomas A. Glass, Marceline Diaz-Murillo, and Gabriela Vigo, "The Social Organization of Search and Rescue: Evidence from the Guadalajara Gasoline Explosion," Vol. 13, No. 1 (March 1995): 67-92.

The Guadalajara gasoline explosion of 22 April 1992 is examined to show the importance of social organization in search and rescue activities. Interviews were conducted with forty-three victims that had been buried alive by the explosion and twenty-two volunteers who had participated in the direct rescue phase. They reported on their experiences during SAR and those victims and rescuers near them. Most of the people that were rescued alive were rescued by these volunteers. Volunteers’ social identities in peer groups, extended families, the neighborhood, and the Catholic Church structured their search and rescue activities. Chances of people surviving the blast were directly proportional to the presence among searchers of a person or persons who cared for the victim and who knew the victim’s likely location. The behavior of the victims was marked by the continuation of pre-existing motivational, normative, and value orientations. Victims acted co-operatively during entrapment. Most of the living victims were rescued during the first two hours after the explosion. (AA)

Aksit, Bahattin, see Karanci, Nuray A. and Bahattin Aksit.

Alexander, David, "Behavior During Earthquakes: A Southern Italian Example," Vol. 8, No. 1 (March 1990): 5-29.

This article concerns mass reaction to a violent earthquake in the eastern part of Naples Province, southern Italy. Patterns of perception and mass behavior are reconstructed from the testimonies of a group of local high school students and from the author’s personal experience of the event. This information shows that the perception, and therefore the reaction, of people differed according to age group, older people being by virtue of experience the first to realize that an earthquake was happening. Flight behavior was the prevalent first reaction to the tremors, and fear of being indoors rapidly developed. During the early stages of the emergency panic, defined as non-rational imperative behavior, was common, and people were injured as a result. Family ties, however, remained an important influence upon behavior, although they did not impede flight. The findings of this study generally confirm previous literature on mass reactions to earthquake events, except that anxiety, panic, and flight appear to have been more widespread, and preparedness less common, than in many other cases that sociologists have studied. (AA)

Alexander, David, "Newspaper Reporting of the May 1993 Florence Bomb," Vol. 13, No. 1 (March 1995): 45-65.

On 27 May 1993 a powerful bomb exploded in the center of Florence, Italy, killing five people in doing severe damage to art and architectural treasures, including the Uffizzi Galery and Accademia dei Georgofili. It was the first disaster since the floods of 1966 simultaneously to cause victims and damage the city’s cultural heritage. In this study local and international newspaper coverage of the bomb outrage is analyzed and compared with reporting on the 1966 floods. Once again, questions of artistic damage and the safety of tourists occupy the foreign papers while human interest stories dominated the Florentine ones. Indeed, the English and American newspapers treated the damaged art treasures almost as if they were human casualties. But since 1966 (and the collapse of the Eastern Bloc) Western news reporting has become depoliticized and dominated by new contexts, such as the preeminence of commercialism and, in the case of Italy, the struggle against the Mafia. It is concluded that the nature and extent of newspaper coverage of the bomb outrage was determined, not by objective or moral assessments of newsworthiness, but by a mixture of ad hoc considerations and snap assessments of what the readership what to learn about. (AA)

Ali, Lynne, "Symbolic Planning and Disaster Preparedness in Developing Countries: The Presbyterian Church in Vanuatu," Vol. 10, No. 2 (August 1992): 293-314.

In developing countries vulnerable to natural disasters, disaster planning is being encouraged and facilitated by donors. This is done in order to promote self-reliance as well as to mitigate the effects of disasters and lessen the need for a high degree of external emergency response assistance. This paper examines the development of disaster plans among the Southwest Pacific Island countries and pays particular attention to Vanuatu as a case study. The example used is the Presbyterian Church of Vanuatu’s Disaster Guideline, which was written without direct external input. An examination of the history of Vanuatu and the Presbyterian Church of Vanuatu points to the cultural significance of symbols. It is argued that, rather than promoting self-reliance, disaster planning has fostered a dependency relationship between donors and recipients in the Pacific Islands, albeit in a different form than during the period of colonial domination. The tendency to impose First World disaster planning strategies without significant regard for indigenous cultures has led to counter-disaster products, such as disaster plans, being regarded more as symbols than as practical tools. It is argued that in order for disaster planning to become more than just symbolic, donors and their disaster managers must be prepared to adapt their programs to local conditions, involve the indigenous people in all steps of disaster planning, and commit themselves to long-term programs. (AA)

Anderson, William A., “Bringing Children into Focus on the Social Science Disaster Research Agenda,” Vol. 23, No. 3 (November 2005): 159–175.

Significant progress has been made in the social science disaster research field since its inception several decades ago. Despite the advances in knowledge, important areas of research have been seriously understudied, including the impact of hazards and disasters on children and youths. In this paper, it is argued that such knowledge is needed to deepen our understanding of the impacts of disasters on society and to provide a firmer basis for disaster management policy and practice. It is suggested that children should be brought into clearer focus in the disaster research field through studies, particularly those of a comparative nature, that consider (1) children’s vulnerability and the outcomes they experience because of their youth, (2) actions taken by the adult society to reduce the vulnerability of children, and (3) actions children and youths undertake for themselves and others to reduce disaster impacts. (AA)

Anges, Derek, see Comfort, Louis, Ali Tekin, Ernesto Pretto, Bulent Kirimli, Derek Anges, and others.

Arlikatti, Sudha, Michael K. Lindell, and Carla S. Prater, “Perceived Stakeholder Role Relationships and Adoption of Seismic Hazard Adjustments,” Vol. 25, No. 3 (November 2007): 218–256.

This study examined the relationships among perceived stakeholder characteristics, risk perceptions, respondent characteristics, and self-reported adoption of 16 seismic hazard adjustments by residents in areas of high and medium seismic risk.  Seven stakeholder types, ranging from the federal government to the respondents themselves, were rated on three characteristics-seismic hazard knowledge, trustworthiness, and responsibility for taking action to protect households.  Respondents rated their hazard knowledge as higher than that of peers, indicating optimistic bias.  However, they also rated their hazard knowledge as lower than that of authorities and the news media-confirming that there are limits to optimistic bias.  Partial correlation analyses indicated that perceived stakeholder characteristics influenced hazard adjustment by both central and peripheral routes to behavioral change.  Paradoxically, respondents' adoption of hazard adjustments was more strongly correlated with the perceived characteristics of peers, even though these were rated lower on hazard knowledge, trustworthiness, and protection responsibility.  Although the effects were marginally significant, perceived stakeholder characteristics were related to respondents' characteristics (location, gender, and ethnicity).  This suggests risk communicators should consider tailoring their choice of sources as well as the content of their messages to different audience segments.  (AA)

Atwood, Douglas, see Clark, Lawrence V., Louis Veneziano, and Douglas Atwood.

Atwood, L. Erwin, "Perceived Impact of an Earthquake Prediction: The Third Person Effect," Vol. 11, No. 3 (November 1993): 365-378.

This paper explores perceived effects of the mass media called the "third-person" effect. This position argues that while the mass media do not have strong and important effects on "you" or "me," they do have important, and probably direct, effects on "them," most other people. The prediction of a Richter 6.0+ earthquake for the New Madrid Fault on or about December 3, 1990, provided an opportunity to study public opinion, information sources, and perceptions of media effects about a natural disaster. Belief in the earthquake prediction, perceived importance of and thinking about the problem were negatively related to the third-person effect. Attribution of media effects on others was also negatively related to the use of newspapers and radio, but television was an important source; those who attributed third-person effects also thought there was too much news about prediction, and "most others" were thought to believe the prediction. (AA)

Atwood, L. Erwin and Ann Marie Major, "Exploring the ’Cry Wolf’ Hypothesis," Vol. 16, No. 3 (November 1998): 279-302.

The "cry wolf" hypothesis argues that individuals who have experienced predictions of disasters that do not materialize will discount the validity of subsequent disaster warnings. This belief in the false alarm effect is widely mentioned in the disaster literature, and anecdotal material appears to support the validity of the hypothesis. This study of a false earthquake warning supports experimental findings indicating that cancellation of a disaster warning leads to a false alarm effect. Following cancellation of the threat by the non-appearance of the predicted earthquake, 46.7 percent of the panel respondents indicated that they would pay less attention whereas only 16.7 percent said that they would pay more attention to a future earthquake prediction. The panel data also suggest that the mass media were substantial contributors to the observed false alarm effect, while at the same time the media escaped blame for their contributions to the problem. (AA)

Atwood, L. Erwin, see Ann Marie Major and L. Erwin Atwood.

Bahk, C. Mo and Kurt Neuwirth, "Impact of Movie Depictions of Volcanic Disaster on Risk Perception and Judgements," Vol. 18, No. 1 (March 2000): 65-84.

This study examines how movie depictions of a volcanic disaster influence viewers’ perception and judgments concerning disaster-related experiences. A total of 162 college students watched one of three video clips: (1) the movie Volcano—a portrayal of a volcanic disaster taking place in the city of Los Angeles; (2) the documentary National Geographic’s Volcano; and (3) an instructional video on gardening (control). Subjects then filled out a questionnaire that measures their perception of victimization risk, victimization apprehension, problem seriousness, and risk locus of control (RLOC). As for those who watched the movie, message involvement, perceived realism, and role attractiveness were measured as mediator variables. Overall, the results reveal that subjects in the volcanic movie (drama) and documentary conditions exhibited higher levels of fear and worry about falling victim to a volcanic disaster than did subjects in the control condition. For subjects in the drama condition, perceived realism of the presentation and role attractiveness of the characters increased the level of fear about volcanic disasters and induced heightened estimates of volcanic risk victimization. Further, increased role attractiveness was associated with greater levels of external risk locus of control. (AA)

Bailey, Kenneth D., "Taxonomy and Disaster: Prospects and Problems," Vol. 7, No. 3 (November 1989): 419-431.

Despite some problems, which generally plague all of social research, taxonomy promises large benefits for disaster research. It not only aids in cataloguing, comparison, and research genesis (in its theoretical mode), but also shows similarity, thus facilitating explanation and prediction (in its conjoint mode). Its empirical mode is conducive to computer-aided generation of taxonomies, what might be termed grounded taxonomy. Typological analysis is amazingly complementary to other forms of analysis. Constructing typologies generally does not preclude other analyses, and is generally not particularly expensive nor time-consuming relative to other methods. Rather than being an expensive luxury, typological analysis of disasters is instead a valuable foundation and complement for other forms of analysis, and this valuable tool should not be neglected. (Edited Author Conclusion)

Baker, Earl J., "Hurricane Evacuation Behavior," Vol. 9, No. 2, (August 1991): 287-310.

Researchers have conducted sample surveys following at least twelve hurricanes from 1961 through 1989 in almost every state from Texas through Massachusetts. The resulting database is larger than that for any other hazard and many generations are feasible concerning factors accounting for variation in response to hurricane threats. Risk area and actions by public officials are the most important variables affecting public response. When public officials are aggressive in issuing evacuation notices and disseminate the messages effectively, over 90 percent of the residents of high-risk barrier islands and open coasts evacuate. People hearing, or believing they hear, official evacuation advisories or orders are more than twice as likely to leave in most locations. A greater percentage of mobile home dwellers evacuate than occupants of other housing, especially in moderate-risk and low-risk areas. General knowledge about hurricanes and hurricane safety is weakly related or unrelated to evacuation, but belief that one’s own home is subject to flooding is strongly associated with whether the occupant leaves. Length of residence in hurricane prone areas and hurricane experience are not good predictors of response. The great majority of people who evacuate unnecessarily in one hurricane will still leave in future threats. (AA)

Baldwin, Tamara K., "Earthquake Awareness in Southeast Missouri: A Study in Pluralistic Ignorance," Vol. 11, No. 3 (November 1993): 351-363.
The events and developments leading up to December 3, 1990, created a climate conducive to the study of public opinion about Browning’s prediction of an earthquake. This topic provides an avenue through which to examine pluralistic ignorance, or the shared, erroneous cognitive believes of an aggregate about the ideas, beliefs, and actions of others. This study focuses on the degree to which members of the public accurately perceived the beliefs of others regarding the Browning prediction. This study explores to what degree pluralistic ignorance existed among residents of the Southeast Missouri area on this topic and seeks to identify certain conditions of pluralistic ignorance which other studies of this phenomenon have described. (Modified author introduction)

Bankoff, Greg, "Vulnerability as a Measure of Change in Society," Vol. 21, No. 2 (August 2003): 50–30.

Assessing risk and evaluating crises—be they financial, social, political or environmental—have come increasingly to preoccupy the interests and concerns of analysts around the globe. In developed countries or what until recently was usually referred to as the First World, such considerations involve the reconceptualization of postindustrial societies as ones in which the rise of “manufactured uncertainties” have undermined the state’s established safety systems and its conventional calculus of security. Yet to the billions of humanity who continue to live in less developed countries of the Third and Fourth Worlds and whose peoples still have faith in the benefits of development or have seen that promise come and go in a single lifetime, these finer considerations of risk seem less important. The threats posed by dumping industrial wastes, unsafe chemical production and the pollution of air and water, though real and graphically manifest on occasion, often pale in comparison to the daily risks posed by natural hazards and human-induced calamities that recent decades have only intensified. Rather than the "risk society" proposed by Ulrich Beck and others (1992), it is the need to understand the historical evolution of vulnerability and the degree to which different social classes are differently placed at risk that require more urgent consideration for most communities.  (AA)

Bankoff, Greg, "Time is of the Essence: Disasters, Vulnerability and History," Vol. 22, No. 3 (November 2004): 23-42.

As an historian whose interests lie in both contemporary disaster practice as well the historical roots of vulnerability, I have become increasingly intrigued by the manner in which the proponents of these two 'fields' approach the question of time in relation to disasters. Needless to say these actors regard it very differently. Social scientists (and here I include mainly sociologists, anthropologists and human geographers) largely pay lip service to its importance, at best mentioning its relevance en passant but giving historical analysis and specific historical example little real consideration in the greater scheme of things. At the same time, though, they place inordinate emphasis on the importance of 'process' as the basis upon which their understanding of what turns a natural hazard into a disaster depends. The concept of vulnerability is proposed as the key to understanding how social systems generate unequal exposure to risk by making some people more prone to disaster than others, a condition that is largely a function of the power relations operative in each society. Vulnerability to historians, on the other hand, is not even really a conceptual term and, when used at all, usually indicates a state of being not a condition derivative of historical processes. Above all, disasters are primarily ‘events’ caused by a combination of seismological, meteorological or epidemiological agents (occasionally war is seen in this context as well) that have certain detrimental physical and socioeconomic consequences. At their most extreme, they may even cause the downfall of societies. However, they are rarely integrated into any wider theoretical perspective. Though both social scientists and historians may talk about disasters, they are not necessarily talking about the same thing: the one sees disasters as primarily a historical process (or processes set within recent temporal parameters), the other as non-sequential historical events. This is unfortunate because primarily disasters are both historical processes and sequential events. If this assertion sounds rather convoluted, I trust the following discussion will make the distinction somewhat clearer though no amount of clarification is really sufficient to adequately address this question. Instead, I intend what I say more as 'a line of thinking in progress' than 'a work in progress.'  (AA)

Barlow, Hugh D., "Safety Officer Accounts of Earthquake Preparedness at Riverside Industrial Sites," Vol. 11, No. 3 (November 1993): 421-435.
The Iben Browning pseudoscientific forecast of a major earthquake in the New Madrid seismic zone around December 3, 1990, provoked considerable talk and some concern around the Midwest, especially in the St. Louis area. Much local media attention focused on the state of earthquake preparedness in the area, and a proactive approach to preparedness was advocated for residents and businesses alike. This paper describes the state of earthquake preparedness among 20 older industrial plants located along the banks of the Mississippi River as reported by plant safety officers. While most safety officers were skeptical of Browning’s forecast, most also believed that a major earthquake would hit the St. Louis area in the not too distant future. Nevertheless, earthquake preparedness was minimal or nonexistent at most of the plants, and a follow-up survey two years later showed little change in this state of affairs. Also unchanged was the striking lack of communication between these businesses and emergency management officials. These and other findings are discussed in light of proactive earthquake mitigation efforts. (AA)
Barlow, Hugh D., see Farley, John E., Hugh D. Barlow, Marvin S. Finkelstein, and Larry Riley.

Barnett, Jon, see Ellemor, Heidi and Jon Barnett.

Bartlett, Glen S., Peter S. Houts, Linda K. Byrnes, and Robert W. Miller, "The Near Disaster at Three Mile Island," Vol. 1, No. 1 (March 1983): 19-42.
On March 29, 1979, a serious reactor accident occurred at the Three Mile Island nuclear power plant near Harrisburg, Pennsylvania (USA). Pregnant women and families with pre-school age children were asked to evacuate a five mile area around the plant. Evacuation plans were developed for a twenty mile radius, although no such evacuation occurred. Telephone surveys of adults and a questionnaire survey of high school students living near Three Mile Island were carried out from May 1979 to January 1980. The data collected show that living near the plant (absolute or perceived proximity), younger age and lower grade level of the adolescent respondent, presence of pre-school age child in the home, lower parent’s or adult’s education, and evacuation of all or part of the family were all associated with a stronger negative affective response to the accident and with the likelihood of having evacuated the area. The behavior of individuals and families following the Three Mile Island accident parallel those occurring in an actual disaster, and extend the theoretical framework of Kinston and Rosser to include the circumstances of potential disasters. (AA)

Barton, Allen H., "Comment on 'Can Sustainable Development Sustain Us?'," Vol. 20, No. 2 (August 2002): 127-130.

Bates, Frederick L. and Walter Gillis Peacock, "Long Term Recovery," Vol. 7, No. 3 (November 1989): 349-365.
A discussion of recovery following a disaster cannot be isolated from a general conceptual overview of disasters as a specific type of phenomenon. In particular, how the term disaster is defined is of crucial importance because recovery itself must be viewed against a set of definitional assumptions. The questions, "Recovery from what?" and "Recovery of what?" must be answered before we can even start a sensible discussion of the process of adaptive reordering which follows a disaster. Furthermore, the definition of the term disaster employed in discussing recovery must be such that answers to these questions flow directly and unambiguously from it. This paper must, therefore, begin by taking a position with respect to the definition of the term disaster, one which is compatible with the study of recovery. The search for a definition will assume, for obvious reasons, that any event which does not require a recovery process is by definition not a disaster. (Edited Author Introduction)
Bates, Frederick L., Walter Gillis Peacock, and others, "Measuring Disaster Impact on Household Living Conditions: The Domestic Assets Approach," Vol. 10, No. 1 (March 1992): 133-160.
Disaster researchers need to develop a standardized battery of measurement instruments of key variables determined to be important in assessing disaster impact and recovery. Such a toolkit is critical for ensuring a quick and rapid response of researchers and will facilitate research comparability. This paper introduced one such measure, the domestic assets index, which is designed to assess levels and changes in household living conditions. Also discussed are the theory behind the measure, its utility for disaster research, and the measure’s reliability and validity using data collected in six sample communities located in the United States, Italy, Yugoslavia, Mexico, Turkey, and Peru. (AA)
Bates, Frederick L., see Hoover, Greg A., and Frederick L. Bates.
Bates, Frederick L., see Peacock, Walter Gillis, Charles D. Killian, and Frederick L. Bates.
Beatley, Timothy, "Towards a Moral Philosophy of Natural Disaster Mitigation," Vol. 7, No. 1 (March 1989): 5-32.
While there is often considerable discussion about the effectiveness, political feasibility, legality, and other aspects of natural disaster mitigation, moral and ethical dimensions are usually overlooked. This paper argues that the disaster planning community should begin to explicitly consider the moral foundations of public natural disaster mitigation policy. At the most basic level the key question arises: what is the extent of government’s moral obligation to protect people and property from natural disasters such as hurricanes and earthquakes? While no definitive theory or position is put forth here, the author identifies several possible bases or elements of such a moral theory of mitigation. Among the moral criteria considered are: utilitarian and market failure rationales; the concept of basic rights; culpability and prevention of harm standards; and paternalism. Other non-disaster moral obligations, some conflicting and some complementary, are also identified and discussed. (AA)
Beggs, John J., Valerie Haines, and Jeanne S. Hurlbert, "The Effects of Personal Network and Local Community Contexts on the Receipt of Formal Aid During Disaster Recovery," Vol. 14, No. 1 (March 1996): 57-78.
Studies of the response of individuals to disasters have relied primarily on individual factors for explanation. Using data collected in telephone interviews with 594 residents of southwestern Louisiana, we examine the effects of local community and personal network contexts, as well as individual factors on individuals’ use of aid from formal organizations. We find our measures of personal network context affect five of our seven measures of the utilization of formal aid, and that network form effects these outcomes more consistently than network composition does. These effects are generally consistent with our predictions. We also find significant effects of our measure of community context, the level of owner-occupancy in an area. Living in areas with higher rates of owner-occupancy has a positive effect on three of our measures of formal aid. Based upon these findings we conclude that contextual factors exert important effects on individuals’ use of formal aid. We suggest that studies of the provision of aid to individuals by organizations should be supplemented with more detailed studies of the effects of personal network and local community contexts on individuals’ receipt of specific sources of aid from formal organizations. (AA)

Beggs, John J., see Haines, Valerie A., Jeanne S. Hurlbert, and John J. Beggs.

Bell, Doug, see Friesen, Kenton, and Doug Bell.

Bell, Heather M., see Tobin, Graham A., Heather M. Bell, Linda M. Whiteford, and Burrell E. Montz.

Bennett, Simon A., "Paradigmatic Disaster?: The Crash of Trans World Airways (TWA) Flight 800," Vol. 17, No. 3 (November 1999): 295-311.
This paper uses two discourses—Kuhn’s (1962) formulation of the paradigm and cognitive theory (specifically that of social schemas)— to deconstruct the Federal Bureau of Investigation (FBI) and National Transportation Safety Board’s (NTSB’s) investigation into the 1996 TWA Flight 800 disaster. Following the disaster, concerns were expressed in the media that the FBI and NTSB might not be approaching the investigation with an entirely open mind. Certainly a number of statements were made by FBI and NTSB managers that seemed to indicate a preferred conclusion as to the cause(s) of the disaster. This paper uses social schema theory and Kuhn’s discourse on the paradigm to ascertain, on the basis of widely reported statements, the degree to which FBI and NTSB investigators stated a preference—expressed either overtly in statements, or covertly through investigative method—in the matter of causation. (AA)
Bennett, Simon A.,"Not Context-Contexts: An ‘Outside-in’ Approach to Understanding the Vincennes Shoot-down," Vol. 19, No. 1 (March 2001): 27-57. 

On July 3, 1988, the U.S. warship Vincennes, on patrol in the Persian Gulf, fired two missiles at an Iranian airliner en route to Dubai. The airliner was destroyed. All on board were killed. Despite being exonerated, the incident effectively terminated the career of the Vincennes's commanding officer, Captain William Rogers III. While the immediate cause of the shoot-down was the decision by the captain to fire, this paper argues-following the work of Reason, Blockley, and others-that only a systemic and holistic analysis, in which all salient historic factors are described, can provide a full and objective explanation of the shoot-down. The paper concludes that the incident originated in a multiplicity of factors-geopolitical, technical, cognitive, and others-that, in some cases, originated decades before the shoot-down. (AA)

Bennett, Simon A., "Lock and Load? Explaining Different Policies for Delivering Safety and Security in the Air," Vol. 20, No. 2 (August 2002): 141-169.

The September 11 attacks on the World Trade Center and Pentagon generated significant social, economic, and political perturbations. The airline industry has been affected directly, with passenger numbers down and some airlines such as Midway in the United States and Sabena in Europe ceasing to exist. In an effort to restore confidence, the airlines, regulatory agencies, and governments on both sides of the Atlantic introduced "emergency" measures to increase public confidence in security. While cockpit incursion poses a risk to air safety (although it is not a novel phenomenon) other factors may also compromise safety (such as crew fatigue, flawed design, careless maintenance, and poor intra-crew communication and coordination. Both the United States (U.S.) and the United Kingdom (U.K.) have done much work on improving this latter safety-related aspect of commercial air operations. Out of this work has emerged the discipline of cockpit or crew resource management (CRM). (Different nomenclatures may be used.) One of the preconditions for effective CRM is ease of access between the flight deck and cabin. In the U.K., the British Air Line Pilots’ Association (BALPA) has voiced concern over the impact that locked and barred cockpit doors and new communication protocols will have on CRM. This has not been a major public concern of America's Air Line Pilots’ Association (ALPA). This paper uses Kasperson’s theory of risk amplification and Sprent's observations on risk attenuation to understand (a) how two organizations working in the same industry and representing the same grade of worker could generate different risk perceptions and (b) how the major pilots’ union of the country that did much of the early work on CRM (the United States) could de-emphasize it in post-September 11 debates on crew and passenger safety. (AA)

Bennett, Simon A., "Context is All: A Holistic Reformulation of the Tonkin Gulf Incident," Vol. 21, No. 1 (March 2003): 57-90.

Incidents and accidents are frequently ascribed to "operator" or "human error." Until recently accident investigators have focused more on the immediate or proximate causes of incidents and accidents than on such underlying or contextual factors as production imperatives, conditioning, expectation, peer pressure, ergonomics, or the quality and currency of rules, procedures, and training. Some theorists, however, have attempted to sensitize accident investigators to the potential impact on human perception and behavior of contextual factors. As a consequence of the work of Job (1996), Reason (1995, 1997), Snook (2000), and others, accident investigators now have the opportunity to apply a systems approach to accident investigation. The primary purpose of this paper is to illustrate and then test the systems or "context" approach with reference to a major incident with significant outcomes. To this end the work of Job, Reason, Snook, and others is used to frame, analyze, and draw conclusions from a major incident—the clash between U.S. and North Vietnamese naval forces in the Gulf of Tonkin during the early stages of the Vietnam War. The paper’s secondary purpose is to deconstruct, illuminate, and explain the incident with a view to adding to (if not correcting a part of) the historical record of the Vietnam War. The year 2004 marks the 40th anniversary of the Tonkin Gulf incident, described by Wise (1968) as "The Pearl Harbor of the Vietnam War." Following the alleged second attack on U.S. naval forces by North Vietnamese warships, President Johnson ordered a major escalation of the war against the Viet Cong. Today most analysts agree that the second attack never took place. Given the significance and outcomes of the "phantom attack" (for example, the loss of 58,000 American and over three million Vietnamese lives), it is important that we understand how and why the attack came to be imagined—for at least two reasons. First, some blamed the escalation of the Vietnam War on the "incompetence" of the sailors of the USS Maddox and USS C. Turner Joy. This misunderstanding has persisted for four decades. Secondly, consequential military errors still occur—as with the accidental shoot-down of an Iranian Airbus by an American warship in 1988 that some believe led to the Lockerbie bombing.

Having applied the "context" approach to the Tonkin Gulf incident, it is suggested that such factors as the sailors’ knowledge of the political and diplomatic background to their situation, their duty to protect their ship, and the very recent encounter with the North Vietnamese led them to "construct" (perceive) a second incident. It is concluded that, as in the 1988 Vincennes incident, knowledges, experiences, and expectations bore down upon the sailors to create a threat that existed only in their collective consciousness. In short, the macro impacted the micro experience to the point where judgment was degraded. (AA)

Berke, Philip, Timothy Beatley, and Suzanne Wilhite, "Influences on Local Adoption of Planning Measures for Earthquake Hazard Mitigation," Vol. 7, No. 1 (March 1989): 33-56.
This article assesses the extent to which various planning measures are used by communities for mitigating earthquake hazards. A secondary aim is to examine how planning process activities and community context characteristics influence local adoption of planning measures for mitigation. A number of conclusions based on data from a national survey of communities at risk to earthquakes were derived. Communities use a wide variety of planning measures for earthquake mitigation, but the frequency of adoption of such measures was greater in California than in other states. Planning process activities had a more important influence on local adoption than context characteristics. This conclusion implies that local efforts to advance local earthquake mitigation programs have a substantial potential for success. (AA)
Birkland, Thomas A., "Natural Disasters as Focusing Events: Policy Communities and Political Response," Vol. 14, No. 2 (August 1996): 221-243.
This article explains how large hurricanes and earthquakes influence Congressional agenda activity. By understanding these events as focusing events, we can better appreciate how they induce the news media and Congress to be more attentive to these disasters. While the theory of focusing events outlined here is broadly supported, considerable differences are found between the hurricane and earthquake fields. These differences turn on the political environment in which federal policy to address these disasters is made, and include the nature of the committees charged with policy-making, the nature of testimony offered before the committees, and the nature of the professional communities that are most active in this policy-making. These differences help to explain why there is greater federal involvement in earthquake policy-making than in hurricane policy. The policy implications of these differences are considered. (AA)

Blackburn, Jason K., see Curtis, Andrew, Jacqueline W. Mills, Jason K. Blackburn, John C. Pine, and Barrett Kennedy.

Blanchard-Boehm, R. Denise, "Understanding Public Response to Increased Risk from Natural Hazards: Application of the Hazards Risk Communication Framework," Vol. 16, No. 3 (November 1998): 247-278.
For the past four decades, researchers in the field of natural hazards have studied extensively how people "hear" warning messages of potential natural disasters and then, eventually, how they "respond" by way of adopting preparation and mitigation measures. Until the 1980s, a single framework did not exist for understanding risk communication as an integrated process. Much of the early research on risk communication was piecemeal and descriptive, and consisted of exploring the details of communicating risk within the events of a particular disaster. The proliferation of research on risk communication over several decades, though, has resulted in the evolution of a general model of hazards risk communication. This model presupposes that the process of risk communication is one whereby individuals: (1) hear a warning message; (2) understand its content; (3) internalize or believe the salience of its message; (4) confirm one’s interpretation with others; and (5) act or respond to its message to save one’s life and property. This paper applies the risk communication framework and its principles to a case study where probabilities were increased in 1990 of future earthquakes in the San Francisco Bay Area. Following the scientific community’s announcement, a low-key warning was issued to approximately two million residents through a large-scale information campaign. This study demonstrates that the risk communication model is an invaluable tool for helping us to understand the behavior of individuals who must learn of and act upon warning information that could say their lives and property. Further, researchers are urged to find ways to adapt this risk communication model to other types of natural and human-made hazards. (AA)

Blinn-Pike, Lynn, Brenda Phillips, and Patsilu Reeves, "Shelter Life After Hurricane Katrina: A Visual Analysis of Evacuee Perspectives," Vol. 24, No.3 (November 2006): 303-330

Nine survivors of Hurricane Katrina, who were residents in two Red Cross shelters, provided the researchers with a total of 90 Polaroid photographs of their lives in their respective disaster shelters. After they completed the photographic activity, they participated in semi-structured interviews about their individual photos. The following research questions were addressed to discover the emic (insider) perspectives of the shelter residents: a) what features of shelter life did the residents photograph and discuss; and b) what needs were evident in their photos and interviews? The results showed that the residents had particular needs related to (a) privacy, (b) interpersonal relationships, (c) security, and (d) outreach. The discussion covers recommendations for using visual research methodologies to understand the needs of shelter residents and suggests practical implications for shelter managers and other professionals serving those displaced by disaster.  (AA)

Blocker, T. Jean, E. Burke Rochford, Jr., and Darren F. Sherkat, "Political Responses to Natural Hazards: Social Movement Participation Following a Flood Disaster," Vol. 9, No. 3 (November 1991): 367-382.  

While much research attention has been focused recently upon understanding and interpreting social movements which emerge in response to technological hazards, comparatively little work has been directed toward the systematic examination of factors related to protest activity in the aftermath of natural hazards. The authors study community activism after a major flood mitigation project failed to provide the promised protection from storm water damage. They conclude that citizen response to natural events is becoming far less distinct from that witnessed in the aftermath of man-made events, because the technology to mitigate impacts of natural disasters is becoming more available. The results of the study show that solidarity is a necessary ingredient for social movement facilitation, particularly when the movement is loosely structured and urgently organized, and that the presence of solidarity aids in the communication of grievances, recruitment of members, and the coordination of activities. (AA)

Bloomer, Julian, "Divided We Fall: Towards An Understanding Of Community Risk Assessment: A Case Study From The Lao PDR," Vol. 22, No. 3 (November 2004): 87-108.

Much of the theory that embodies the framework for community risk assessments has been drawn from varying peripheral disciplines. Many potentially important factors such as the suitability of existing disaster management philosophies in differing contexts, the need for methodologies accessible to those with limited training and the development of appropriate indicators for monitoring the success of participation have been largely neglected. Further to these issues that relate directly to the risk assessment, issues surrounding the role of governments in risk reduction and the recognition of the importance of risk perception amongst communities were also encountered during the research process discussed below and have been examined in the context of developing appropriate methodologies. The importance of small-scale threats to the surveyed community was identified during the field study as well as the need for the de-professionalization of risk assessment procedures, particularly for areas that would not ordinarily receive attention from disaster management practitioners but that would benefit from the principles used in the discipline. The study concluded that the development of a more flexible methodology that had the ability to adapt to the multifarious contexts that the process is employed in is a key factor in ensuring the positive future development of the process.   (AA)

Boer, Henk, see Wiegman, Oene, Egil Komilis, Bernard Cadet, Henk Boer, and Jan M. Gutteling.
Bogard, William, "Evaluating Chemical Hazards in the Aftermath of the Bhopal Tragedy," Vol. 5, No. 3 (November 1987): 233-241.
This article addresses a number of policy concerns that have arisen in the aftermath of the chemical accident that occurred in Bhopal, India, on December 2, 1984. In view of magnitude of that tragedy and its implications for the export of hazardous technologies to the Third World, evaluations of the chemical industry based upon simple extrapolations from past industry performance are inadequate. Future policies undertaken to regulate the industry must explicitly account for the long-term global uncertainties, irreversibilities, catastrophic potentials, and dependencies created by the development of chemical technologies. (AA)

Boin, Arjen, “Disaster Research and Future Crises: Broadening the Research Agenda,” Vol. 23, No. 3 (November 2005): 199–214.

Today’s crises and disasters pose formidable challenges to politicians, public administrators, first responders, and ordinary citizens. The 9/11 events, SARS, the Asian tsunami, Hurricane Katrina and her sisters, the giant earthquake in the Indian-Pakistan region, and the looming threat of a new flu pandemic are but a handful of recent crises that seem to outstrip human capacity for dealing with large-scale adversity. Globalization and modernization tightly connect life-sustaining systems, which renders these systems increasingly vulnerable to breakdowns. In addition to causing untold misery within a bounded geographic area, the modern disaster hurts faraway and seemingly unrelated populations. The traditional challenges of crisis and disaster management prevention, preparation, response, and recovery are taking on new dimensions. Recent crises and disasters have exposed the inadequacy of traditional processes and structures, which were designed to deal with more traditional forms of adversity. The aftermath of today’s crises and disasters is marked by instant politicization, which all too often creates an entirely new crisis for both crisis leaders and disaster victims. The prospect of a flu pandemic has authorities across the world now scrambling for plans, tools, conceptual anchors, road maps some idea, in short, of what to do when such a mega-disaster strikes. The question, then, is what crisis and disaster researchers can bring to the table and in which areas they remain wanting. This article focuses on the latter: which topics do modern crises and disasters suggest for the research agenda? (Modified author introduction)

Bolin, Robert C., "Disaster Impact and Recovery: A Comparison of Black and White Victims," Vol. 4, No. 1 (March 1986): 35-50.
This paper presents an analysis of recovery from natural disaster of black and white disaster victims. The data were gathered in Paris, Texas, following a tornado in that town in April 1982 which destroyed or damaged over 1,500 houses and apartments. A sample of 219 black victims and 212 white victims were interviewed seven months after the disaster, with information being gathered on some 178 items pertaining to their losses, aid received, psychosocial impacts and recovery. Discriminant function analysis is used to select sets of independent variables that predict recovery levels for black and white victims along two dimensions of recovery, emotional and economic recovery. Differences in determinants of recovery between the two groups of victims involved variations in losses, psychological impacts, aid utilization and social support, but not demographic or socioeconomic factors. (AA)
Bolin, Robert C. and Patricia A. Bolton, "Recovery in Nicaragua and the U.S.A." Vol. 1, No. 1 (March 1983): 125-144.
Family recovery from natural disasters is examined in a cross-cultural framework. A longitudinal design was used, gathering survey data from respondents in Rapid City, South Dakota, USA (N=125), and Managua, Nicaragua (N=275), where extensive disasters occurred in 1972. A model of family recovery is developed and its fit with the data is tested using path analysis. In Rapid City, perception of recovery is best explained by losses, aid received, and recovery of pre-disaster income levels. In Managua aid—at least that type reported by Nicaraguan respondents—had little effect; employment continuity took precedence over other variables. The data suggest that in order to recover pre-disaster levels of satisfaction with life style families reach beyond their immediate boundaries for help, but the institutionalized manner in which this is done differs across cultures. (AA)
Bollens, Scott A., see Kaiser, Edward J., Raymond J. Burby, Scott A. Bollens and James M. Holway.
Bolton, Patricia A., see Bolin, Robert C. and Patricia A. Bolton.
Boss, Pauline Grossenbacher, "Family Separation and Boundary Ambiguity," Vol. 1, No. 1 (March 1983): 63-72.
The quality of a father’s absence or presence in the family is the long-time focus of the researcher and presents a new view in the father absent literature. The variable of Psychological Father Presence (PFP) is described, operationalized and empirically verified as dysfunctional for families with physically missing fathers. Based on these findings which are reviewed, the author demonstrated how disaster research can be used to build stress theory for more normative family situations of father absence such as divorce. To illustrate, examples from the Boss boundary ambiguity project and the McCubbin coping project are presented. This author’s major premise is that high family boundary ambiguity (as indicated by high PFP with physical father absence) will be predictive of high family dysfunction and that such family boundary ambiguity can be found in situations of divorce as well as in situations where families face the disaster of having a father missing from war. The overall thesis is that ambiguity in the family boundary is the critical predictor regarding the outcome of various kinds of father absence. (AA)
Bourque, Linda B., Kimberley I. Shoaf, and Loc H. Nguyen, "Survey Research," Vol. 15, No. 1 (March 1997): 71-101.
We examine the kinds of information that can be obtained from well-designed, standardized, population-based surveys and demonstrate that some things which, in the past, have been considered barriers to the use of surveys following disasters provide insights into post-disaster behavior and may be advantageous. In specific, we examine: the use of standardized surveys to compare community behavior across time, events, and locations; the extent to which surveys represent the population of interest in the aftermath of a disaster; the receptivity of respondents to being interviewed after a disaster; the ability to utilize telephones for interviews after a disaster; the extent to which the data collected in a survey are perishable and subject to memory decay; the use of surveys as quasi-experimental designs for obtaining information on "control groups"; the use of surveys as a source of baseline or denominator data for ascertaining what other, more specialized datasets represent; the maintenance of verbal data collected within the context of a survey for later post-coding and analysis; and the storage of surveys in archives for use in secondary analyses by other researchers. Overall, we conclude that well-designed, standardized, population-based surveys can provide an accurate picture of a community’s behaviors and attitudes with regard to disasters as well as describe the impact of a disaster on a population.
Bourque, Linda B., see Goltz, James D., Lisa A. Russell, and Linda B. Bourque.

Bourque, Linda B., see Ramirez, Marizen, Megumi Kano, Linda B. Bourque, and Kimberley I. Shoaf.

Bourque, Linda B., see Siegel, Judith M., Linda B. Bourque, and Kimberley I. Shoaf.

Brickman, Ellen, see Thiel de Bocanegra, Heike, Ellen Brickman, and Chris O’Sullivan.

Britton, Neil R., "Organized Behavior in Disaster: A Review Essay," Vol. 6, No. 3 (November 1988): 363-395.
This essay will review, using references which cite Dynes’s Organized Behavior in Disaster: (1) the contribution this book has made by illustrating the text’s coverage of many important substantive areas of sociological research in the field of disaster studies; (2) how it has been subsequently employed by disaster researchers in a wide range of disaster-relevant quests; and (3) the particular influence it has had on organizational studies within the disaster setting. (Edited Author Introduction)
Britton, Neil R., "Introduction to Special Issue," Vol. 8, No. 3 (November 1990): 199-205.
This special issue pursues the two aims set up by the Research Committee on Disasters (RC 39) of the International Sociological Association (ISA) for this journal. First, the promotion of a multi-disciplinary orientation to the social study of disasters has been achieved by inviting a group comprised of geographers (Philip Buckle, John Campbell), political scientists (Michael Jackson, Peter Janssen, John Robbins, Roger Wettenhall), psychologists (Michael Innes, Carmen Moran, Jennifer Slack), and sociologists (Neil Britton, Gary Kreps, Michael Smithson) to contribute papers. Of the nine papers contained in this issue, seven are authored by Australians, another by a New Zealander, and one by an American. Thus, a second aim of the research committee, to encourage the geographical scope of articles and to feature multi-national studies, has also been accomplished. Seven of these papers deal with aspects of emergency and disaster management in Australia, while of the remaining two, one focuses on the South Pacific, and the other the United States. (Edited Author Introduction)
Britton, Neil R., "Emergency Management in the Pacific: Editor’s Introduction," Vol. 10, No. 2 (August 1992): 261-267.
This special issue directs attention to some current emergency management issues within selected nations in the Pacific Basin. The Pacific Basin is the largest region in the world. The term "Pacific Basin" comprises the numerous island states within the Pacific Ocean and the thirty-one large countries on the continental mainlands which border it. Diversity is the essence—and the spirit—of the Pacific Basin. Economic, political and cultural variability flourishes. If physical, socioeconomic and cultural diversity is varied, so are the challenges facing hazard and disaster managers. Countries in the region are at various stages of development, and their needs have clearly become heterogeneous. The nine papers comprising this special issue illustrate well the range of issues and scholars currently preoccupied with emergency management in the Pacific. (Edited Author Introduction)
Britton, Neil R., "Uncommon Hazards and Orthodox Emergency Management: Toward a Reconciliation," Vol. 10, No. 2 (August 1992): 329-348.
Effective emergency management requires a close fit between the state of risk and the state of hazard management. If these components get out of phase, a marked increase in societal vulnerability is likely to prevail. Recognizing that the major burden for developed societies has shifted from risks associated with natural processes to those arising from technological development and application, disaster-relevant organizational networks have adopted a Comprehensive Emergency Management (CEM) "all-hazards" approach. However, in Australia, as elsewhere, technological hazards present major problems for emergency managers because they pose different and often more difficult predicaments than do the more familiar natural hazards. While CEM is a good "in principle" strategy, the practices needed to protect society from a diversity of disaster-producing agents are more difficult to achieve. Two explanations are given for this: misperceptions about common features of hazard types; and differential progress among social components. The concept of cultural lag provides an explanatory framework as to why predicaments like this occur, and the concept of disaster subculture may provide a solution. (AA)
Britton, Neil R., "Editor’s Introduction," Vol. 10, No. 3 (November 1992): 435-436.
This special issue is a companion to the previous special issue on Emergency Management in the Pacific (Vol. 10, No. 2). The focus here is somewhat broader, on the matter of cross-national responses to disasters. The papers deal with several types of man-made environmental threats. Taken collectively, these papers extend the developing body of knowledge on the effects of cultural or national group membership on the interpretation of risk communication. As the study of disasters becomes more global, these pieces will no doubt serve to define the direction of future research. (Edited Editor Introduction)
Britton, Neil R., "Whither the Emergency Manager?" Vol. 17, No. 2 (August 1999): 223-235.
The invitation to comment on Thomas E. Drabek’s (1986) Human System Responses to Disaster provides an opportunity to reflect on the practice of emergency management and the evolving role of the emergency manager. This essay uses Drabek’s publication as a vehicle to reflect on major developments influencing emergency management practice. It begins by locating Human System Responses to Disaster within the disaster sociology literature, and argues that the book makes two major contributions to disaster study. From here, the focus of the essay shifts from Drabek’s work to identifying elements that characterized emergency management practice at the time when Drabek wrote his text. The essay moves on to look at some current issues pertaining to emergency management and leads into a discussion of where practice might be heading in the coming decade. A brief return to Human System Responses to Disaster completes the discussion. (Edited from the author’s comments)
Britton, Neil R. and Roger L. Wettenhall, "Evolution of a Disaster ‘Focal Point’: Australia’s Natural Disasters Organization," Vol. 8, No. 3 (November 1990): 237-274.
In the study of government structures and processes, the idea of focal points has emerged particularly in relation to public trading or business enterprises. This paper looks briefly at this usage and then seeks to translate it to the very different context of central government structures for disaster planning and coordination. The particular illustration used is the Australian Natural Disasters Organization (IVDO), which emerged in the 1970s in the heat of Darwin’s Cyclone Tracy experience and has been the nearest thing Australia has had to a disaster focal point over the ensuing decade and a half. (AA)
Britton, Neil R. and John Lindsay, "Integrating City Planning and Emergency Preparedness: Some of the Reasons Why," Vol. 13, No. 1 (March 1995): 93-106.
When proposing urban redevelopment and renewal schemes, what responsibility does the city planner have to ensure citizens are not placed at risk? How can the practical integration of emergency planning and city planning principles be achieved? While their importance is not contested, questions such as these are not part of the contemporary planner’s creed, even though the industrial hazardscape of cities and towns, in particular, is increasing. There is a compelling need for a closer integration between disaster and city planning. Planners need to consider aspects of emergency management, risk assessment, and hazard vulnerability in their planning and development deliberations. An emergency management focus is particularly necessary when urban renewal and redevelopment are being considered. Of special importance is the need for planners to understand that large-scale urban and industrial projects can exacerbate the plight of existing "at-risk" groups, and may even create a more hazardous social environment for both existing and future populations. These issues are examined in two articles. This first paper examines the issues in the context of emergency management and other relevant literature. In the second paper two case studies are presented to demonstrate how these issues translate into practice. (AA)
Britton, Neil R. and John Lindsay, "Demonstrating the Need to Integrate City Planning and Emergency Preparedness: Two Case Studies," Vol. 13, No. 2 (August 1995): 161-178.
City planners need to consider aspects of emergency management, risk assessment, and hazard vulnerability in their planning and development deliberations. Planners need to recognize that urban hazards, especially from technological sources, are more prevalent than may at first be apparent. An emergency management focus is particularly necessary when urban renewal and redevelopment is being considered. Of special importance is the need for planners to understand that projects like this can exacerbate the plight of existing "at-risk" groups, and may even create a more hazardous social environment. Planners also need to be made aware that their professional actions have a direct impact on both the task-set and performance capabilities of disaster managers and emergency service operatives. In this paper two case studies are presented to demonstrate how these issues translate into practice. The first explores the consequences of a "classic" medium-scale technology emergency in Australia. The second study, from Canada, illustrates the ubiquity of small-scale industrial hazards in the modern city, and epitomizes the extent to which city dwellers are vulnerable. (AA)
Broadbent, Jeffrey, "The Ties That Bind: Social Fabric and the Mobilization of Environmental Movements in Japan," Vol. 4, No 2 (August 1986): 227-253.
This paper compares twelve social movements, all supporting or opposing environmental and industrialization issues, which occurred in the Sixties and Seventies in one prefecture in southern Japan. The independent variable is the type of local social fabric they arose within; the dependent variables, their mobilization process and goals. The data were collected through qualitative field work, including interviewing, observation and documents, and later coded into questionnaire form. The local social fabric, associational, mixed, or communal, affected several aspects of their mobilization process: goals, leader and follower motives, rate of success, and relation to dominant elites. In communal movements, the leader had more autonomy in setting goals, and followers were more loyal to him. Such movements were more idealistic. In associational movements, leaders and followers emphasized individualistic and material goals and motives. Elites attempted to co-opt communal leaders more, because of the leaders’ more arbitrary power. Communal leaders resisted that if they had strong internalized values. Values penetrate movements through leaders. Communal social fabrics support new social movements in Japan, contrary to the Western experience, where such movements arise in more associational, middle-class fabrics. (AA)
Broska, Arlene, see Gibbs, Margaret, Juliana R. Lachenmeyer, Arlene Broska, and Richard Deicher.
Browning, Larry D. and Jody C. Shetler, "Communication in Crisis, Communication in Recovery: A Postmodern Commentary on the Exxon Valdez Disaster," Vol. 10, No. 3 (November 1992): 477-498.
This article is an application of the postmodern characteristics of simultaneity, chaos, unintended consequences, and multiple realities to the Exxon Valdez disaster. After postmodernity is applied to the Exxon Valdez case study, the changes in contingency planning, prevention, and response that have occurred since 1989, and their implications for the Pacific Rim, are reviewed. The theme of the paper is the use of differences for problem solving in emergencies. (AA)
Buckle, Philip, "Prospects for Public Sector Disaster Management in the 1990s: An Indication of Current Issues with Particular Reference to Victoria, Australia," Vol. 8, No. 3 (November 1990): 301-324.
Public-sector disaster managers have not conducted a systematic evaluation of the operational and policy issues that they will confront in this decade. This is despite increasing community expectations for disaster management, political requirements for increased performance and accountability, and reduced resources that will put significant pressures on disaster managers to critically evaluate this area. Key issues disaster managers will have to consider include: developing a clearer understanding of "disaster"; understanding that disasters are social events; appreciating the increasing range of hazards to which people are exposed; applying a range of technologies to disaster management; and critically evaluating assumptions about disaster management and operations. Such considerations are not likely to occur spontaneously. Reviews and incremental changes may be generated by political, community, and resource depletion pressures. However, substantial change to disaster management policy and practice is only likely to be achieved if researchers act as a catalyst by making their findings more widely available and by stimulating the public sector to undertake critical analyses of disaster management. (AA)

Buckle, Philip, Graham L. Marsh, and Sydney Smale, "Reframing Risk, Hazards, Disasters, and Daily Life: A Report of Research into Local Appreciation of Risks and Threats," Vol. 20, No. 3 (November 2002): 309-324.

This paper introduces a series of research projects in which we have been engaged examining a number of issues related to contemporary disaster management since 1999. These research projects, supported by our own agencies and Emergency Management Australia, have at their core an examination of the concepts of community, localness, risk, hazard, vulnerability and resilience and everyday life.

Burby, Raymond J., see Kaiser, Edward J., Raymond J. Burby, Scott A. Bollens and James M. Holway.

Burnham, Gilbert, see Doocy, Shannon, Courtland Robinson, and Gilbert Burnham.

Bush, David, see Aguirre, Benigno, and David Bush.

Butler, David L., "Selected Internet Sites on Natural Hazards and Disasters," Vol. 15, No. 1 (March 1997): 197-215.

[A listing of Internet sites prepared for a special issue on methods of disaster research.]

Byrnes, Linda K., see Bartlett, Glen S., Peter S. Houts, Linda K. Byrnes, and Robert W. Miller.

Cable, Sherry and Beth Degutis, "The Transformation of Community Consciousness: The Effects of Citizens’ Organizations on Host Communities," Vol. 9, No. 3 (November 1991): 383-399.
We compare two citizens’ organizations and find that mobilization enhanced community solidarity to the point that a collective change of consciousness occurred. We suggest that the effects of a citizens’ organization on the host community are significantly determined by three factors: the degree of premobilization integration of the community; the presence of economic constraints made salient by the mobilization issue, and the extent to which the issue cuts across existing political cleavages. We conclude that the study of emergent citizens’ groups in disasters is enhanced by using a social movements perspective. (AA)
Cadet, Bernard, see Wiegman, Oene, Egil Komilis, Bernard Cadet, Henk Boer, and Jan M. Gutteling.
Campbell, John R., "Disasters and Development in Historical Context: Tropical Cyclone Response in the Banks Islands, Northern Vanuatu," Vol. 8, No. 3 (November 1990): 401-424.
The Banks Islands in northern Vanuatu are prone to tropical cyclones. While a thriving population appears to have coped with these events prior to European contact, since then a smaller population has struggled to maintain its food security following tropical cyclone events. A number of social, economic, political, and resource management changes have led to a set of disaster pre-conditions which result in dependence on external food relief following tropical cyclones. Most of these changes have taken place in the intervening years between disasters and have occurred independent of the tropical cyclone hazard. However, one set of changes, the provision of food relief itself, has provided the catalyst for the other changes to occur. (AA)
Carter, T. Michael, Stephanie Kendall, and John P. Clark, "Household Response to Warnings," Vol. 1, No. 1 (March 1983): 95-104.
By use of a two-stage decision-model, the effect of family structure on household response to natural hazard warnings is examined for a sample of 429 Mobile, Alabama, residents interviewed after Hurricane Frederic in 1979. The basic hypothesis that is examined is that the manner in which residents decide to evacuate differs depending on the structural characteristics of the household. Results show that the complete nuclear family—father, mother, and children—appears to respond much more like relatively isolated groups, relying on their own interpretation of warning information, in contrast to what may be labeled as incomplete nuclear families—married couples without children and single residents living alone—who rely on their prior perceptions of risk and their social contacts with other significant persons. (AA)
Childers, Cheryl D., "Elderly Female-Headed Households in the Disaster Loan Process," Vol. 17, No. 1 (March 1999): 99-110.
The purpose of this exploratory research was to compare the income and approval rates of elderly single-female households and other types of households applying for disaster aid. Households from two parishes involved in the flooding in and around New Orleans, Louisiana, in May 1995 who applied for federal loans via the U.S. Federal Emergency Management Agency's (FEMA) National Teleregistration Center were compared on demographics and outcomes. Data analysis showed that elderly single-female households were over-represented in the population applying to FEMA; two and one-half times as likely as other elderly households or non-elderly households to have incomes of $11,000 or lower; and three times less likely than other elderly households to receive a low-interest loan. This study indicates that the current federal low-interest loan program does not adequately address the needs of poor elderly women. Special initiatives are needed that target this population. (AA)
Clark, John P., see Carter, T. Michael, Stephenie Kendall, and John P. Clark.
Clark, Lawrence V., Louis Veneziano, and Douglas Atwood, "Situational and Dispositional Determinants of Cognitive and Affective Reactions to the New Madrid Earthquake Prediction," Vol. 11, No. 3 (November 1993): 323-335.
A New Mexico climatologist, Iben Browning, forecast an even chance that a major earthquake would strike the New Madrid Fault on or around December 3, 1990. The extended media coverage associated with this "projection" may have generated the most acute public awareness of earthquake hazards in the mid-continental United States in recent memory. In order to investigate what effect situational and dispositional factors had on cognitive and affective reactions to Browning’s "projection," 428 college students residing in the area of Southeast Missouri predicted to be affected by an earthquake on the New Madrid Fault were administered an extensive questionnaire. The questionnaire determined how situational factors (sociodemographic characteristics, prior earthquake experience, and impact attributed by the respondents to exposure to media sources of information) and disposition factors (personality characteristics) were related to their reactions towards Browning’s "projection." The results indicated that the cognitive and affective reactions to an earthquake prediction assessed in this study can be partially predicted from a combination of situational, but not dispositional, factors. (AA)

Clark-Daniels, Carolyn L., see R. Steven Daniels and Carolyn L. Clark-Daniels.

Clason, Christine, "The Family as a Life-Saver in Disaster?" Vol. 1, No. 1 (March 1983): 43-62.
In discussing the subject of "Family and Disaster," the implicit assumption is that the family is the "instrument" which supports the existing, societal organization and therefore the most common approach is to consider how families cope with disaster. There is confusion as to whether one is speaking about the family on an institutional level or about family units. In this paper we have tried to answer two questions: are individuals better able to cope with disaster on a large scale when living in family units; does the individualized conjugal family unit with clear-cut divisions of labor and roles offer better chances than other family types? To explore these questions we used the situation in Japanese camps for civilians during World War II. We reach the conclusion that it is not living in family units which gives a better chance of survival, but the ability to engage in a caring relation with other(s). The ability to adapt to changing situations, without losing one’s self-control and a "fighting" spirit, seem to be very important in order to survive. The conjugal family type prepares women much better in all respects than men. (AA)
Clause, Catherine S., see Lindell, Michael K., David J. Whitney, Christina J. Futch, and Catherine S. Clause.
Cleary, Paul D. Cleary, see Houts, Peter S., Michael K. Lindell, Teh Wei Hu, Paul D. Cleary, George Tokuhata, and Chynthia B. Flynn.

Clements, Bruce, see Wray, Ricardo, Jennifer Rivers, Amanda Whitworth, Keri Jupka, and Bruce Clements.

Coles, Eve, see Norman, Sarah and Eve Coles.

Collins, John, "The Potential for Right to Know Legislation in Canada," Vol. 10, No. 2 (August 1992): 349-364.
Increasing public concern about environmental pollution has led to the implementation of a series of laws and public information systems about toxic hazards, known as the Right to Know, in both the United States and the European Community. The theoretical underpinnings of the Right to Know movement are examined, along with the implementation processes undertaken in the US and Europe. The American model in particular is linked to the emergence of environmental public action groups and a corresponding decrease in government regulation. This system is criticized as being overly dependent on litigation as a punitive measure against corporate polluters. On the other hand the European model fails to directly empower communities with specific information and is weak on implementation strategies. Many of the characteristics which brought about the American Right to Know legislation are apparent in Canada. However, differences in the manner in which the Canadian and American public and private sectors are organized are outlined, indicating why the American style legislation would be inappropriate in Canada. Nevertheless, a Canadian Right to Know system is required, although it is suggested that it be based upon the expert-driven risk assessment and public information dissemination program that characterizes on the European Community approach. (AA)
Comfort, Louise K., "Designing an Interactive, Intelligent, Spatial Information System for International Disaster Assistance," Vol. 9, No. 3 (November 1991): 339-353.
The complexity of disaster environments poses an extraordinary burden on human decision makers to take timely, appropriate action in uncertain conditions. The information load escalates beyond our limited cognitive capacity for processing information, yet timely action is critical when lives are at risk. The information burden increases with scope and complexity in disaster environments, impeding action despite available resources and committed personnel. The author argues that if individual and organizational learning processes can be increased in complex disaster environments, this knowledge may be shared with the wider international community to generate a stronger capacity to reduce the risk of, and losses from, disaster; and offers a design for an interactive, intelligent spatial information system which can provide decision-makers with flexible capacity to obtain an overview of the entire set of disaster response operations while retaining the capacity vfor detailed examination of specific problems at any given time. (AA)
Comfort, Louis, Ali Tekin, Ernesto Pretto, Bulent Kirimli, Derek Anges, and others, "Time, Knowledge, and Action: The Effects of Trauma Upon Community Capacity for Action," Vol. 16, No. 1 (March 1998): 73-91.
This article explores the relationship between time, knowledge, and action under the urgent conditions of disaster. We inquire into the conditions under which a community is able to give timely response to a catastrophic event. Such events require interorganizational communication, coordination, and a shared knowledge base to support action. We report findings from an international, interdisciplinary study of medical response following the March 13, 1992, earthquake in Erzincan, Turkey. Data are presented from a survey of representative organizational actors who were engaged in disaster response operations and lay persons who observed the response. In the case of Ezrincan, the effect of trauma, communicated across multiple ties of family, friendship, and business in the community, had a disabling effect on the community’s capacity to respond to the urgent needs of its citizens. Further, national efforts dependent upon knowledge of the community were inhibited by local trauma. We conclude that national capacity for timely, effective response to disaster depends upon the initial condition of training, communications, and infrastructure that are in place at the community level prior to the disaster. (AA)

Coles, Eve, see Stuart-Black, Jim, Eve Coles, and Sarah Norman.

Colignon, Richard A., see Gillespie, David F. and Richard A. Colignon.
Copenhaver, Emily, see Sorensen, John H., Dennis S. Mileti, and Emily Copenhaver.

Corbacioglu, Sitki and Naim Kapucu, “Intergovernmental Relations in Response to the 1999 Marmara Earthquake in Turkey: A Network Analysis,” Vol. 23, No. 3 (November 2005): 73–102.

This research examines the intergovernmental coordination to reduce vulnerability of local communities to disasters. Turkeys exposure to seismic risk is very high and achieving intergovernmental coordination in response operations is a challenge. The formal bureaucratic structure of the disaster management inhibits timely collective action in complex disaster environments. The paper examines one of the most destructive regional disasters of the last century, the 1999 Marmara earthquake. The research uses data from content analyses of news reports, interviews with public and nonprofit managers, and direct field observations. This analysis was carried out using UCINET 6.0 social network analysis software program. The results of the network analysis have shown that there is a problem of communication and coordination among public agencies in response to the disaster. Moreover, the integration of organizations from different jurisdictions and other sectors was problematic in the response operations. The results of the study reveal the leverage points for improving intergovernmental collective action from the perspective of complex adaptive systems theory. (AA)

Cornwell, Benjamin, Wendy Harmon, Melissa Mason, Brian Merz, and Mike Lampe, "Panic or Situational Constraints? The Case of the M/V Estonia," Vol. 19, No. 1 (March 2001): 5-25.

This paper evaluates behavior among individuals during the sinking of the M/V Estonia in 1994, which caused the deaths of 851 people. Survival rates of those on board indicate a drastically higher proportion of men surviving than women (.22 vs .05), and a higher proportion of crew members surviving than regular passengers (.23 vs .12). These patterns suggest that intense competition and panic may have ensued during the escape, since it appears that individuals with (socially-defined) role obligations (e.g., crew members) disregarded others' (e.g., regular passengers) need for aid during the emergency. However, we believe that the unusually tumultuous physical constraints effectuated by the disaster may have made it difficult for these individuals to help one another escape from the ship. Thus, unlike previous research on disasters, this paper treats the situational environment of the disaster as a factor that can influence survival rates differentially across groups. The usefulness of reaching conclusions about the existence of panic based solely on observations of overt action and/or covert emotional states (especially those based solely on quantitative analyses) is thus called into question. (AA)

Couch, Stephen R. and Barbara A. Wade, " ‘I Want to Barbecue bin Laden’: Humor after 9/11," Vol. 21, No. 3 (November 2003): 67-86.

This paper is a preliminary examination of humor related to the terrorist attacks of September 11, 2001, and its aftermath. Data include cartoons, caricatures, songs, video skits, and satirical essays gathered from books, newspapers, and Internet sources. We begin with a short discussion of sociological approaches to humor, noting that humor can be used either to further or to stymie social change. We suggest that theories of Bourdieu and Foucault have something to offer in studying humor’s place in social discourse. Next, we examine three themes that emerged in post-9/11 humor: A Just Revenge; The Enemy: Evil, Cowardly, Barbaric, Incompetent; and Insecurity in a Changing World. Also, we briefly consider post-9/11 humor in comparison with humor that followed the December 7, 1941 attack on Pearl Harbor; World War II; and humor that emerged about the Gulf War. We end by suggesting timing, place, and power are important when studying the role of humor in social discourse. (AA)

Couch, Stephen R., see Kroll-Smith, J. Stephen and Stephen R. Couch.
Cross, John A., "Longitudinal Changes in Hurricane Hazard Perception," Vol. 8, No. 1 (March 1990): 31-47.
Hurricane hazard perception data, periodically collected over a twelve year period from the same sample of Lower Florida Keys residents, were analyzed to determine what changes in hazard perception and mitigation behavior had occurred. Contrary to hypotheses that hazard concerns decline with length of residence in hazard zones, overall perceptions that both hurricane winds and flooding are problems facing local residents have increased. Awareness of the hurricane threat remains high, with two-thirds of the residents stating that it is likely that the area will experience a damaging hurricane within the next ten years, even though a major hurricane has not occurred within the area for nearly three decades. (AA)
Cross, John A., "A Half Century of Hazards Dissertation Research in Geography," Vol. 16, No. 2 (August 1998): 199-212.

Geographic study of hazards has gained considerable prominence in the fifty years since Gilbert White’s Human Adjustments to Floods dissertation was published. Over 130 hazards dissertations have been written in the U.S. and Canada, and hazards articles have gained greater acceptance in major journals. Although White and several of his students served as advisers for nearly a fifth of these dissertation, most hazards dissertations represent efforts by students whose advisers have neither written nor advised a previous hazards dissertation. The majority of hazards dissertation writers obtain employment in positions where they are unable to advise future hazards dissertation writers, thus the production of the next generation of hazards geographers may be in peril. (AA)

Couch, Stephen R., "The Cultural Scene of Disasters: Conceptualizing the Field of Disasters and Popular Culture," Vol. 18, No. 1 (March 2000): 21-37.

This paper is a modest attempt to encourage serious social scientific consideration of disasters and popular culture. It considers three questions: (1) How should the field of disasters and popular culture be defined?; (2) Why should we study the popular culture of disasters?; and (3) What analytical framework(s) might be used? In answering the questions, I argue for an inclusive view of the field and for the inductive development of its definitions and boundaries. I offer what I think are some solid reasons to study the popular culture of disasters, contending that the field is both intellectually interesting and of practical importance. And I put forth elements of one possible framework with which we can study the popular culture of disasters, one which includes three levels of cultural analysis and several comparative dimensions. Following consideration of these questions, the paper discusses an interesting example of disaster popular culture—a compact disk of music played on board the Titanic—and suggests ways in which this example might be approached if it were to be studied in depth. (AA)

Curtis, Andrew, Jacqueline W. Mills, Jason K. Blackburn, John C. Pine, and Barrett Kennedy, "Louisiana State University Geographic Information System Support of Hurricane Katrina Recovery Operations," Vol. 24, No. 2 (August 2006): 203-221.

During Hurricane Katrina a group of faculty, staff, and students at Louisiana State University voluntarily helped create, manage, and staff Geographic Information System (GIS) efforts in the Louisiana Emergency Operations Center (EOC). GIS is an integral component to decision support in all phases of emergency operations. However, for the Katrina response, no Louisiana state employees were assigned to the GIS desk at the EOC. This failure to have an established support system for all other agencies providing response could have been a devastating fault without the volunteer support provided by LSU. Most agencies looked for us in the EOC and then relied upon us throughout the operation. This paper documents the way our group utilized our academic backgrounds to expand and improve the geospatial decision support in the EOC.   (AA)

Cutter, Susan L., "Fleeing from Harm: International Trends in Evacuations from Chemical Accidents," Vol. 9, No. 2, (August 1991): 267-285.
This paper surveys the historical context of chemical hazards through an examination of the international pattern of airborne releases ftom 1900-1989. Changes in the frequency of incidents and the prevalence of evacuations during this time period are examined. A total of 333 accidents were found, mostly originating from stationary facilities such as chemical plants or industrial sites. Nearly one-third of the incidents involved an acutely toxic chemical release. There was a significant increase in the frequency of incidents over time, with a record number of incidents occurring in the 1980-89 period. Earlier decades were characterized by ammunition and natural gas explosions resulting in numerous fatalities and injuries, but very few evacuations. Later decades (1960s onward) show more acutely toxic releases, fewer fatalities, more injuries, and more evacuation events with larger numbers of evacuees. The majority of evacuation events, however, involved between 1,000-6,000 evacuees. The historical context of chemical hazards is important and more instructive than simple case studies in furthering our understanding of chemical hazards and evacuation responses. (AA)

Cutter, Susan L., see Jerry T. Mitchell, Deborah S. K. Thomas, Arleen A. Hill, and Susan L. Cutter.

Dahlhamer, James M. and Melvin J. D’Souza, "Determinants of Business Disaster Preparedness," Vol. 15, No. 2 (August 1997): 265-281.
Although there has been a proliferation of "how-to" planning guides in recent years, there has been very little documentation of the variation in and determinants of business disaster preparedness. The few studies that have been conducted have focused on specific firms or industrial sectors, such as the chemical or tourist industry, or have been plagued by too few cases. These problems clearly limit the generalizability of the research findings. This paper attempts to fill a void in the literature by exploring the determinants and variations of planning within the private sector utilizing two stratified random samples of businesses from Memphis/Shelby County, Tennessee (N=737) and Des Moines/Polk County, Iowa (N=1,079). Findings show that business size, whether the business property is owned or leased, and prior disaster experience are all related to business disaster preparedness in both study areas. Type of business was related to preparedness among businesses in Memphis/Shelby County. Policy implications of the findings are discussed. (AA)

Daniels, R. Steven, and Carolyn L. Clark-Daniels, "Vulnerability Reduction and Political Responsiveness: Explaining Executive Decisions in U.S. Disaster Policy during the Ford and Carter Administrations," Vol. 20, No. 2 (August 2002): 225-253.

Decision-making by elected executives on disaster policy reflects comprehensive vulnerability management, political responsiveness to the media, political negotiation, and intergovernmental conflict. If vulnerability reduction is a significant influence, executive decisions should reflect political and social vulnerability and self-sufficiency. If political responsiveness influences disaster decisions, executive decisions should also reflect media coverage, proximity to elections, and decisions at other levels of government. The data set included 293 major disaster requests between 1974 and 1981. The analysis used multiple regression and logistic regression. Vulnerability reduction had an impact on aid decisions. Political responsiveness affected most decisions on disaster relief. The Ford administration was more sensitive to both responsiveness and vulnerability than the Carter administration. Overall, nationalization of disaster assistance has made the achievement of vulnerability management more difficult. The absence of minimum criteria has increased the discretion of executive choice. (AA)

Danns, George K., "The Power of the Powerless: Resource Mobilization and Social Movements in a Third World Reality," Vol. 4, No. 2 (August 1986): 255-284.
The field of social movements has brought unique insights to the study of order and change in society. Essentially, the concern of social movements theorists is with studying the disruptive capabilities of the ruled. Resource mobilization has emerged as the popular, if not also dominant, perspective in a field rife with theoretical debates. The resource mobilization perspective is, however, far from adequate in explaining social movements, particularly in the Third World countries. This article identifies five major limitations of this perspective. Prominent among these is the failure to consider movements as power entities. A concrete case of a Third World labor movement is used to highlight these limitations and to suggest the need for the adaptation of a "power perspective." (AA)
Darlington, JoAnne DeRouen, see Mileti, Dennis S. and JoAnne DeRouen Darlington.
Dash, Nicole, "The Use of Geographical Information Systems in Disaster Research," Vol. 15, No. 1 (March 1997): 135-146.
In the last ten years, Geographic Information Systems (GIS) have slowly crept their way into the everyday methodological discourse in areas such as geography, urban planning, and emergency management. However, GIS has yet to be integrated into social science research on disaster. This paper uses examples of GIS use in emergency management to help inform the future direction of GIS use in disaster research. While computers and software and, for that matter, data are vital to the development of an effective system, more important are researchers who can generate theory-based uses for the technology that offer new understandings of disaster phenomena. Only through research teams that include both researchers (idea generators) and technicians (idea "implementers") can GIS be effectively used in disaster research. (AA)
Davis, Morris, see Seitz, Steven Thomas and Morris Davis.
Dawson, Gregg, "A Comparison of Research and Practice: A Practitioners’s View," Vol. 11, No. 1 (March 1993): 55-62.
This paper compares known research and emergency management practice, and demonstrates that need and success of applying research to dispel common misconceptions about disaster-related behavior. I draw upon the experience of Fort Worth-Tarrant County Emergency Management practitioners to compare to research findings. Specifically, I discuss reactions to warnings, evacuation behavior, and the use of shelters. Also, I incorporate my experience in planning for the disabled in emergencies to further illustrate my points. (AA)
Dearing, James W. and Jeff Kazmierczak, "Making Iconoclasts Credible: The Iben Browning Earthquake Prediction," Vol. 11, No. 3 (November 1993): 391-403.
The present investigation reports the results of a content analysis of U.S. newspaper portrayals of the 1990 earthquake prediction by Dr. Iben Browning. Results suggest that journalists wrote stories which readers may have interpreted as advocating a belief in Browning’s prediction. Specifically, news stories were found to be more subjective than object, and more supportive than critical, of both Iben Browning and his theory. (AA)
Degutis, Beth, see Cable, Sherry and Beth Degutis.
Deicher, Richard, see Gibbs, Margaret, Juliana R. Lachenmeyer, Arlene Broska, and Richard Deicher.
Denis, Hélène, "Coordination in a Governmental Disaster Mega-Organization," Vol. 13, No. 1 (March 1995): 25-43.
Disasters, natural or technological, involve an interorganizational response that can take a structural form called the disaster mega-organization (DMO). The discussion will show how this concept is related to others in the field, and how the DMO coordination can be problematic, as illustrated by a PCB fire in Quebec, Canada. This case study also demonstrates that coordination is negotiated by those who must respond to a disaster. Finally, the mega-organization in a used-tire dump fire, also in Quebec, two years later, shows that there can be organizational learning and organizational changes in the DMO. (AA)
Diaz-Murillo, Marceline, see Aguirre, B. E., Dennis E. Wenger, Thomas A. Glass, Marceline Diaz-Murillo, and Gabriela Vigo.
Dombrowsky, Wolf R., "Solidarity During Snow Disasters," Vol. 1, No. 1 (March 1983): 189-205.
The following article is based on a case study of two snow disasters affecting the same area within an extremely short interval. Thus, many learn-effects could be studied and many behavior patterns could be compared. In this context only one behavior pattern will be presented. It is a behavior which is commonly said to be "jointly responsible." The types, modes, causes, and objective backgrounds of such a behavior will be discussed. The study’s results are based on qualitative interviews of 2-3 hours with 40 professionals of the German disaster relief organizations, and on the analysis of documents (official reports, staff diaries, mass media, etc.). A questionnaire is in preparation and will be given to the population which was affected by the disaster. (AA)
Dombrowsky, Wolf R., "Again and Again: Is a Disaster What We Call a ‘Disaster’?" Vol. 13, No. 3 (November 1995): 241-254.
Following Carr who defined disaster as the collapse of cultural protections, this paper develops a sociological approach to processes commonly called "disaster." Epistemologically, the definitions used in science and practice are classified and redefined as "programmatic declarations." Definers declare what they perceive as a problem and how they intend to solve it. Given the fact that neither "problem and perception" nor "solution and exigency" necessarily match, the probability of mismatches increases when inconsistent conceptions restructure the view one has of reality. Still, the transformation of nature into culture is interpreted within "pre-modern" expression and false causal attractions: "Des Astro," "evil star," "bad luck," and "blind faith." In contrast, this paper suggests a conception that defines disaster as an empirical falsification of human action, as proof of the incorrectness of human insight into both nature and culture. (AA)
Dombrowsky, Wolf R., "Debate—Test—Dummy: A Reaction to Hewitt’s Reaction Paper," Vol. 13, No. 3 (November 1995): 347-348.
[Reply to the reaction paper by Kenneth Hewitt, Vol. 13, No. 3 (November 1995): 317-339.]
Dombrowsky, Wolf R. and John K. Schorr, "Angst and the Masses: Collective Behavior Research in Germany," Vol. 4, No. 2 (August 1986): 61-89.

This article reviews the study of mass behavior (known as collective behavior in America) in Germany. The historical scope of this review is approximately one hundred years beginning with a discussion of the works of Marx, Weber, Tšnnies, and Simmel. This discussion is followed by an analysis of how the study of mass behavior dealt with the rise and aftermath of National Socialism. Finally the collective behavior research which has been done in the post-war period is reviewed ending with a brief description of the work being done in the subspecialty of the Sociology of Disasters. (AA)

Doocy, Shannon, Courtland Robinson, and Gilbert Burnham, "Mortality Estimates among Liberian IDPs in Monrovia, 2000-2004," Vol. 25, No. 2 (August 2007): 132–144.

Liberia's civil war lasted more than fourteen years, ending in August 2003. During the conflict, nationally reported crude death rates increased from pre-conflict levels of the 1980s.  However, fighting and insecurity precluded population-based assessments, and minimal information on conflict-related mortality is available.  The present study estimated mortality among internally displaced persons (IDPs) in the greater Monrovia area and was based on a sample of 378 households with 2,134 individuals over a recall period from the July 2000 invasion by rebel forces to September 2004.  A crude mortality rate of 22/1,000/year (95 CI: 19-25) or 0.6/10,000/day (95 CI: 0.5-0.7) was found among Monrovia IDPs, and excess mortality was estimated at 6/1,000/year (95% CI: 3-9).  The most deaths occurred in 2003, with the death rate peaking during a cholera outbreak.  Of 242 reported deaths, 60 percent (95 CI: 54-66) were attributed to illness and 33 percent (95 CI: 27-39) to violence.  (AA)

Drabek, Thomas E., "Alternative Patterns of Decision-Making in Emergent Disaster Response Networks," Vol. 1, No. 2 (August 1983): 277-305.
Data are presented which depict the pattern of decision-making in seven emergent mulitorganizational networks (EMONS). These EMONS were the emergency response systems through which most search and rescue (SAR) activities were accomplished in one remote area mission and six natural disaster settings, including the 1979 Wichita Falls tornado, Hurricane Frederic (1979), and the eruption of Mount St. Helens (1980). Discussion of results focused on key structuring factors, i.e., why did these EMONS assume these particular shapes; performance implications; and policy implications. The major conclusion is that a new theoretical foundation for emergency management is required which is rooted in a locally focused perspective which reflects an imagery of loosely coupled systems whose degrees of interdependency undergo episodic, but very temporary, change. (AA)
Drabek, Thomas E., "Disasters as Non-routine Social Problems," Vol. 7, No. 3 (November 1989): 253-264.
What is a disaster? Why ask the question? Does it make any difference how we answer either of these questions? Kreps has written a provocative and stimulating response to all three of these questions. Surely his response will stimulate others to ponder a wide range of issues in ways that they have not done so heretofore. After rereading his analysis several times, I identified three areas of personal reaction pertaining to: (1) convergence; (2) divergence; and (3) disasters as non-routine social problems. (Edited Author Introduction)
Drabek, Thomas E., "Anticipating Organizational Evacuations: Disaster Planning by Managers of Tourist-Oriented Private Firms," Vol. 9, No. 2 (August 1991): 219-245.
Every year thousands of people temporarily relocate prior to the threat of major disasters. Social science research has been applied to enhance the effectiveness of multiorganizational warning systems. Much remains unknown, however. This paper presents findings from the first major study of disaster evacuation planning and decision-making behavior by business executives responsible for tourist-oriented firms. Two questions are explored: (1) What is the extent of disaster evacuation planning?; and (2) What factors account for the variation in these planning initiatives? Data were collected in three communities with large tourist industries through interviews with 65 owners or managers of tourist-oriented firms. While a limited degree of planning has occurred, the overall portrait indicated serious shortfalls. Although individual and community characteristics were relavant, organizational qualities accounted for most of the variation in disaster evacuation planning. (AA)
Drabek, Thomas E., "Disaster Responses within the Tourist Industry," Vol. 13, No. 1 (March 1995): 7-23.
Reflecting a series of converging international trends, the tourist industry represents a vulnerability of catastrophic potential. Interview and questionnaire data obtained from 185 owners or managers in nine U.S. communities provide answers to five questions: (1) what is the extent of disaster evacuation planning?; (2) what factors account for the variations in this planning?; (3) what behavioral patterns occur during actual evacuations?; (4) what factors account for these pattern variations?; and (5) what are the policy implications of these behavioral assessments? While many larger firms managed by more professional staff have completed extensive disaster evacuation planning, the overall record is very spotty. Hence, major initiatives both within the industry, and by emergency managers at all levels of government, are needed to reduce this rapidly expanding vulnerability. (AA)
Drabek, Thomas E., "Following Some Dreams: Recognizing Opportunities, Posing Interesting Questions, and Implementing Alternative Methods," Vol. 15, No. 1 (March 1997): 21-46.
For over three decades I have implemented alternative methodologies so as to pursue interesting research questions. My work has been guided by three goals: (1) test and extend sociological theory related to human response to disaster; (2) identify insights relevant to emergency management practitioners; and (3) communicate the results to both the academic and practitioner communities. In this essay three themes are developed: (1) a survey of the alternative methods I used in numerous disaster studies; (2) an evaluation of the state of disaster research; and (3) speculative thoughts regarding future directions, needs, and potentials. (AA)
Drabek, Thomas E., "Revisiting the Disaster Encyclopedia," Vol. 17, No. 2 (August 1999): 237-257.

Over a decade has passed since the publication of Human System Responses to Disaster in which findings from nearly 1,000 sociological studies were inventoried. This work, referred to by some as "the disaster encyclopedia," is revisited in this essay through the exploration of three topics: (1) discussion of the origins of this essay and its structuring influences; (2) aspects of the inventory that should be retained; and (3) recommended areas of change. (AA)

Drabek, Thomas E., "Pattern Differences in Disaster-Induced Employee Evacuations," Vol. 18, No. 2 (August 2000): 289-315.

When people are at work and they learn that disaster is imminent, what are their responses? To what degree are there pattern differences in their response profiles because of event variations or structural features of the business firm for which they work? Interviews with employees (n = 406) of 118 businesses impacted by one of seven different recent disasters provide the first answers to these questions. While there were many interdependencies among three areas of constraint, analyses documented that many, but not all, aspects of employee evacuation behavior were patterned significantly by: (1) length of forewarning; (2) organizational size; and (3) organizational mission. (AA)

Drabek, Thomas E., "Predicting Disaster Response Effectiveness," Vol. 23, No. 1 (March 2005): pp. 49–72.

What social factors best predict the relative effectiveness of community disaster responses? This question is explored through interview and questionnaire data obtained from 62 local emergency managers whose communities were impacted by some type of disaster event. Various coordination strategies used in the year prior to the event and during the response were assessed first. These and numerous other potential sources of constraint were used in regression analyses to determine predictors of response effectiveness (both as perceived by the local emergency manager and through ten evaluative criteria). Results indicated that both measures of response effectiveness were predicted by seven factors: (1) high level of domain consensus; (2) use of more coordination strategies by the local emergency manager during the response; (3) more lengthy period of forewarning; (4) more frequent disaster training activities and actual responses during the prior two years; (5) more frequent participation by local emergency manager in local service organizations; (6) high community growth rate; and (7) use of more managerial strategies by the local emergency manager during the prior year.  (AA)

Drabek, Thomas E., and David A. McEntire, "Emergent Phenomena and Multiorganizational Coordination in Disasters: Lessons from the Research Literature," Vol. 20, No. 2 (August 2002): 197-224.

Research on emergent behavior and response coordination has been a significant feature of the disaster studies literature. Through a detailed review of past and recent sociological research, the following paper summarizes what is known about multiorganizational coordination. After defining what we mean by emergence and coordination, a brief discussion follows about the process by which literature was selected for this review. The article then highlights the importance of coordination for response operations, explains why it is often problematic, and provides recommendations to improve multiorganizational collaboration in disasters. The article concludes with implications for the theory and practice of emergency management. (AA)

Drabek, Thomas E., see Kreps, Gary A. and Thomas E. Drabek.

Driscoll, Paul and Michael B. Salwen, "Riding Out the Storm: Public Evaluations of News Coverage of Hurricane Andrew," Vol. 14, No. 3 (November 1996): 293-303.
South Florida residents who experienced Hurricane Andrew evaluated the credibility of the hurricane-related information from television as more trustworthy than that from other sources. Contrary to what was hypothesized, the broadcast medium of television (but not radio) was evaluated on the dimension of expertise as being higher than newspapers. As predicted, interpersonal sources were judged high on trustworthiness, but much lower on expertise than any of the mass media sources. The findings indicated that when people wanted factual information and self-help information, they expressed reservations about the credibility of other people (friends, neighbors, or relatives). In such cases, there was a marked tendency to place emphasis (or faith) in television. (AA)
Drury, A. Cooper, see Olson, Richard Stuart and A. Cooper Drury.
D’Souza, Melvin J., see Dahlhamer, James M. and Melvin J. D’Souza.

Duncan, W. Jack, see Ginter, Peter M., W. Jack Duncan, Lisa C. McCormick, Andrew C. Rucks, Martha S. Wingate, and Maziar Abdolrasulnia.

Dynes, Russell R., "Community Emergency Planning: False Assumptions and Inappropriate Analogies," Vol. 12, No. 2 (August 1994): 141-158.
Community emergency planning had its roots in military analogies which viewed emergencies as extensions of "enemy attack" scenarios. Such thinking was embedded in early structural arrangements and was generalized as the appropriate normative model for all emergencies. This model viewed emergencies as conditions of social chaos which could be rectified by command and control. It is argued here that such a view is inadequate based on a knowledge of behavior emergencies, and the model is dysfunctional for planning. A more adequate model is presented, based on conditions of continuity, coordination, and cooperation. This problem-solving model, based on research rather than military analogies, provides a more adequate set of assumptions as the basis for planning. However, legislative and technological "improvements" often make emergency planning more rigid and increasingly inadequate. (AA)
Dynes, Russell R., "Comments on Drabek and Other Encyclopedists," Vol. 17, No. 2 (August 1999): 211-215.
When I was asked to comment on Drabek’s Human System Responses to Disaster (1986), I was, at the time, involved in exploring disasters in the 18th Century. It was in the 18th Century when there was the first major attempt to develop an encompassing encyclopedia. This was also the time when there was discussion about the possibilities of a social science and, paradoxically, the first application of social science knowledge about disaster. My focus, then, is a short essay on the sociology of encyclopedias, historically and comparatively. The foray to the 18th Century will be short but will provide a background for the discussion of Drabek. This excursion is intended to make the point that creating an encyclopedia in a period of intellectual ferment can be a creative act, but not all encyclopedias are born in such a context. Most other encyclopedias reflect a static past, useful for historical accuracy but devoid of imagination. With that point made, we can shift to Drabek. In his paper, Drabek revisits decisions made earlier. In creating an inventory, a decision to include is also a decision to exclude something else. Each set of categories excludes another. Certainly, there are times when an encyclopedia can pull new ideas together, as both Diderot and Drabek did. But there is also a time when an encyclopedia only codifies outmoded ideas, presenting them as universal truths. In the future, unconventional "hazards" will impact non-traditional social units. Standardizing formats could delimit flexibility and creativity. Creating a format to deal with the past can become an iron cage in conceptualizing the future. Unfortunately, such a possibility only becomes apparent when we look back. (Edited from the author’s remarks)

Dynes, Russell R., "The Dialogue between Voltaire and Rousseau on the Lisbon Earthquake: The Emergence of a Social Science View," Vol. 18, No. 1 (March 2000): 97-115.

Disasters are usually identified as having occurred at a particular time and place, but they also occur at a particular time in human history and within a specific social and cultural context. Consequently, it is appropriate to call the Lisbon earthquake the first modern disaster. Certainly, earlier history records many instances of geophysical events, and the differences among such events were typically explained by variations in their physical intensity. However, the Lisbon earthquake occurred at a time and a place which made it a part of the debate over modernity. Its location in Europe made it a topic in the intellectual debates of the times. These debates had greater impact on the changing cultural context than the physical intensity of the earthquake might imply. The earthquake occurred when there were many strains between tradition and new ideas about progress. It was a time when traditional ideas and institutions were being challenged, when nation states were being created, and when rivalries among states led to tensions and conflict. Further, it was a time when the bonds of traditional religious authority were being challenged by a growing enthusiasm for intellectual freedom and for reason. These major political and institutional shifts were reflected in the meanings that were assigned to the Lisbon earthquake. (Author’s introduction)

Dynes, Russell R., "Finding Order in Disorder: Continuities in the 9/11 Response," Vol. 21, No. 3 (November 2003): 9-23.

The events of September 1lth in the United States prompted speculation about the capacity of modern societies to deal with such collective traumas. Here, comparisons are made to past situations, primarily Hamburg after intensive bombing in 1943. Such comparisons indicate immediate and persistent efforts to re-establish the continuity of social life. Such continuity is in contrast to popular images of individual and collective disorganization as well as the presumption that urban areas are especially fragile. After 9/11, effective efforts were frequently attributed to American exceptionalism. While the social sciences have a number of concepts to deal with social disorganization, there are fewer to characterize stability and adaptability. Illustrations of the importance of social capital and organizational resilience in the New York case are offered. By contrast, post 9/11 discussions have often been dominated by the recycling of disaster myths, especially the belief in widespread panic, the necessity of command and control, and the assumption that "people" are the primary problem. Many of those ideas have since become embedded in the implementation of "homeland security." (AA)

Dynes, Russell R. and Thomas E. Drabek, "The Structure of Disaster Research: Its Policy and Disciplinary Implications," Vol. 12, No. 1 (March 1994): 5-23.
The context of sociological research on disaster is discussed by the various settings in which the research tradition has developed. In addition, both funders and users of that research are identified. It is suggested that the most important policy use of disaster research has been to change the conceptualization of disaster. While no specific study can be directly tied to particular policy changes, the overall research tradition has had a transforming effect. That transformation is, of course, more obvious in some societies than in others. In the future, it is suggested that increased attention will be given to disaster preparedness and planning because of more and worse disasters. This means that social science research will continue to thrive because of its potential utility in problem solving. However, future research will be increasingly cast in interdisciplinary terms. Given the reluctance to support basic research, the relationship between applied research and the core disciplines will become more problematic. (AA)

Edmiston, John, see Aguirre, B. E., Rogelio Saenz, John Edmiston, Nan Yang, Dietra Stuart, and Elsa Agramonte.

Edwards, Margie L., "Social Location and Self-Protective Behavior: Implications for Earthquake Preparedness," Vol. 11, No. 3 (November 1993): 293-303.

Participation in household preparedness activities is examined in light of the first highly publicized earthquake prediction issued for the Central United States. Drawing on earlier research conducted in California, this paper examines the adoption of self-protective measures in Memphis, Tennessee. Survey data show that while people in this city are generally aware of and concerned about the earthquake hazard in their community, few have adopted the necessary precautions to reduce the negative effects of a damaging earthquake. However, those respondents who were most likely to engage in self-protective behavior are situated in structurally advantageous locations. Thus, future community-wide planning and preparedness efforts must be more attentive to limitations on household resources when advocating individual responsibility for safety. (AA)

Ellemor, Heidi and Jon Barnett, “National Security and Emergency Management After September 11,” Vol. 23, No. 3 (November 2005): 5–26.

The terrorist attacks in New York on September 11 2001 have troubled the practice of security.  There has been renewed emphasis on the need for a layered security strategy, and this has refocused attention on civil defense.  As a consequence, emergency management institutions are increasingly being incorporated under the aegis of national security.  This is resulting in the implementation of older command-and-control type models of emergency management at the expense of the prevention-oriented, preparedness and community based approaches that emerged after the end of the Cold War.  The paper situates this recent convergence of security and emergency management in a discussion of the evolution of both policy fields since the end of WWII.  It then explains the post-September 11 trend towards centralizing authority in emergency management in Australia, but with considerable reference to parallel developments in the United States.  The paper argues that while this retrogressive shift seems inimical to contemporary advances in emergency management, an inclusive interpretation of security as human security could serve to reinforce the important developments made in the field of emergency management in the last decade.  (AA)

Elmore, Richard F., "The Safe Operation of Nuclear Power Plants: Implementing Federal Policy in the Aftermath of Three Mile Island," Vol. 2, No. 1 (March 1984): 61-87.

The safe operation of nuclear power plants represents an important class of problems in the implementation of regulatory policy. These problems are characterized by a low tolerance for error, high organizational and technical complexity, and highly visible, costly outcomes. The key to designing policies that address these problems is not to predict and regulate every possible source of error, but to design incentives such that organizations create their own error-detecting and solving systems. The current policy toward nuclear plant safety stresses technical and regulatory solutions at the expense of financial incentives that would induce utilities and plant personnel to engage in safe operation. (AA)

Em, Moona, see Roberts, J. Timmons and Moona Em.

Emani, Srinivas and Jeanne X. Kasperson, "Disaster Communication Via the Information Superhighway: Data and Observations on the 1995 Hurricane Season," Vol. 14, No. 3 (November 1996): 321-342.

Although both researchers and practitioners have been using the Internet to communicate information on disasters, few systematic studies have assessed the type of information that is or should be communicated via this medium. This paper presents an exploratory, yet systematic, study of the Federal Emergency Management Agency’s (FEMA) coverage of the 1995 hurricane season via e-mail and the World Wide Web. An overview analysis of the 1995 season shows that FEMA distributed 184 e-mail messages of which 138 were hurricane-related and 46 were nonhurricane-related. Following this overview analysis, a case study is presented of FEMA’s coverage of Hurricane Opal, which was associated with significant impacts in Florida. The focus of analysis in the case study is a type of e-mail message called the situation report (sitrep) which is used by FEMA to communicate information on disasters. The number, timing, and content of sitreps issued by FEMA for Hurricane Opal are analyzed and the results used to discuss the agency’s communication efforts via the Internet. (AA)

Enander, Ann and Claes Wallenius, "Psychological Reactions and Experiences Among Swedish Citizens Resident in Kobe During the 1995 Earthquake," Vol. 17, No. 2 (August 1999): 185-205.

This paper discusses reactions and experiences of temporary residents and transients in a community struck by a major natural disaster. A retrospective questionnaire study was conducted among a group of Swedish citizens who were resident in Kobe during the Great Hanshin-Awaji earthquake. Respondents describe aspects of their behavior before, during, and after the earthquake. The findings indicate that, as a group, the Swedes appear to have coped well, even though they were not well-prepared for this type of situation. One factor found to be related to the behavioral responses was ability to speak the local language, in this case Japanese. On the basis of the study results, some particular needs and resources of foreign residents are discussed. (AA)

Enander, Ann, "Recalling Chernobyl: Reflections Among Swedish Farmers," Vol. 24, No. 2 (August 2006): 251-269.

Interpretations of past disaster experiences are likely to influence reactions to future threat situations. This study examines recollections and interpretations of a diffuse threat situation among farmers in areas of Sweden affected to differing degrees by radioactive fallout from the Chernobyl accident in 1986. 20 farmers were interviewed and the data were analyzed using a grounded theory approach. The analysis resulted in a model in which personal reflections emerged as a filtering link between recollections of the past event and anticipations about the future. Differences in recollections, reflections and anticipated behaviors could be related to differing experiences among the farmers. The main category of reflections exemplified ways in which memories from Chernobyl were reassessed and evaluated in a sense-making process. On the basis of these reflections, two differing patterns of anticipated future behavior could be identified: the first being passive and reactive in response to the actions of authorities; the second active and relying mainly on personal judgments and decisions.  (AA)

Enarson, Elaine, "Women and Housing Issues in Two U.S. Disasters: Case Studies from Hurricane Andrew and the Red River Valley Flood," Vol. 17, No. 1 (March 1999): 39-63.

This paper examines housing as part of a larger project to illuminate "shadow risks and hidden damages" and to specify root causes reproducing women’s disaster vulnerability in developed nations, among them the gendered division of labor, economic dependency, male violence, and housing insecurity. I begin with a theoretical grounding of disaster housing in gender relations and global development patterns and then focus on United States, drawing on Census data and qualitative field studies to address two key questions. First, what structural trends and patterns suggest women’s housing insecurity in this context? Second, what emergency management issues emerge from empirical investigations of women’s disaster housing experiences? I draw examples from two U.S. case studies to illustrate how housing in the disaster context is a highly gendered issue. The final section outlines women’s housing needs and strategic interests and offers guidelines to practitioners. (Edited from the author’s introduction)

Enarson, Elaine, "‘We Will Make Meaning Out of This’: Women’s Cultural Responses to the Red River Valley Flood," Vol. 18, No. 1 (March 2000): 39-64.

Recent work on gender relations in disasters focuses largely on women’s material experiences and vulnerabilities. This paper draws on cultural studies theory to interrogate gender symbolically in the context of a major U.S. flood. Based on analysis of cultural artifacts and "texts" as well as interviews conducted for a larger study of women’s work in the 1997 Red River Valley flood, the author argues that women particularly employ grassroots popular culture to interpret disastrous events. A close reading of two flood quilts illustrates how interpersonal networks and traditional quilting skills helped women express gender-specific experiences and feelings, and convey an otherwise neglected ecofeminist critique of disaster vulnerability. The author concludes that women’s cultural responses to disasters afford a neglected angle of vision on human responses to catastrophe. (AA)

Enarson, Elaine, see Morrow, Betty Hearn and Elaine Enarson.

Evans-Cowley, Jennifer S., and Meghan Zimmerman Gough, "Is Hazard Mitigation Being Incorporated into Post-Katrina Plans in Mississippi?," Vol. 25, No. 3 (November 2007): 177–217.

Hurricane Katrina caused the worst hurricane damage ever seen on the Mississippi Gulf Coast.  Immediately following the hurricane, the Mississippi Governor's Commission for Recovery, Rebuilding, and Renewal provided teams of planners and designers to work with communities along the coast to prepare rebuilding plans.  The initial plans have been followed up with further long-range planning.  This paper examines the degree to which hazard mitigation has been incorporated into the long-range plans developed in the communities along the coast in Harrison County, Mississippi, 18 months after Katrina.  It finds that hazard mitigation has been significantly integrated into some community plans, whereas in other cases it has been ignored.  Although the literature suggests that immediate experience with a natural disaster should increase citizen and local government response to disaster mitigation, this study found that the degree of storm surge inundation did not have a significant impact on whether communities integrated hazard mitigation measures into their plans.  The paper concludes by offering recommendations on how these communities can improve their plans relative to hazard mitigation measures as they move into their next phase of long-range planning.  (AA)

Eyre, Anne, see Webb, Gary R., Tricia Wachtendorf, and Anne Eyre.

Falkiner, Leanna, "Availability of Canadian Social Science Disaster Management Education," Vol. 23, No. 1 (March 2005): pp. 85–109.

Scientific evidence indicates that as the climate changes, the frequency and intensity of weather-related hazards will rise significantly. In addition to a more volatile natural environment, aging urban infrastructure and an increasingly complex and interdependent network of technological systems have created a multitude of hazards to which humans are vulnerable. However, the number and types of hazards are only part of the equation. Human factors such as the proximity of people and property to hazards, failure to incorporate resiliency in design and construction, and general apathy towards emergency management play an equal or greater role in the sharply rising impacts of disasters.

Increasing vulnerability has been starkly demonstrated through global annual losses from natural disasters, which have swollen from $3.9 billion (U.S.) to $40 billion (U.S.) between the 1950s and the 1990s. If unabated, projections for future losses look bleak, estimated to reach as high as $100 billion a year over the next century. In addition to the economic losses, the 1990s witnessed 2,500 natural disasters killing more than 650,000 people and directly affecting 2.1 billion people.

It is clear that active efforts are required to curb the upward trend in disaster losses, but in many cases environmental hazards cannot be physically controlled or contained. Therefore, a focus on reducing vulnerability through pre-hazard mitigation and public education is needed to ensure the safety of Canadians and protect the integrity of critical infrastructure systems. Decision-making must include an assessment of whether actions augment or abate vulnerability.

It is the position of this paper that disaster management education can provide the foundation on which this goal can be realized. Through disaster management education, awareness of hazards and their impacts can be enhanced, along with fostering leaders to spearhead Canadian hazard vulnerability reduction. If delivered within the context of a particular academic discipline, disaster management education can be used to cultivate a contextual understanding of vulnerability reduction, as well as help the student understand how he or she can contribute to this goal within his or her chosen area of study.   (No abstract available; edited author introduction)

Farley, John E., "Editor’s Introduction: Public, Media, and Institutional Responses to the Iben Browning Earthquake Prediction," Vol. 11, No. 3 (November 1993): 271-277.

When the late self-proclaimed climatologist, Iben Browning, predicted that a damaging earthquake would occur in the mid-Mississippi Valley’s New Madrid Seismic Zone (NMSZ) in early December 1990, individuals, the media, and social institutions in the region were all caught up in an episode of collective behavior that drew almost unprecedented attention. Although Browning’s was neither the first nor the last pseudoscientific earthquake prediction to catch the attention of the public somewhere in the world, it did draw greater public and media attention than other such predictions have. Among those whose attention was drawn by this event were a good number of social scientists. Studies were conducted throughout the region on public response to the prediction, on the effects of the prediction on earthquake preparedness, on the media role in the entire event, and on the effects of the Browning prediction on organizations and institutions, both those concerned with earthquake risk mitigation and other institutions too, such as workplaces and schools. Preliminary reports on much of this research were exchanged among scholars at a Research Conference on Public and Media Response to Earthquake Forecasts, held at Southern Illinois University at Edwardsville (SIUE) in May 1991. Those participating in the conference represented a variety of disciplines including geography, sociology, psychology, mass communications, and journalism, and included both academics and practitioners in emergency management and earthquake preparedness. The academics were about evenly mixed between scholars with a background in disaster research and scholars in a variety of fields with no disaster research background who were interested in the social and media phenomena occurring in response to the Browning prediction. The papers included in this volume were written by persons who participated in the Edwardsville conference. Nearly all of these papers are revised versions of the papers that were presented at the conference. (Edited Editor’s Introduction)

Farley, John E., "Down But Not Out: Earthquake Awareness and Preparedness Trends in the St. Louis Metropolitan Area, 1990-1997," Vol. 16, No. 3 (November 1998): 303-319.

This paper reports results of a telephone survey in the St. Louis metropolitan area assessing household earthquake awareness and preparedness in November 1997. The survey extends time-series data on awareness and preparedness in the area, which I obtained from earlier surveys conducted at October 1990, February 1991, July 1992, and May 1993. The previous surveys constitute the only time-series data assessing the effects of a pseudoscientific earthquake prediction (in this case, one made by the late Iben Browning) with measurement of attitudes and beliefs both before and after disconfirmation of the prediction. In general, the new survey shows that both the perceived risk of a damaging earthquake and levels of household preparedness in the region have undergone steady, long-term declines since 1991. There has also been some decline in concern about earthquake risk since 1992. Nonetheless, there has been some lasting effect of preparation actions taken in response to Iben Browning’s 1990 pseudoscientific earthquake prediction. For all three preparedness actions for which data are available from 1990 through 1997, the 1997 data indicate a higher level of preparedness than was observed in October 1990, two months before the date on which Browning said a damaging earthquake was likely. And the level of preparedness is much higher than was observed in the larger New Madrid region in another survey taken in 1987. (AA)

Farley, John E., "Call-to-Action Statements in Tornado Warnings: Do They Reflect Recent Developments in Tornado-Safety Research?" Vol. 25, No. 1 (March 2007): 1–36.

Call-to-action statements in tornado warnings are content analyzed to determine to what extent their wording has been influenced by recent research calling into question official safety guidelines and traditional advice regarding vehicles and mobile homes.  While the statements do not directly contradict official guidelines and advice, there is significant variation among NWS offices regarding what advice is given and what guidelines are emphasized in call-to-action statements in tornado warnings.  Some of this variation is regional, and interviews with NWS meteorologists reveal a frequent opinion that what is best to do if in a vehicle during a tornado warning may vary by region, time of day, and terrain.  The interviews also reveal widespread awareness among NWS meteorologists of debates over tornado safety in vehicles and mobile homes, and strong support for local office autonomy in decisions about the wording of call-to-action statements.  (AA)

Farley, John E., Hugh D. Barlow, Marvin S. Finkelstein, and Larry Riley, "Earthquake Hysteria, Before and After: A Survey and Follow-up on Public Response to the Browning Forecast," Vol. 11, No. 3 (November 1993): 271-277.

Telephone surveys were conducted in the St. Louis metropolitan area, Cape Girardeau, MO, and Sikeston, MO, in October 1990 and February 1991, before and after the date on which Iben Browning predicted a damaging New Madrid earthquake would occur. The surveys revealed that a sizable minority clearly believed Browning’s prediction, with a much larger group ambivalent about it. Those with lower levels of education, women, those whose thinking about the prediction was influenced by a minor earthquake that occurred in September, those closer to the New Madrid Fault, and those who expected a war with Iraq were more likely to believe the prediction. Many planned changes in schedules, and such plans were strongly influenced by the perceived actions of significant others. In contrast, they were not strongly influenced by believing or not believing the prediction. When the date of the predicted quake arrived, far fewer actually changed their schedules than had indicated plans to do so, and schedule changes were largely a product of school or work cancellations. The prediction did contribute to an increase in household preparedness which was sustained two months after its disconfirmation, but the actions most often taken were ones that were easiest to make. People close to the fault reported higher levels of preparedness. Despite the disconfirmation of the prediction, most respondents still viewed a damaging earthquake as likely within the next 10 to 15 years. (AA)

Faupel, Charles E., Susan P. Kelley, and Thomas Petee, "The Impact of Disaster Education on Household Preparedness for Hurricane Hugo," Vol. 10, No. 1 (March 1992): 5-24.

This article examines the impact of disaster education on hurricane preparedness among residents in Charleston, South Carolina. The article examines: (1) the impact of participation in disaster education programs generally; (2) the impact of hurricane experience as a type of education; and (3) the impact of participation in earthquake specific education programs to determine whether there is any transference of knowledge across agent types. Two indices of preparedness are used: household planning activities and adaptive response activities. It was found that participation in some type of disaster education program is strongly related to the preparedness measures. Hurricane experience has some minimal effect on adaptive response but not on household planning. Participation in the earthquake specific education programs is not a significant predictor when controlling for other variables. (AA)

Feinberg, William E. and Norris R. Johnson, "The Ties that Bind: A Macro-Level Approach to Panic," Vol. 19, No. 3 (November 2001): 269-295.

We clarify a theoretical conceptualization of panic as a collective phenomenon, develop an operational measure of the concept, and offer a way of contrasting differences across collectivities (rather than among individuals) in order to determine if a panic as a collective action occurred. We illustrate our way of contrasting differences by using data from the Beverly Hills Supper Club fire of 1977, examining the proportions surviving of different social categories present in the Cabaret Room, where most of the deaths occurred. There is no evidence that a complete breakdown of these norms-a panic-occurred. We conclude that the evacuation of the Cabaret Room was dominated by a set of norms and role obligations consistent with the typical social order in which the (socially-defined) weak get help from the (socially-defined) strong, such as women helped by men. (AA)

Feldman, David Lewis, "SARA Title III and Community Hazards Planning: The Case of the Chemical Stockpile Emergency Preparedness Program," Vol. 11, No. 1 (March 1993): 85-97.

This paper provides an overview and analysis of the impact of the Superfund Amendments and Reauthorization Act of 1986’s Title III (SARA Title III, or Title III) on community participation, risk communication, and other elements of effective emergency preparedness for response to accidental hazardous chemical releases. It employs the U.S. Army’s Chemical Stockpile Emergency Preparedness Program (CSEPP) as a case study and applies conclusions from this case to other programs. The employment of SARA Title III by CSEPP exemplifies recent efforts by emergency planners to integrate disaster research into the practice of emergency management. This integration has occurred in three specific areas: (1) disseminating risk information to the public; (2) enhancing intergovernmental coordination; and (3) identifying needed resources and legal reforms for ensuring that emergency response and recovery decisions can be made in a timely manner—free of postemergency litigation. (AA)

Feldman, Shelley and Florence McCarthy, "Disaster Response in Bangladesh," Vol. 1, No. 1 (March 1983): 105-124.

Basic socioeconomic trends in Bangladesh surrounded the independence of the country in the early Seventies and have contributed to the changing forms and functions of the Bangladeshi family. This period included not only a Liberation War, but a set of environmental and social upheavals that ran the gamut from floods, typhoons, and famine to social and political instability. It is suggested that selected changes in social relations or social institutions, which were exacerbated by these natural and social upheavals, have become permanent aspects of daily life in the country. It is hypothesized that disasters tend to exacerbate existing trends and patterns of instability or inequality rather than initiate completely new forms of response. In one sense, disasters may be said to attack the weakest link in a society and may encourage changes which are already imminent in that society. (AA)

Fernandez, Antonio L., see Ogawa, Yujiro, Antonio L. Fernandez, and Teruhiko Yoshimura.

Finkelstein, Marvin S., see Farley, John E., Hugh D. Barlow, Marvin S. Finkelstein, and Larry Riley.

Fisher, Albert L., "Voluntary Labor, Utah, the L.D.S. Church, and the Floods of 1983: A Case Study," Vol. 3, No. 3 (November 1985): 53-74.

National attention was focused on Utah in the Spring of 1983 when an abnormally deep snowpack in the mountains combined with abrupt, very warm weather to cause sudden, severe flooding along the state’s densely populated Wasatch Front. Public officials were not prepared for what happened, and they could not control the crisis-generated problems with their own resources. A large, efficient, volunteer labor force was needed immediately to prevent serious flooding from becoming a disaster. The extensive media attention given to Utah during this period looked mostly at the way public officials and the people responded to the crisis. This is a report of voluntary labor and the floods of 1983 in Utah. The only public, semipublic, or private organization that could provide the number of volunteer workers that were necessary during the crisis period and supervise the workers adequately was the Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints (L.D.S.). The traditions, attitudes, and organization of the L.D.S. Church as they are important to the immediate delivery of large numbers of volunteer workers, equipment, and supervisors in an emergency period are investigated in this paper. The relationships between government in Utah and the Church are also examined to explain why the Church is relied on to supply the voluntary labor force for any mass emergency in Utah and how this is accomplished. The question is also addressed of whether or not the Utah experience would be either appropriate or transferable to any other area. There might be something to be learned from Utah that could aid disaster work elsewhere. (AA)

Fitzpatrick, Colleen, "The First ‘A’ Alert of the Parkfield Earthquake Prediction Experiment: A Description of Organizational Response," Vol. 12, No. 2 (August 1994): 183-197.

The Parkfield Earthquake Prediction Experiment has been an ongoing effort since the mid-1980s. As the first earthquake prediction officially endorsed by the National and California Earthquake Prediction Evaluation Councils, it has received considerable attention from earth scientists, social scientists, emergency service officials, and members of the news media. One outcome of this experiment has been the development of a concerted effort to inform residents in the area of risk about their earthquake vulnerability and about what can be done to lessen the impacts of earthquakes. Involved in this effort has been the development of a comprehensive alert notification system for detecting changes in the risk and communicating those changes to emergency officials and citizens throughout the area. In October 1992, when precursor anomalies indicated that the Parkfield earthquake might be imminent, the U.S. Geological Survey issued the first A-level alert of the Parkfield experiment. This paper depicts organizational response to this unique alert situation. Results from this case study suggest that while the alert was taken seriously by emergency and life-support organizations, it amounted to little more than an unannounced drill. (AA)

Fitzpatrick, Colleen and Dennis S. Mileti, "Motivating Public Evacuation," Vol. 9, No. 2, (August 1991): 137-152.

A common theme in the literature on evacuation compliance is the result of largely social psychological perceptions of risk formed prior to taking the protective action. From this perspective, evacuation is a function of warning recipients coming to define themselves as in danger and believing that fleeing the immediate environment will reduce that danger. This paper explores the social psychological and social structural processes that result in such perceptions. In particular, attention is given to identifying perceptions that motivate evacuation, factors that direct perceptual outcomes, and the ways in which motivation and perception are translated into action. (AA)

Fordham, Maureen, "The Intersection of Gender and Social Class in Disaster: Balancing Resilience and Vulnerability," Vol. 17, No. 1 (March 1999): 15-37.

Those who experience disaster are widely regarded as an undifferentiated group, labeled "victims." In the immediate crisis period, it is difficult for professionals to differentiate, except crudely, between varying levels of need and still carry out urgent duties and responsibilities. However, it soon becomes apparent that some are hit harder than others and that disasters are not the great levelers they are sometimes considered to be. Close examination reveals complex variations within, and not just between, social groups broadly understood as middle- and working-class. This paper examines the intersection of gender and social class in two major flood events and argues for a more nuanced appreciation of these factors, at both the conceptual and the practical level, to be incorporated throughout the disaster process. (AA)

Fordham, Maureen, see Ketteridge, Anne-Michelle and Maureen Fordham.

Forrest, Thomas R., "Disaster Gypsies: The Role of Informal Relationships in Administering Disaster Assistance," Vol. 4, No. 1 (March 1986): 51-67.

The importance of interpersonal relationships for affecting the efficiency and effectiveness of emergency management practices is examined in this paper. A case study of FEMA (Federal Emergency Management Agency) reservists, part-time FEMA employees called to help administer federal disaster assistance programs, illustrates the significance of an informal organization in augmenting formal bureaucratic procedures. Interview and survey data come from a pilot study conducted in the aftermath of tornadoes which swept through North and South Carolina in 1984. Nicknamed "disaster gypsies," FEMA reservists develop a strong sense of community or camaraderie among themselves as a result of their intense disaster involvement. This sense of community or informal organization is an unintended consequence of four factors: organizational demands, physical setting, sense of mission, and a post-disaster altruistic community. The informal organization has implications for emergency management practices. It facilitates needed organizational flexibility and improvisation, helps train and integrate new personnel, provides an additional channel of communication, and lessens job related stress. Future research should systematically examine the role informal relationships have on affecting delivery of emergency services. Such research would complement and provide a missing dimension to present efforts to conceptualize group and organizational emergence. (AA)

Fothergill, Alice, "Gender, Risk, and Disaster," Vol. 14, No. 1 (March 1996): 33-56.

Focusing on gender differences, this article synthesizes the literature on gender, risk, and disasters and presents a comprehensive view of what is known in this area. Data are limited, yet by using a nine-stage typology to delineate disaster preparedness, impact, and recovery, noteworthy findings are documented and discussed. The literature reveals a pattern of gender differentiation throughout the disaster process. The differences are largely attributed to childcare responsibilities, poverty, social networks, traditional roles, discrimination, and other issues of gender stratification. The emergent patterns have important implications, and recommendations for future directions are offered. (AA)

Fothergill, Alice, "An Exploratory Study of Woman Battering in the Grand Forks Flood Disaster: Implications for Community Responses and Policies," Vol. 17, No. 1 (March 1999): 79-98.

This paper presents an exploratory study of woman battering in the Grand Forks, North Dakota, flood of April 1997. Based on my qualitative research of women’s experiences in this flood, I present two case studies of battered women to enhance understanding of what intimate partner violence means to women in the face of a natural disaster. The case studies illustrate how battered women make sense of their situations and how factors such as class and disability play a role in how women experience domestic violence. The case studies also show why services for battered women, such as emergency shelters and crisis counseling, are crucial during a disaster period. Even though we do not know if domestic violence rates increase in a disaster, we do have evidence that the demand for domestic violence services increases during disaster times. In light of this, I argue that there is a need to prepare for that situation. (AA)

Fowler, Gil, see Shain, Russ, see Shipman, Marlin, Gil Fowler, and Russ Shain.

Flynn, Chynthia B., see Houts, Peter S., Michael K. Lindell, Teh Wei Hu, Paul D. Cleary, George Tokuhata, and Chynthia B. Flynn.

Friedman, Barbara, see Wenger, Dennis and Barbara Friedman.

Friesen, Kenton, and Doug Bell, "Risk Reduction and Emergency Preparedness Activities of Canadian Universities," Vol. 24, No. 2 (August 2006): 223-249.

Preparing for emergencies and disasters has become a necessary part of daily operations of businesses, municipalities, and institutions. Furthermore, educational institutions such as universities, colleges, and schools are not immune to the impacts of disasters. Universities are realizing they are exposed to the impact of disasters and that emergency/disaster response requires careful coordination and communication with other organizations and entities that have the resources and skills necessary to manage and respond to particular emergencies. In Canada, the primary responsibility for emergency preparedness and response is that of the municipality, or local authority, within which a university is located. What then is the role of a university in preparing for and responding to emergencies or disasters?

In the absence of compulsory standards, regulations or legislation, universities, based on the survey of this project, are nevertheless reviewing risks and hazards, implementing long-term strategies, and developing relationships with the local municipality. All of these should consider the unique characteristics of the campus environment, which include an open and accessible environment, a functionally separate hierarchy of administrators and academics, a multi-cultural and multi-disciplinary worliforce, and a diverse student body, to name a few. After understanding the unique characteristics of the campus environment universities can address emergency preparedness and disaster management by building on the basics of existing and generally accepted standards, such as the NFPA 1600. Additionally, many universities operate much like a municipality (i.e., infrastructure, constituents, and an incorporated government structure) making existing municipal emergency or disaster-related standards, regulations, and legislation also applicable. Further investigation into the application of these standards, regulations, and legislation to the university environment is required to validate the similarities.  (AA)

Futch, Christina J., see Lindell, Michael K., David J. Whitney, Christina J. Futch, and Catherine S. Clause.

Gabriel, Paul, "The Development of Municipal Emergency Management Planning in Victoria, Australia," Vol. 20, No. 3 (November 2002): 293-307.

In Australia, local government plays an essential role in emergency management, although not a provider of emergency services. The role of supporting emergency services and the community both during and after emergencies has been a traditional role. Added to this is an increasing responsibility as the focal point for the conduct of local mitigation using risk analysis, prioritization, and treatment under the methodology of emergency risk management. This role is part of a shift in the emphasis of emergency management in Australia away from the strong focus on emergencies and the emergency services, towards an emphasis on the sustainability of the community and its life in the context of the risk of loss posed by natural and other hazards. Models of municipal emergency risk management planning are presented to assist municipalities to connect or even integrate their emergency management planning processes with other similar community safety activities such as crime and injury prevention.

Gaillard, Jean-Christophe, “Traditional Societies in the Face of Natural Hazards: The 1991 Mt. Pinatubo Eruption and the Aetas of the Philippines,” Vol. 24, No. 1 (March 2006): 5–43.

This article explores the response of traditional societies in the face of natural hazards through the lens of the concept of resilience. Resilient societies are those able to overcome the damages brought by the occurrence of natural hazards, either through maintaining their pre-disaster social fabric, or through accepting marginal or larger change in order to survive. Citing the case of the 1991 Mt. Pinatubo eruption in the Philippines and its impact on the Aeta communities who have been living on the slopes of the volcano for centuries, it suggests that the capacity of resilience of traditional societies and the concurrent degree of cultural change rely on four factors, namely: the nature of the hazard, the pre-disaster sociocultural context and capacity of resilience of the community, the geographical setting, and the rehabilitation policy set up by the authorities. These factors significantly vary in time and space, from one disaster to another. It is important to perceive their local variations to better anticipate the capability of traditional societies to overcome the damage brought by the occurrence of natural hazards and therefore predict eventual cultural change. (AA)

Gang, Song, see Jingshen, Lu, Du Gangjian, and Song Gang.
Gangjian, Du, see Jingshen, Lu, Du Gangjian, and Song Gang.
Garner, Ana C., "The Common Disaster and the Unexpected Education: Delta Flight 1141 and the Discourse on Aviation Safety," Vol. 14, No. 2 (August 1996): 155-174.
News coverage of transportation disasters, such as the crash of Delta Flight 1141, reveal the disaster behavior of passengers, flight personnel, and rescue workers. Within a mystery framework, the Flight 1141 discourse provides clues that readers can use to construct their own disaster behavior awareness. The media must expand their pedagogical role beyond natural and technological disasters and begin providing basic airplane safety behavior information. (AA)
Garrison, Jean L., "Mental Health Implications of Disaster Relocation in the United States: A Review of the Literature," Vol. 3, No. 2 (August 1985): 51-65.
Relocation following disaster has been assumed by many to be a highly stressful event. This article examines this assumption by reviewing the literature relating to relocation in both disaster and non-disaster settings, focussing on the way in which relocation may be perceived in terms of its impact on the physical environment, economic status, social setting, and psychological domain. In addition, special risk based on age, socioeconomic level, and ethnicity is discussed. Finally, implications for research are presented. In general, the literature suggests that perceptions related to housing quality, the sense of home and of belonging, increased indebtedness, availability of social support, other adverse events affecting the individual, and the degree of perceived control are critical variables in determining the mental health outcomes of relocation. Vulnerability to stress reactions following relocation is probably more related to class and ethnicity than to age. Additional research is needed to clarify the ways in which these variables interact. (AA)

Gawronski, Vincent T. and Richard Stuart Olson, "Tapping Collective Memory of Disaster: Getting "Inside" the 1985 Mexico City Earthquakes," Vol. 19, No. 3 (November 2001): 297-322.

Disasters achieve an enduring place or status in the history of a society by becoming part of the collective memory of its people. Using literary-cultural production and survey research data from 1997-1998, this paper explores the place of the great September 19 and September 20, 1985 Mexico City earthquakes in the collective memory of the Mexican people. The principal finding is that, of all the traumas that affected Mexico in the latter half of the twentieth century, the earthquakes of 1985 rank-and are almost twinned in importance-with the 1968 student protests and resulting Massacre at Tlatelolco. Both events turn out to be historical markers in Mexican collective memory. (AA)

Gawronski, Vincent T., see Olson, Richard Stuart, Robert A. Olson, and Vincent T. Gawronski.

Gawronski, Vincent T., see Olson, Richard Stuart and Vincent T. Gawronski.

Gibbs, Margaret, Juliana R. Lachenmeyer, Arlene Broska, and Richard Deicher, "Effects of the Avianca Aircrash on Disaster Workers," Vol. 14, No. 1 (March 1996): 23-32.

Seventy-eight emergency workers at the AVIANCA aircrash a Cove Neck, NewYork, filled out questionnaires dealing with their reactions to the disaster. The number of fatalities witnessed was strongly predictive of number of symptoms, while the proportion of injured dealt with who survived was negatively correlated with number of symptoms. Cognitive variables were related to the distress measures. Contrary to hypothesis, disaster training was unrelated to the distress measures, even when training was rated as effective. (AA)
Gilbert, Claude, "Studying Disaster: A Review of the Main Conceptual Tools," Vol. 13, No. 3 (November 1995): 231-240.
The numerous theoretical approaches to disasters can be classified into three main paradigms. We present their content, chronological developments, and cleavages. The first is disaster as a duplication of war (catastrophe can be imputed to an external agent; human communities are entities that react globally against an aggression). The second is disaster as an expression of social vulnerabilities (disaster is the result of underlying community logic, of an inward and social process). The third is disaster as an entrance into a state of uncertainty (disaster is tightly tied into the impossibility of defining real or supposed dangers, especially after the upsetting of the mental frameworks we use to know and understand reality). (AA)
Gilbert, Claude, "Reply to Hewitt," Vol. 13, No. 3 (November 1995): 341-345.
[Reply to the reaction paper by Kenneth Hewitt, Vol. 13, No. 3 (November 1995): 317-339.]
Gill, Derek, see Goodman, Patricia G., C. Edwin Vaughn, and Derek Gill.
Gillespie, David F., "Barton’s Theory of Collective Stress is a Classic and Worth Testing," Vol. 6, No. 3 (November 1988): 345-361.
Why after twenty years should anyone bother to read Barton’s book, Communities in Disaster? Because this book reveals a classic structure by combining theory and method in a rigorous but creative product. Barton’s book provides lasting value because it sets forth a distinctive sociological approach to disasters. This approach contributes to the disaster field as well as to general sociology. The central idea of "collective stress" serves as a focal point in codifying sociologically the earliest disaster research, and also it underlies major constructs such as the "emergency social system," "mass convergence," and "therapeutic community" which are standard terms in the disaster field lexicon of today. (Edited Author Introduction)
Gillespie, David F. and Calvin L. Streeter, "Conceptualizating and Measuring Disaster Preparedness," Vol. 5, No. 2 (August 1987): 155-176.
Disaster preparedness has been identified with planning, resource identification, warning systems, training and simulations, and other pre-disaster actions intended to improve the safety and effectiveness of community response to disaster. Despite its acknowledged importance, little attention has been given to clarifying the conceptualization and strengthening the measurement of preparedness. This paper presents an empirically based summative measure of preparedness, documents its reliability, and offers evidence of construct validity. (AA)
Gillespie, David F. and Susan A. Murty, "Setting Boundaries for Research on Organizational Capacity to Evacuate," Vol. 9, No. 2 (August 1991): 201-218.
A theoretical model of factors contributing to evacuation capacity is examined in relation to boundary setting criteria used to delimit populations. A population of disaster response organizations is delimited, and then the boundaries of four subpopulations are set according to four different delimiting criteria. The model is tested on the total population and the four subpopulations. Strikingly different results are obtained for the various populations. These disparate findings are the result of confounding the delimiting variable with the independent variables in the model. An expanded theoretical model which includes one of the delimiting variables provides a solution. Recommendations concerning explicit use of boundary-setting criteria are made. In particular, it is suggested that a delimiting criterion should not be associated with the dependent variable under study, and that social service organizations should be included in research on evacuation and disaster management. (AA)
Gillespie, David F. and Richard A. Colignon, "Structural Change in Disaster Preparedness Networks," Vol. 11, No. 2 (August 1993): 142-162.
Structural change in a network of disaster preparedness relations is assessed using a staged two-point repeated measures survey. An earthquake scenario simulates a sudden and dramatic jolt to the network. Measures of horizontal and vertical differentiation are found to be sensitive to structural change in the network. We conclude that disaster theory of interorganizational relations is advanced by using network analysis to specify and test hypotheses about different types of change. (AA)

Ginter, Peter M., W. Jack Duncan, Lisa C. McCormick, Andrew C. Rucks, Martha S. Wingate, and Maziar Abdolrasulnia, "Effective Response to Large-Scale Disasters: The Need for High-reliability Preparedness Networks," Vol. 24, No.3 (November 2006): 331-349

A continuing preparedness challenge concerns leading, managing, and coordinating multi-agency disaster prevention and response efforts. Effective disaster prevention and response requires a network of preparedness agencies and organizations that functions as a single, high-reliability organization (HRO). High-reliability organizations have been studied extensively; however, the lessons learned in managing HROs have not been systematically applied to the management and operations of multi-agency and private sector organization networks required to respond to large-scale disasters. This paper develops and recommends a leadership and management model for creating and leading high-reliability preparedness networks (HRPNs). The paper demonstrates that the HPRN is key to effectively preparing for and responding to rapid onset disasters such as hurricanes, tsunamis, and mass casualty terrorist events as well as evolving disasters such as infectious disease outbreaks, famines, drought, insect infestations, social system failure, and economic depression.  (AA)

Givans, Charles J., see Toulmin, Llewellyn M., Charles J. Givans, and Deborah L. Steel.

Gladwin, Christina H., Hugh Gladwin, and Walter Gillis Peacock, "Modeling Hurricane Evacuation Decisions with Ethnographic Method," Vol. 19, No. 2 (August 2001): 117-143.

This paper directly models individual and household hurricane evacuation behavior using ethnographic decision tree analysis. This approach uses a set of iterative processes to inductively derive a general decision model from specific individual decision models. To elicit the model described here, below the authors and several graduate students interviewed Miami residents who had been in South Florida during both Hurricanes Andrew in 1992 and Erin in 1995. The resulting model of hurricane evacuation decision processes was then tested with interview data collected from a separate random sample of 954 South Florida residents drawn from areas that were evacuation zones and areas immediately adjacent to them at the time of Hurricane Andrew. The model captures the complexity and messiness of real-life decision-making by including criteria showing how people are constrained by their perceptions of the hurricane, the safety features of their homes, the time they have available to prepare for the hurricane, their age, and the reactions of other family members who are also deciding whether or not to evacuate. By showing the richness of the decision process as well as its messiness, results taken from this model can better inform emergency managers who need to know how people will react to the approach of a hurricane.

Gladwin, Hugh, see Gladwin, Christina H., Hugh Gladwin, and Walter Gillis Peacock

Glass, Thomas A., see Aguirre, B. E., Dennis E. Wenger, Thomas A. Glass, Marceline Diaz-Murillo, and Gabriela Vigo.

Glickman, Larry T., see Sebastian E. Heath, Susan K. Voeks, and Larry T. Glickman.

Goldsteen, Karen S., see Goldsteen, Raymond L., John Schorr, and Karen S. Goldsteen.
Goldsteen, Raymond L., John Schorr, and Karen S. Goldsteen, "What’s the Matter with Those People?: Rethinking TMI," Vol. 2, No. 3 (November 1984): 369-387.
This paper examines the long-term psychological effects of the nuclear accident at Three Mile Island (TMI) on a community situated almost entirely within five miles of the reactor. Data were collected in October-November 1979 (Time I) from 391 residents 25 years of age and older and in October-November 1980 (Time II) from a subsample of these subjects. The findings of the study indicate that: (1) the community can be characterized as distressed at Time I and at Time II; and (2) in general, perceived threat to physical health is more highly associated with distress than personal or demographic characteristics. The relationship of these findings to previous research findings regarding long-term psychosocial effects following other types of disasters is discussed. (AA)
Golec, Judith A., "A Conceptual Approach to the Social Psychological Study of Disaster Recovery," Vol. 1, No. 2 (August 1983): 255-276.
The breakdown model has led to an irresolvable theoretical and empirical stalemate in the literature of community-wide disaster. This paper attempts to move beyond the present debate toward an empirically grounded reconceptualization. The case study employed for this purpose is the collapse of the Teton Dam which occurred in the United States in 1976. In-depth interviews and archival materials are used to reconstruct, from the perspective of disaster victims, the typical (successful) and the atypical (unsuccessful) recovery patterns of three years. Both patterns are explainable by reference to social processes, i.e., to collective arrangements created for distributing human and material resources used for the rebuilding effort. An inductively derived interpretive schema emphasizing the interconnecting linkages between disaster recovery, social resources, and social relations is recommended. Three types of social relations—primary, institutional, and exchange—are identified as points of access into networks—primary, public welfare, and private market—which control various types and amounts of needed resources. The organizational structure, the operational logic, and the philosophy of relief associated with each network determines the distributional arrangements and, consequently, the recovery patterns of disaster victims. Importantly, the distributive arrangement has a dual structure which reflects its local or extra-local pre-disaster status. The expected utility of this interpretive schema is two-fold. It provides a more adequate understanding of the recovery experience compared to the breakdown model, and it redirects research attention to previously unexplored or under-explored areas. (AA)
Goltz, James D., "Are the News Media Responsible for the Disaster Myths?: A Content Analysis of Emergency Response Imagery," Vol. 2, No. 3 (November 1984): 345-368.
Disaster research scholars and emergency planners have often contended that the news media play a major role in creating and perpetuating various myths of natural disaster response. These myths include widespread panic flight, psychological dependency and vicious competition for necessities on the part of victims, and physical convergence for the purpose of looting by non-victims. The evidence which ties the news media to these myths of community breakdown is largely indirect. Survey data reveal a generalized belief among members of the public that the above enumerated behaviors are typical reactions of people faced with a sudden crisis. These data also indicate that the news media are the principal source of information about disasters for most people. Lacking are detailed analyses which document the extent to which the myths of community breakdown actually appear in news coverage of natural disaster events. The present study, which focuses on the reporting of four earthquake events by two southern California newspapers, attempts to address this issue. The results, though preliminary, suggest that some caution is warranted in making the generalization that natural disaster coverage disproportionately conveys a breakdown imagery of communities facing a major natural catastrophe. (AA)
Goltz, James D., Lisa A. Russell, and Linda B. Bourque, "Initial Behavioral Response to a Rapid Onset Disaster: a Case Study of the October 1, 1987, Whittier Narrows Earthquake," Vol. 10, No. 1 (March, 1992): 43-69.
This paper examines the immediate response behavior of Los Angeles County residents to the October 1, 1987, Whittier Narrows earthquake. Drawing on both social science disaster research literature and occupant behavior studies, the authors consider various situational, demographic, and socioeconomic variables as potential correlates of actions taken by individuals and families in response to the earthquake which measured 5.9 in magnitude. Survey data were obtained from 690 residents of the county, 191 in a pre-designated high impact area which included the City of Whittier and immediate area and 499 persons selected at random from the remainder of the county. It was discovered that taking cover in a doorway, hall, or under furniture was the modal response for people who were at home or work as was pulling to the side of the road and stopping for those driving on a road or highway. Among those who were at home at 7:42 a.m. when the earthquake struck, fear, the presence and identity of other people, and gender were found to be associated with response actions. At work, response behavior was related to fear, ethnicity, and the presence of others. The impact of fear on the propensity to take cover both at work and at home appeared to be amplified by several variables, some of which had no significant bivariate relationship with taking cover. The authors conclude that the findings of this study are consistent with the generalization from the literature that behavior in a rapid onset disaster is controlled, rational, and adaptive. (AA)

Good, James W., see Wood, Nathan J. and James W. Good.

Goodman, Patricia G., C. Edwin Vaughn, and Derek Gill, "Relocation or Proximity?: Major Factors Associated with Prolonged Impact Following Dioxin Contamination and Flooding in Missouri," Vol. 10, No. 1 (March, 1992): 115-132.

Original data collected in the AARP-Andrus study were used as the basis for comparative study of delayed recovery by disaster type, proximity, and relocation. Disaster samples included 109 flooded, 100 dioxin-contaminated, and 145 affected by disasters at Times Beach for a total of 354 subjects. Proximity (had or still resided on confirmed dioxin sites) and disaster type were significantly associated with delayed recovery. Relocation was not associated with recovery; however, lack of permanent relocation and attitudes toward relocation were found to affect recovery among the dioxin sample, with younger persons reporting greater effects than elders. Data support other studies on chemical disasters; and add the components of examining effects of relocation and proximity, and the prolonged effects of man-made disasters versus natural disasters. (AA)

Gough, Meghan Zimmerman, see Evans-Cowley, Jennifer S., and Meghan Zimmerman Gough.

Granot, Hayim, "Facing Catastrophe: Mad Cows and Emergency Policy-Making," Vol. 17, No. 2 (August 1999): 161-184.

Discovery of an apparent link between eating infected beef and a rare human degenerative brain condition, Creutzfeldt-Jakob Disease, has necessitated life and death decisions by agriculture and health authorities in Britain, where the problem has thus far been concentrated. This slow developing health emergency shares many features in common with emergencies generally. The way in which this health crisis has been handled appears to have contributed to the apprehension and confusion of the British public, undermining confidence in those who must provide leadership in a stressful and costly crisis. After reviewing the development of the crisis, the author examines a number of features in policy-making in this case which could prove instructive with regard to hazard management and risk communication generally. (AA)

Green, Dianne E., Antony J.W. Taylor, and Frank H. Walkey, "Factor Variation as a Function of Disaster Stress," Vol. 6, No. 2 (August 1988): 155-167.

In an attempt to standardize the use of at least one particular test in studies of post-disaster stress, the factor structure of four forms of the Hopkins Symptom Checklist were examined by means of a new comparison technique on three sets of data. The outcome showed that only the shortest of the forms—the HSCL-21—had a robust three-factor structure in at least two out of the three data sets. The factors were identified as General Feelings of Distress (GFD), Somatic Distress (SD), and Performance Difficulty (PD). The aberrant set of data, which was obtained from a group under extreme stress at the time, was explained in terms of the anxiety, preoccupation, and hypervigilance of the subjects. The same HSCL-21 also had a general factor that was identified as total distress in all three data sets. Consequently the HSCL-21 is to be recommended as a brief, useful, and factorially stable post-disaster assessment questionnaire. (AA)

Gruntfest, Eve and Marc Weber, "Internet and Emergency Management: Prospects for the Future," Vol. 16, No. 1 (March 1998): 55-72.

This article reports on the growing value of Internet resources for the emergency management profession. The analysis has six components: (1) a brief history of the field prior to the introduction of the Internet; (2) an overview of the changes in emergency management since the introduction of the Internet and a summary of the characteristics of Internet communications; (3) some descriptions of how the Internet is currently used in flood, earthquake, and volcano research; (4) examples of Internet use as a tool for education; (5) federal and state employment of the Internet in emergency management during disasters and for public education and awareness between disasters; and (6) conclusions and suggestions for future research. (AA)

Guarnizo, Caroline Clarke, "Integrating Disaster and Development Assistance after Natural Disasters: NGO Response in the Third World," Vol. 11, No. 1 (March 1993): 111-122.

This paper examines how one particular aid sector, the nongovernmental development organizations (NGOs), is tackling the institutional issues involved in integrating disaster and development assistance and the Third World. The paper presents where NGOs have encountered the need to integrate the two aid types, their institutional efforts to do so, and the challenges they face in the implementation process. Finally, it outlines important areas for further work to aid NGOs to develop viable mechanisms to manage overlapping responsibilities in disaster response and longer-term reduction efforts. Despite the new research understanding of disasters-development relationship and program directions, these efforts to integrate the two in practice have faltered. This paper argues that difficulties lie in the fact that the institutional mechanisms necessary for putting these goals into practice have not kept pace. The post-war foreign aid model which separates disaster and development aid into two institutional jurisdictions is still largely in place. This paper states that new ways for enhancing co-operation among the different actors in disaster reduction must take place. In particular, institutional jurisdictions must be transcended and new arrangements promoted that facilitate development planners/agencies to play their role in the disaster reduction process. Institutional mechanisms need to catch up with current thinking in disaster research in order to meet the emerging policy and program priorities. (AA)

Guerin, Diana Wright, see Junn, Ellen N. and Diana Wright Guerin.

Güss, C. Dominik and Oliver I. Pangan, "Cultural Influences on Disaster Management: A Case Study of the Mt. Pinatubo Eruption," Vol. 22, No. 2 (August 2004): 31-58.

Disaster management teams composed of experts from different countries will be more and more common in the future.  As natural disasters are most frequent in Central America and Southeast Asia (developing countries with limited human and financial resources), their disaster-management organizations will more frequently seek help from the international community.  This article analyzes disaster management before, during, and after the 1991 Mt. Pinatubo eruption in the Philippines.  This was one of the biggest eruptions in the past century and one with important lessons for present-day disaster management.  Different ethnic groups in the Philippines were affected by this disaster Filipino experts worked together with foreign experts in solving problems that came prior to and after this disaster.  This paper argues that disaster management was affected by the cultural norms and values of the people working together to manage the disaster.  It is concluded that intercultural competence, like cultural awareness and sensitivity, are important factors for the successful planning and implementation of disaster management efforts among multi-cultural expert groups.  (AA)

Gutteling, Jan M., see Wiegman, Oene, Egil Komilis, Bernard Cadet, Henk Boer, and Jan M. Gutteling.

Haines, Valerie A., Jeanne S. Hurlbert, and John J. Beggs, "The Disaster Framing of the Stress Process: A Test of an Expanded Model," Vol. 17, No. 3 (November 1999): 367-397.
Studies of the negative mental health consequences of natural disasters form an important interface between environmental sociology and medical sociology. Building upon recent developments in both fields, we develop an expanded model of the disaster framing of the stress process and test its main effects and buffer specifications with data on the preparation and short-term recovery phases of Hurricane Andrew. We found that instrumental forms of social support ameliorated psychological distress, but we found only weak support for the buffer model. Our results suggest that expanding the range of environmental changes that is included in conceptualizations of stress and exploring contextual effects at the personal network and local community levels would improve our understanding of the stress process inside and outside the disaster context. They also highlight the importance of paying close attention to the types and timing of support transactions following life-threatening events.
Haines, Valerie, see Beggs, John J., Valerie Haines, and Jeanne S. Hurlbert.

Handmer, John, "Sustainable Development Is about Disaster Reduction," Vol. 20, No. 2 (August 2002): 131-133.

Handmer, John, "The Chimera of Precision: Inherent Uncertainties in Disaster Loss Assessment," Vol. 20, No. 3 (November 2002): 325-346.

Loss assessments are undertaken to support decisions about disaster mitigation. There is considerable pressure to use economic principles and to make such assessments a condition of funding for all mitigation. A fundamental underlying assumption is that loss assessments are accurate and comparable-and that this accuracy makes comparisons more valid. Unfortunately, it appears that this is not the case. A key question concerns whether loss assessments can be made accurate and comparable through improved knowledge and training-as implied by many critics of the approach-or whether the problems are inherent in the idea of loss assessment. Drawing primarily on Australian flood loss assessment work, these issues are examined. Results suggest that the uncertainties may be larger than generally acknowledged, that at least some are irreducible, and that comparisons may not be assisted by improved accuracy. The implication is that loss assessment methods should aim to make comparisons valid and reliable rather than chase unachievable precision.

Handmer, John, "Introduction," Vol. 21, No. 3 (November 2003): 5-8.

Handmer, John, "Introduction," Vol. 22, No. 3 (November 2004): 5-8.

Handmer, John, see Scanlon, T. Joseph and John Handmer.

Handmer, John, and Rebecca Monson, "Does a Rights Based Approach Make a Difference? The Role of Public Law in Vulnerability Reduction," Vol. 22, No. 3 (November 2004): 43-59.

Reducing the impact of climate-related disasters can be conceptualized as being about reducing or managing 'vulnerability.' 'Vulnerability' is a multi-faceted concept incorporating issues of livelihood, housing, security and gender among many others. For example, groups of people may be more or less vulnerable to climate-related disasters due to the security of their livelihoods or the quality of their housing. International and national law may regulate some of these constituents of vulnerability. In some jurisdictions, such as countries in the European Union and the Council of Europe, and countries with new constitutions, there is a range of specific tights that may be mobilized to reduce vulnerability.

Much of the work on the link between vulnerability reduction and human rights focuses on international law. However, national law is generally more accessible and enforceable than international law. We draw on three recent South African cases to illustrate the potential for citizens to mobilize public law to reduce their own vulnerability, and raise the question of whether a legal tights based approach might be useful elsewhere in the world.  (AA)

Harmon, Wendy, see Cornwell, Benjamin, Wendy Harmon, Melissa Mason, Brian Merz, and Mike Lampe.

’t Hart, Paul, see Kofman Bos, Celesta, Susann Ullberg, and Paul ’t Hart.

Hartsough, Donald M., see Mileti, Dennis S., Donald M. Hartsough, Patti Madson, and Rick Hufnagel.
Hawkins, Randolph, see Perry, Joseph B., Jr., Randolph Hawkins, and David M. Neal.

Heath, Sebastian E., Susan K. Voeks, and Larry T. Glickman, "A Study of Pet Rescue in Two Disasters," Vol. 18, No. 3 (November 2000): 361-381.

Pet rescues endanger public and animal health in disasters and are a direct consequence of pet evacuation failure. This study characterized pet rescue attempts in two disasters. A random digit dial telephone survey was conducted of 397 households in Yuba County, California, where residents were under an evacuation notice due to flooding. A mail survey was conducted of 241 households in Weyauwega, Wisconsin, where residents evacuated from a hazardous chemical spill. Risk factors for pet rescue were identified using multivariate logistic regression. Case households were defined as those that evacuated without pets and later attempted to rescue them, while control households were those that evacuated without their pet and did not attempt a rescue. Approximately 20 percent and 50 percent of pet-owning households that evacuated failed to take their pet with them in Yuba County and Weyauwega, respectively. Approximately 80 percent of persons who reentered the evacuated area did so to rescue their pet. Attempts to rescue a pet was most common by households with children. Predisaster planning should, therefore, place a higher priority on facilitating pet evacuation so as to minimize the subsequent need to rescue pets. (AA)

Hettinger, Edward, see Wetzel, Christopher G., Edward Hettinger, Robert McMillan, Monroe Rayburn, and Andrew Nix.
Hewitt, Kenneth, "Reaction Paper: Excluded Perspectives in the Social Construction of Disaster," Vol. 13, No. 3 (November 1995): 317-339.
The purpose of this paper is to review and respond to the preceding five articles in the special issue [Ed.: Gilbert, Dombrowsky, Kreps, Porfiriev, and Horlick-Jones in Vol. 13, No. 3 (November 1995)]. My principal charge is to look at the authors’ approaches to answering the question of "What is a disaster?" and respond to their considerations. In doing this, I have outlined a variety of what I believe to be "excluded" perspectives in these formulations of what constitutes disasters. (AA)

Hilhorst, Dorothea, "Responding to Disasters: Diversity of Bureaucrats, Technocrats and Local People," Vol. 21, No. 1 (March 2003): 37-55.

The relations between disaster experts, governments, and local people have often been considered problematic in disaster situations. The idea that disasters caused by natural hazards are the ultimate terrain of experts and managers has been discredited by approaches focusing on the capacities and coping practices of local people, while the role of governments in the interplay between experts and local people is often left unclear. This paper reviews some recent insights into the complexity of these relations by introducing the notion of social domains of disaster responses. Social domains are areas of social life where ideas and practices concerning risk and disaster are exchanged, shared, and more or less organized because of a certain proximity, physically or discursively, in the ways references are made to disaster and risk. The study of social domains allows one to focus on the everyday practices and movements of actors negotiating the conditions and effects of vulnerability and disaster. The paper first discusses how experts and local people are represented in different subsequent paradigms of disaster studies; elaborates on the importance of social domains for studying disaster response; after which the three domains of disaster science, governance and local people will be discussed. (AA)

Hill, Arleen A., see Jerry T. Mitchell, Deborah S. K. Thomas, Arleen A. Hill, and Susan L. Cutter.

Hiroi, Osamu, Shunji Mikami, and Kakuko Miyata, "A Study of Mass Media Reporting in Emergencies," Vol. 3, No. 1 (March 1985): 21-49.
This paper examines the operations of mass media in disasters, the content of messages in disaster reporting, and the distortion in reporting warnings and disasters, based on empirical studies in several communities in Japan. In the warning stage, we found that the broadcast media are the primary source of information in most cases. However, the warnings often did not reach a complete range of audience, nor could it induce an adaptive response among these recipients. As for the mass media operation during and after the disasters, we found that the difficulties in mobilizing resources, uncertainties in reliable news sources, and malfuntioning communication channels were the main obstacles in reporting damage. The main characteristics of the content of mass media reporting in disasters are described. Six types of information are found in the disaster reporting of the broadcast media: Information on (1) advice or directions, (2) disaster agent, (3) safety messages, (4) damage, (5) countermeasures, and (6) restoration. The results of the content analysis of the broadcast of two stations on the day of the Nihonkai-Chuubu earthquake show that personal messages and damage information were the most heavily broadcast. This did not always match the information needs of the residents. The media in Japan tend to exaggerate damages in disasters, leading to the distorted perception of hazards. They also tend not to report sufficiently the news people want to get. The reasons for these inaccurate reportings are: (1) journalists’ attitudes to news editing and reporting, and (2) distorted images or myths among journalists. The content of newspaper reporting of a false warning was analyzed as a case study. (AA)

Hirose, Hirotada, "Earthquake Prediction in Japan and the United States," Vol. 3, No. 1 (March 1985): 51-66.
Major earthquakes were predicted on both sides of the Pacific in Shizuoka Prefecture, Japan, and the state of California, the United States, at roughly the same time. These predictions differ from those made previously in that (1) the location, scale, and likelihood in a given timeframe have been specified; (2) the predictions for both regions have been taken seriously by the governments; and (3) there has been an unprecedented increase in earthquake concern among the areas’ residents. In the present study, the American and Japanese reactions to these earthquake predictions are compared in terms of earthquake policy and the impact on residents’ lifestyles. Conclusions are that (1) there is a major difference in the time, money, and energy spent on earthquake policy, Shizuoka being far better prepared than California; (2) Tokai earthquake policy is premised on the assumption of short-term predictability, but California policy is not; and (3) Shizuoka residents are ahead of Californians in earthquake preparedness, but public earthquake awareness is growing steadily in California, and should be considerably enhanced in the near future. (AA)
Hirose, Hirotada, "Defining Disaster Relief: Disaster Victims and Disaster Relief Administration in the Case of Mt. Unzen’s Eruption," Vol. 10, No. 2 (August 1992): 281-292.
The eruption of Mt. Unzen, from November 1990 to June 1991, brought on one of the worst volcanic disasters in Japan. Never before in post-war Japanese history has a natural disaster forced so many people to live as evacuees for so long. Two questionnaire surveys were carried out, the first in August 1991 and the second in February 1992. Conclusions drawn from these indicate that material assistance is important, but even more significant is the adoption of far-sighted policies to help evacuees adapt to their new disaster-caused situation. This would seem to be the biggest lesson to be learned from how today’s affluent Japanese society dealt with the disaster. (AA)
Hirose, Hirotada see also Okabe, Keizo and Hirotada Hirose.
Hirose, Hirotada, see also Perry, Ronald W. and Hirotada Hirose.
Holland, Connie J. and Peter W. VanArsdale, "Responses to Disaster: A Comparative Study of Indigenous Coping Mechanisms in Two Marginal Third World Communities," Vol. 4, No. 3 (November 1986): 51-70.
The social and cultural environments and traditions of two villages—Karang Ploso, Indonesia, and Mayush, Peru—are used to interpret pre- and post-flood responses. Although marginalization may render many Third World populations more vulnerable to potential disasters, case study materials based on these two responses suggest that some victims in these types of villages may better be able to recover from such disasters than many within more developed countries. (AA)
Holway, James M., see Kaiser, Edward J., Raymond J. Burby, Scott A. Bollens and James M. Holway.

Homan, Jacqueline, "Writing Disaster: Autobiography as a Methodology in Disaster Research," Vol. 21, No. 2 (August 2003): 51–80.

Research in social science has increasingly moved towards emphasis on egalitarian relationships in the research process, attempting to explore and break down the traditional divide between "researcher" and "researched." With this more reciprocal relationship comes acknowledgement of positionality, intersubjectivity and the need for the "researched" to gain a substantial voice in the research process. In this paper, autobiography is explored as a possible method through which those affected by disasters might be empowered with a research process that is traditionally replete with power imbalances. Such personal accounts of disaster, which draw upon the experiences of the author as the defining characteristic, are not recent developments in disaster research. This paper explores the roles of personal accounts through the letters of Pliny the Younger, as well as the key role of autobiographical data in Islamic environmental histories. The Mass-Observation Archives, held at the University of Sussex in the UK, is used as an example of the scope and limitations of this research method in contemporary disaster research. It is concluded that, in some contexts, autobiographical research has significant potential in enabling those exposed to disaster to have a greater input into the ways their perceptions are recorded, thereby allowing them to have ownership of the research process per se, as well as the practical response to it, for example culturally sensitive mitigation strategies.

Hoover, Greg A. and Frederick L. Bates, "The Impact of a Natural Disaster on the Division of Labor in Twelve Guatemalan Communities: A Study of Social Change in a Developing Country," Vol. 3, No. 3 (November 1985): 7-26.
It has been hypothesized that disasters are a type of "intervention" which affects rates of social change and provide unique opportunities to observe this process by "compressing" it into a shorter time span. This paper utilizes an interrupted time series analysis to determine the effects of an earthquake on the rate and direction of change in the division of labor in twelve Guatemalan communities. The general trend for these communities (both control and experimental) is increasing complexity before the earthquake followed by accelerated growth in complexity after the earthquake. Differences between the experimental and control communities are discussed. It is suggested that the level of complexity may be important as an underlying influence on the response of a population to a disaster. In addition, changes in complexity (which were shown to occur) also warrant further study as possible influences upon these responses. (AA)
Horlick-Jones, Tom, "Modern Disasters as Outrage and Betrayal," Vol. 13, No. 3 (November 1995): 305-315.

The concept of disaster in the modern world has been socially constructed from traditional notions relating to catastrophic events. Disasters in modern societies contain strong elements of a release of repressed existential anxiety, triggered by a perceived betrayal of trust by contemporary institutions. It is speculated that the well-known "disaster myths" that figure in media and other accounts of disastrous events are elements of a related characterization of disasters as a loss of control of social order. (AA)
Horlick-Jones, Tom, "Agency and Power in Modern Disasters: A Rejoinder to Hewitt," Vol. 13, No. 3 (November 1995): 357-359.
[Reply to the reaction paper by Kenneth Hewitt, Vol. 13, No. 3 (November 1995): 317-339.]
Horwich, George, "The Role of the For-Profit Private Sector in Disaster Mitigation and Response," Vol. 11, No. 2 (August 1993): 189-205.
In an era in which free-market capitalism has been showered with more accolades than anyone ever expected it to receive, it seems especially timely to reassess economic sectors traditionally regarded as the preserve of nonprofit or governmental supply and off-limits to for-profit private activity. Of particular interest in this regard is the whole area of disaster mitigation and response, which, in the United States, at least, is experiencing an explosion of for-profit private-sector initiatives. I will survey and analyze some of these developments and offer some suggestions for policies to promote the role of private enterprise in both disaster anticipation and recovery. (AA)
Houts, Peter S., Michael K. Lindell, Teh Wei Hu, Paul D. Cleary, George Tokuhata, and Chynthia B. Flynn, "Protective Action Decision Model Applied to Evacuation During the Three Mile Island Crisis," Vol. 2, No. 1 (March 1984): 27-39.

Interviews with 1,505 persons living within 55 miles of the Three Mile Island nuclear power plant three months after the crisis were analyzed to test whether the protective action decision model could predict evacuation behavior during the crisis period. Results indicate that severity, susceptibility, barrier and cost variables were, as suggested by the model, related to evacuation behavior. In addition, several modifications to the model were suggested by the findings including a need to account for why conflicting information may increase evacuation in nuclear disasters while decreasing evacuation in non-nuclear disasters. (AA)
Houts, Peter S., see Bartlett, Glen S., Peter S. Houts, Linda K. Byrnes, and Robert W. Miller.
Hu, Teh Wei, see Houts, Peter S., Michael K. Lindell, Teh Wei Hu, Paul D. Cleary, George Tokuhata, and Chynthia B. Flynn.
Huffman, James L., "Government Liability and Natural Hazard Mitigation in Japan, the Soviet Union, China, New Zealand, and the United States," Vol. 1, No. 3 (November 1983): 379-397.
Earthquake hazard mitigation is an important part of most governmental efforts to mitigate the harm which results from natural disasters. As part of the effort to mitigate harm, governments should consider how the assignment of the external or unintended costs of mitigation impacts on the success of the mitigation effort. Central to the assignment of these costs is the law of government liability. This article reports on the preliminary results of a comparative study of government liability law as it relates to natural hazard mitigation in five countries. A brief survey of the government liability law of Japan, the Soviet Union, China, New Zealand, and the United States is presented. Laws relating specifically to natural hazard mitigation are also examined. The five countries represent very different economic, political, and social systems, yet reveal a concern for a problem which seems common to all of them. A comparative analysis is drawn upon to develop a framework for policy analysis. The analytical framework identifies policy concerns which a government might wish to pursue and an array of legal mechanisms for affecting selected policy goals. The general conclusion is that governments have numerous cost assignment mechanisms in addition to liability in the narrow sense of the law of torts or obligations. The selection of appropriate legal mechanisms will depend upon the goals and circumstances of particular governments. (AA)
Huffman, James L., "Law, Comparative Legal Study, and Disaster Taxonomy," Vol. 7, No. 3 (November 1989): 329-347.
This paper examines the problem of taxonomy in disaster research from the point of view of a lawyer who makes no claims to being a social scientist. It reflects the perspective of one who has been, for over a decade, what sociologists once called a participant observer of disaster research. My perspective, no doubt, is influenced by my rejection of the idea that law is itself a science. From this point of view, the taxonomy of disaster research is not a problem for purely legal inquiry. I do not reject, however, that a taxonomy could be helpful to our understanding of law as a social institution. I will no doubt have ventured beyond my expertise, but perhaps any naivete will be offset by the benefits of a fresh perspective. (Edited Author Introduction)
Hufnagel, Rick, see Mileti, Dennis S., Donald M. Hartsough, Patti Madson, and Rick Hufnagel.
Hughes, Cornelius G., "The Piper’s Dance: A Paradigm of the Collective Response to Epidemic Disease," Vol. 11, No. 2 (August 1993): 227-245.
A content analysis of the literature on epidemics, with particular reference to the American experience with AIDS, reveals the natural history of the response of endangered populations to epidemics. The paradigm contains four sequential phases: discernment, in which the threatened society becomes cognizant of the presence of a spreading lethal infection; a collective trauma with symptoms similar to other natural and man-made disasters and attended by denial, epidemic phobia, scapegoating, and retribution guilt; avoidance behavior ruled by rational attempts to lessen the risk of contagion; and recovery, in which survivors enabled by biological immunity or medical technology witness the abatement of the epidemic. Though they have distinctive traits, epidemics illustrate the essential dynamics that mark natural and technological disasters. (AA)
Hultåker, Örjan, "Introduction: Family and Disaster (Special Issue)," Vol. 1, No. 1 (March 1983): 7-18.
In June 16-19, 1980, the Family Study Group at Uppsala University organized the XVIIIth International Seminar of the Committee on Family Research of the International Sociological Association, co-sponsored by the Swedish Civil Defense Administration, at the Royal Castle Rosersberg. The best papers presented at the seminar were selected for the present special issue on Family and Disaster. [Editors’ introduction; with Jan Trost]
Hultåker, Örjan, "A Referendum on the Future of Nuclear Power: The Case of Sweden," Vol. 2, No. 1 (March 1984): 165-184.
The history of nuclear development in Sweden is chronicled. The position of various political parties is noted. Although the accident at Three Mile Island was an important factor in the holding of a referendum of the future of nuclear power, the event did not appear to greatly alter long-standing attitudes about the issue. Results of the referendum are analyzed. Political party loyalties were major factors that determined votes on the referendum. However, other factors, such as gender and age, and occupational position, were also important determinants. (AA)

Human, R. Josh, Manasi Palit, and David M. Simpson, " Risk Assessment and the Disaster Resistant University (DRU) Program: The University of Louisville Approach," Vol. 24, No. 2 (August 2006): 191-202.

While state and local governments are required to complete a Hazard Mitigation Plan under the dictates of the Disaster Mitigation Act of 2000 (DMA 2000), universities are not required by that law to perform a similar planning and mitigation activity. FEMA’s Disaster Resistant University (DRU) program was intended to encourage and promote mitigation among institutions of higher learning. The University of Louisville received a DRU planning grant under the second, and what was to be the last round of grants, of the program, as it was phased out as a designated set-aside of planning and mitigation funding for universities.

This paper describes the University of Louisville approach to creating a University Hazard Mitigation Plan and the unique elements of conducting a risk assessment and vulnerability analysis for the campus that mirrors similar efforts in state and local hazards planning. The project has been a collaborative effort on the part of the practitioner unit on campus responsible for day-to-day emergency preparedness and safety (the Department of Environmental and Health Safety) and one of the university's research units, the Center for Hazards Research and Policy Development (CHR), an active research unit performing theoretical and applied hazards research projects at the local, regional and national level.

The project has been successful in creating a method of risk assessment and classifying the exposure of structures and population. Key challenges have been access to data from various sources within the university and the ability to assess structural integrity from existing building inventory data. This paper concludes by identifying the need for meaningful risk assessment and more robust exposure models, and further suggests research issues that if addressed, would improve university disaster resilience.  (AA)
Hurlbert, Jeanne S., see Beggs, John J., Valerie Haines, and Jeanne S. Hurlbert.
Hurlbert, Jeanne S., see Haines, Valerie A., Jeanne S. Hurlbert, and John J. Beggs.

Hwang, Seong Nam, William G. Sanderson, Jr., and Michael K. Lindell, "State Emergency Management Agencies’ Hazard Analysis Information on the Internet," Vol. 19, No. 1 (March 2001): 85-106.

This study examined hazard analysis information on state emergency management agencies’ (SEMAs’) Internet Web sites. The results showed that 3 of the 51 SEMAs in the United States did not have Web sites accessible to the public, and another 13 provided no hazard analysis information on their Web sites. Among those that do provide information about hazards, most address relatively few of the hazards to which their states are vulnerable. Moreover, there is poor correspondence of the hazard agents addressed on SEMA Web sites with either long-term vulnerability determined from hazard maps or recent impacts defined by federal major disaster declarations. This suggests that states are missing a major opportunity to educate local emergency managers and the public about the hazards to which they are vulnerable. Several recommendations are made for improving the content and format of hazard analysis information on SEMAs’ Web sites. (AA)

Hwang, Seong Nam, see Lindell, Michael K., William G. Sanderson, Jr., and Seong Nam Hwang.

Ikeda, Ken’ichi, see Mikami, Shunjii and Ken’ichi Ikeda.
Innes, J. Michael and Jennifer K. Slack, "Some Considerations on Personal Reactions to Emergency Stress in Employed and Volunteer Organization Personnel," Vol. 8, No. 3 (November 1990): 379-400.
This paper reviews research on occupational stress as it is relevant to the demands made upon members of the emergency services, in particular fire service and ambulance personnel. Personal characteristics which may enhance or alleviate reactions to job stress are considered in concert with the effects, both positive and negative, of the support provided by other people, whether co-workers or family members. Particular attention is paid to the impact of stress upon volunteer personnel, as the characteristics which motivate people to take voluntary positions may in some cases heighten their reaction to job stressors. (AA)
Isumi, Masanori, Noriaki Nomura, and Takao Shibuya, "Simulation of Post-Earthquake Restoration of Lifeline Systems," Vol. 3, No. 1 (March 1985): 87-105.
To have a national methodology for pre-earthquake planning, a model for predicting the post-earthquake behavior of city lifeline systems was developed. We discussed three factors in the model: structural damage, functional damage, and the restoration process after the earthquake. The restoration process is basically described by a differential equation applicable to a service area represented by a census mesh, and is applied to the lifelines (i.e., supply systems of gas, electric power, and water) of Sendai city in Japan. The model, in addition, indicates the lifeline network properties, and serviceability indices are defined in order to assess the functional damage of each system. In the case of the 1978 Off-Miyagi earthquake, a computer simulation of the restoration process was carried out by using step-by-step calculations and the Monte Carlo method. The simulated results, using indices as a function of time, were well in agreement with actual results, which indicates that the model is capable of predicting the restoration process. Through further simulations which varied the restoration strategies of the Emergency Headquarters, we show that the recovery of the gas system is sensitively affected by the strategy used. However, the electric power and the water systems were more influenced by the network properties rather than the strategies used. Our approach can provide useful information in undertaking pre-earthquake countermeasures for city lifeline systems. (AA)
Jackson, Michael W. and Peter Janssen, "Disaster and the Moral Appraisal of Corporate Actions," Vol. 8, No. 3 (November 1990): 341-360.
Ethics is an aspect of disasters that has yet to receive sustained attention. We concentrate further on one particular kind of disaster, namely technological disasters. These are disasters that arise from human artifice. Because most technological development rests in the commercial sector, we examine the ethical responsibility of corporations. Following Charles Lindblom, we argue that corporate authorities can be understood as exercising delegated authority. If so, then at least part of their role is to act as if they were public officials. We conceive of delegated authority as a social contract in which society accepts the operation of business on the assumption that business acts in a way that respects rights and maximizes benefits for all concerned. Here we look to John Rawls. One way in which the role of the executive can be ventilated is by adopting a stakeholder frame of reference that recognizes the array of legitimate interest affected by a processing industry. In Lindblom’s terms this means accounting for hidden costs. We close with some specific examples of where the ethical obligations of corporations can be discharged with respect to disaster prevention and mitigation. (AA)
Janssen, Peter, see Jackson, Michael W. and Peter Janssen.
Jenkins, Sharon Rae, "Emergency Medical Workers’ Mass Shooting Incident Stress and Psychological Recovery," Vol. 16, No. 2 (August 1998): 181-197.
This study was designed to identify 36 emergency medical workers’ most common stress reactions and recovery processes after a heavy-fatality mass shooting incident, and to relate stressors, reactions, and recovery resources to workers’ major symptoms and satisfaction with their role in the incident. Anxiety/worry (28 percent), anger/hostility (22 percent), sleep disturbances (22 percent), and obsessive-compulsive preoccupations (19 percent) were common in the first week post-event. Coworkers provided the most commonly sought (by 94 percent) and consistently effective social support; counselors were as effective but used by only 50 percent. Victim contact, low helplessness, high social support availability for "anything," and joking about the incident were related to workers’ satisfaction with the role they played in the incident. Interventions for emergency medical personnel after mass casualty events should target anxiety and hostility symptoms, sleep disturbances, obsessive-compulsive preoccupations, and helpless feelings; encourage global social support, especially among coworkers; provide voluntary counseling; and include family members. (AA)
Jingshen, Lu, Du Gangjian, and Song Gang, "The Experience, Lesson and Reform of China’s Disaster Management," Vol. 10, No. 2 (August 1992): 315-327.
In the context employed here, disaster management refers to the administrative measures, principles, and policies enforced by governments, armed forces, enterprises, and social groups in the course of disaster prevention, relief, and reconstruction. Between 1949-1990, many serious natural disaster occasions have been chronicled in China. The average annual periodicity for selected significant disaster agents is indicative: 5.6 floods, 6 earthquakes greater than Richter magnitude R6; 6.9 tropical windstorms; and 7.5 droughts have been recorded in this 40-year perioid. Moreover, between 1949-1984 16,000 large forest fires have occurred. Direct annual economic losses from natural disaster total approximately 50 billion yuan ($1 billion U.S.); arguably indirect losses are much greater. Losses from technological hazards, especially those caused by factory explosions and mining, are also alarming. Earthquake is regarded as the most serious natural hazard, with almost one-third (32.5 percent) of the territory and 45 percent of mainland cities located in seismic zones which could result in an R7 earthquake. Twenty-four of the 31 provinces and autonomous regions have experienced earthquakes of R6 or greater. Because China is a country which is frequently impacted by natural hazards, disaster managers have accumulated a wealth of useful experiences and many valuable lessons have been learned, much of which could be useful to other nations. This paper attempts to put those experiences and lessons together, and also assesses the reforms which are taking place in Chinese disaster management. (AA)

Johnson, David E. A., "A Call for Dynamic Hazard Assessment," Vol. 22, No. 3 (November 2004): 9-22.

This exploratory study examines the use of agent-based modeling for the dynamic assessment of the hazards associated with flooding responses. While flooding is the specific agent used, the techniques are applicable to any type of hazard. The equation upon which the model is built considers four components: geophysical, built, social environments and response organization capabilities. The development of the agent characteristics requires the quantification of the interdependencies of the environment as well as the interaction among the response agencies in a complex adaptive system. This study will develop a realistic model of the hazards and the ability of the response organizations to mitigate the incident.  (AA)

Johnson, Norris R., "Fire in a Crowded Theater: A Descriptive Investigation of the Emergence of Panic," Vol. 6, No. 1 (March 1988): 7-26.
More than 160 people were killed in a fire in the Beverly Hills Supper Club near Cincinnati, Ohio, in 1977, an incident that appeared to be a classic case of panic involving a breakdown of social order and ruthless competition for exits. This paper analyzes transcripts of police interviews with club patrons to describe flight from the show room in which most of the deaths occurred. The descriptive analysis reveals that escape from the building was initially orderly and non-competitive; however, when escape became urgent, competition for the remaining exit possibilities developed. Even then the behavior did not appear to be in total disregard of social order; social norms and structural ties continued to constrain behavior. (AA)

Johnson, Norris R., see Feinberg, William E. and Norris R. Johnson.

Junn, Ellen N. and Diana Wright Guerin, "Factors Related to Earthquake Preparedness Among Child Care Professionals," Vol. 14, No. 3 (November 1996): 343-359.
With increasing numbers of children enrolled in childcare, the safety of the childcare environment and the preparedness of personnel to prevent injuries and fatalities in the event of disasters becomes an important public policy issue. In this study, earthquake preparedness and its correlates were examined and 25 childcare centers located in a southern California community adjacent to the San Andreas Fault. Extensive survey, interview, and on-site observational data were collected. Findings indicated a wide range of preparedness in childcare centers. Half of the childcare centers lack basic essentials required to cope in the aftermath of a major quake. Several hazards were also common: unsecured book shelves, open shelves, rolling furniture, large and unprotected windows, and heavy objects stored on high shelves. In addition, many directors had misconceptions about the role of local agencies (e.g., fire department, police, Red Cross) following an earthquake. Findings are considered in terms of risk assessment theory and implications; public policy and legislative courses of action are discussed. (AA)

Jupka, Keri, see Wray, Ricardo, Jennifer Rivers, Amanda Whitworth, Keri Jupka, and Bruce Clements.

Jurie, Jay D., "Low-Level Environmental Hazards: Public Policy Response to Sinkholes," Vol. 9, No. 3 (November 1991): 401-412.
Growth and expanded settlement patterns have increasingly placed more people and property at risk to a variety of environmental hazards. While risks traditionally considered high-level, such as hurricanes or earthquakes, continue to generate a need for coordinated and effective policy response, populations are now increasingly exposed to a variety of low-level indoor and outdoor hazards as well. Sinkholes, one example of an outdoor hazard, are found in several states throughout the mid-Atlantic, Midwest, and southeastern United States. The development of a low-level environmental hazards management response to sinkholes would be applicable to several other low-level environmental hazards including minor earthquake damage, land or mudslides, mine subsidence and erosion. The author argues that in areas where sinkholes and similar problems pose threats to public infrastructure and private property, local government officials need to define effective response and also build cognizance of sinkholes into comprehensive planning and policies. (AA)
Kagitcibasi, Cigdem, "Traditional Families in Turkey," Vol. 1, No. 1 (March 1983): 145-152.
Though disasters, especially earthquakes, floods, and landslides, are common in Turkey, policy-making, planning, and even research have ignored their social-psychological aspects. In this paper an attempt is made to build a hypothetical model for conceptualizing disaster-related coping behavior in traditional society. It is based on individual, familial and social behavior, and values derived from research conducted in Turkey. In this model it is proposed that belief in external control, in fitting with the objective conditions, results in resignation and in the conception of disaster as inevitable. Close-knit family and community ties provide further relief and security in the face of disaster. This primary group solidarity also provides the mechanisms necessary for coping with disaster in the context of underdevelopment where formal social welfare organizations are inadequate. (AA)

Kaiser, Edward J., Raymond J. Burby, Scott A. Bollens, and James M. Holway, "Private-Sector Land Market Decision Agents as Targets of Floodplain Policy," Vol. 5, No. 3 (November 1987): 311-335.
This article examines the influence of floodplain land use policy on land market decisions of three private-sector decision makers—owners of vacant land, developers, and building owners. It is based on a mail survey of 312 such decision makers in 10 cities across the United States. Our findings imply that floodplain programs, with their emphasis on floodproofing, have a significant effect on the extent to which new structures built in the floodplain are protected from future flood damage, but less effect on decisions to buy vacant land, develop property, or occupy structures in floodplains in the first place. The findings also imply that effective floodplain programs must target builders and developers and owners of vacant land because their decisions come earlier in the rural-to-urban land conversion process and they are more likely to avoid the hazard or take mitigation actions in response to information, incentives, and regulations. Nevertheless, policy should also target the consumer, emphasizing insurance and awareness of the risks of flood damage, something that current policy does not do adequately. (AA)

Kano, Megumi, see Ramirez, Marizen, Megumi Kano, Linda B. Bourque, and Kimberley I. Shoaf.

Kapucu, Naim, "Examining the National Response Plan in Response to a Catastrophic Disaster: Hurricane Katrina in 2005," Vol. 24, No. 2 (August 2006): 271-299.

Over the years, the Federal Response Plan (FRP) and the National Response Plan (NRP) have reflected policy learning and changes that result from disasters. Since its initial release in 1992 the FRP was amended twice then replaced by the NRP in 2004. In the past, revisions to these plans have occurred in response to Hurricane Andrew and the September 11 terrorist attacks. In the aftermath of Hurricane Katrina, the state of us. emergency management has been widely questioned. This article examines developments in NRP and its implementations in response to Hurricane Katrina in 2005 from collaboration and partnership perspectives. Information was collected from a variety of print and electronic sources for the study.  (AA)

Kapucu, Naim, see Corbacioglu, Sitki and Naim Kapucu.

Karanci, Nuray A. and Bahattin Aksit, "RESEARCH NOTE: Building Disaster-Resistant Communities: Lessons Learned from Past Earthquakes in Turkey and Suggestions for the Future," Vol. 18, No. 3 (November 2000): 403-416.

This paper presents findings from a pilot study aiming to strengthen community participation in disaster mitigation and preparedness in a province, Bursa (Turkey), which is located in the first-degree seismic zone. The study was initiated in 1998, right after the Ceyhan-Misis earthquake and a year prior to the devastating 17 August Marmara, Turkey, earthquake. Therefore, the findings will be discussed within the framework of what happened before and after the devastating earthquake in order to analyze possible effects of a major disaster on the momentum and processes of community participation efforts. The initial phase of the pilot study focused on the collection of data through in-depth and focus group interviews aiming to uncover local views on disasters, mitigation, preparedness, and multisectoral collaboration and participation. The results of the initial phase showed an eagerness for local multisectoral participation and favourable attitudes towards community participation. Eartquakes were delineated as the most threatening type of natural disasters in this initial phase. Thus, the study focused solely on earthquakes as a first area to start community involvement and to analyze mechanisms for such involvement. In the second phase of the study, an attempt was made to bring together the local state authorities, municipalities, the private sector, and the nongovernmental organizations, in order to develop an action plan for mitigation and preparedness through the involvement of the local community. This collaboration took place under the initiative of the Local Agenda 21, a local municipal initiative under the U.N. Rio Summit 1992. The most important issue identified by the local multisectoral committee was the need to increase community awareness for earthquakes and to train them on what to do before, during, and after earthquakes. Subsequently, a pamphlet and a training-of-trainers handbook was prepared, and a phase of training of trainees was undertaken. The program had very little momentum due to mainly the hesitancy of the actors from different sectors in forming alliances and due to the purely voluntary nature of the work. There were also problems related to the lack of funding for the project. As the study came to its second year, with a further loss of momentum due to local elections and change of the initial municipality, the August 1999 Marmara earthquake occurred. This very devastating earthquake produced a significant momentum for the community participation initiative in Bursa which was considerably slow to develop. The occurrence of a major disaster while a community participation project was underway provided us with valuable insights on what was hindering the project. It was basically the lack of fear/anxiety, lack of acceptance of risks, lack of local ownership, and the lack of an awareness of possible consequences of such a disaster.

The Marmara earthquake of August 1999 demonstrated that there were significant shortcomings in earthquake mitigation and preparedness measures. Due to the extensive damage and the fact that the quake affected a very large area, the response of the government in the immediate postdisaster phase was slow and uncoordinated. However, the Nongovernmental Organizations (NGOs) were very rapid in their responses, and numerous NGOs were involved in the rescue phase and thereafter. Unfortunately, the NGOs were also not prepared for such a disaster, and thus their efforts were not coordinated. This recent earthquake once again pointed out the necessity of increasing community involvement in disaster management and creating collaborative alliances among local governmental bodies, municipality, the private sector, and the NGOs. Due to very extensive media coverage of the Marmara earthquake, the majority of people in Turkey watched the consequences from the TV and got sensitised to the damage and losses. Furthermore, the popular cultural view broadcasted through the interviews with survivors was that "you can not trust and rely on external aid. You have to rely on your own resources." The progress in the Bursa study will be discussed within the framework of the impacts of the Marmara earthquake. The strengths and the weaknesses of the present disaster management system in Turkey and the mechanisms uncovered in the Bursa study will be presented together with implications and suggestions for the future. (AA)

Kasperson, Jeanne X., see Emani, Srinivas and Jeanne X. Kasperson.
Katagiri, Shinji, see Shiobara, Tsutomu and Shinji Katagiri
Kazama, Ryoichi, see Abe, Kitao and Ryoichi Kazama.
Kazmierczak, Jeff, see Dearing, James W. and Jeff Kazmierczak.
Keeling, John F., III, see Ruberg, George E. and John F. Keeling III.
Kelley, Susan P., see Faupel, Charles E., Susan P. Kelley, and Thomas Petee.
Kendall, Stephanie, see Carter, T. Michael, Stephanie Kendall, and John P. Clark.

Kennedy, Barrett, see Curtis, Andrew, Jacqueline W. Mills, Jason K. Blackburn, John C. Pine, and Barrett Kennedy.

Ketteridge, Anne-Michelle and Maureen Fordham, "Flood Evacuation in Two Communities in Scotland: Lessons from European Research," Vol. 16, No. 2 (August 1998): 119-143.
In January 1993 and December 1994, two areas of Scotland experienced extensive flooding and large-scale evacuation of a spontaneous and unstructured nature. Both the flooding and the evacuation left their traumatic mark on the householders. The research reported here was qualitative, with the objective of investigating the evacuation process inductively—how it operated on the ground, what were the problems, and how the process could be enhanced to maximize effectiveness for those who have to experience the consequences. This long-term or extended process of evacuation is described and discussed in detail in this paper, where it is emphasized that evacuation is not complete until everyone has returned home. The elderly, children, and women are also identified by the research as groups which suffered particularly as a result of the poorly executed evacuation and which require special attention. Policy and practical recommendations are drawn from the research, which may be equally applicable to future floods in the U.K., Europe, and elsewhere. (AA)
Khondker, Habibul Haque, "Women and Floods in Bangaladesh," Vol. 14, No. 3 (November 1996): 281-292.
This paper examines the consequences of a flood disaster on rural women in northern Bangladesh. Based on fieldwork, it is argued that floods affect rural women more adversely than rural men. Floods destroy the household resources, undermining the economic well-being of rural women. Researchers and authorities in charge of rehabilitation have not paid enough attention to the uneven impact of flood disasters on gender groups. Women are rarely involved in the decision-making process regarding disaster response. The lack of participation of women in particular and the local community in general in the planning and execution of counterdisaster plans insure that such issues are not noticed. Bureaucratic disaster response tends to be short term in its scope and fails to link disaster response and rehabilitation with development activities. Various nongovernmental organizations (NGOs) operating in rural Bangladesh seem to have closer ties with the local community and a better understanding of the linkage between rehabilitation and development. However, because of the limited scope of their operations and constraints on resources, the influence of these NGOs are not sustainable. The rural women cope on their own. The status quote ante is achieved, a continuation of impoverished existence which makes them vulnerable to the next flooding or other such disasters. Successful counterdisaster strategies need to take the gender dimension into account and link crisis response and rehabilitation strategies to development initiatives. This would entail participation of women in counterdisaster plans and assuring the economical well-being of rural women. (AA)
Killian, Charles D., see Peacock, Walter Gillis, Charles D. Killian, and Frederick L. Bates.

King, David, "Understanding the Message: Social and Cultural Constraints to Interpreting Weather-Generated Natural Hazards," Vol. 22, No. 1 (March 2004): 57-74.

Globally there is an increase in the social and economic impacts of all natural hazards, and especially those that are generated by weather systems. Climate change is apart of this process, but it is most likely that long-term climate change will first become evident as an increase in natural disasters, especially flooding and drought. However, a major cause of increasing natural disasters is the growth and relocation of population, concentrating into complex urban settlements that proliferate infrastructure and property in vulnerable floodplains and the coastal fringe. While Australia has experienced a decline in the loss of life from natural hazards, the loss to business, agriculture, and the economy in general has increased exponentially. Weather-generated natural disasters dominate the total disaster bill. Vulnerability to natural hazards may be reduced through hazard education and effective warnings. The communication of weather information is inevitably a top-down process. Understanding of information and in particular, warnings about hazardous events involves a public safety transfer of knowledge from highly specialized scientists through emergency managers, local politicians, and the media, to every member of society. Research shows that selection, interpretation, and expression of information and warnings occurs at institutional and societal levels. Both the media and the general public select, reinterpret, and weigh up information about weather and hazards, applying a complex set of attitudes, perceptions, experience, and misinformation to the initial message. An understanding of how people interpret the message is essential to the accuracy and safety for warning and forecasts. Examples and case studies from post-disaster and behavioral research carried out by the Centre for Disaster Studies and hazard events illustrate the issues of understanding the message. (AA)

Kirimli, Bulent, see Comfort, Louis, Ali Tekin, Ernesto Pretto, Bulent Kirimli, Derek Anges, and others.
Kirschenbaum, Alan, "Warning and Evacuation During a Mass Disaster: A Multivariate Decision-Making Model," Vol. 10, No. 1 (March, 1992): 91-114.
The development of a decision-making model is explored here. Information obtained from a 20 percent areal sample of population who were in a disaster area in Israel were asked to reconstruct the events leading up to, during, and after the crisis. Affective reactions and behavioral acts were recorded. Evacuation was not universal thereby providing the basis of a multivariate analysis whose aim was to generate a parsimonious logistic regression model so as to decipher which independent variables could best explain the decision to leave or stay. The parsimonious model, based on previous research, focused on major conceptual and empirical factors involved in an evacuation decision. The results indicated that a positive/negative decision to stay or leave a disaster area is dependent upon a specific aspect of the warning process, namely the means of information acquisition, its confirmation, and the degree of support provided by neighbors and neighborhood social networks. These results point out the complexity of the model and stress how individual, family, and community are all bound up in the evacuation process. (AA)
Kirschenbaum, Alan, "Residential Ambiguity and Relocation Decisions: Population and Areas at Risk," Vol. 14, No. 1 (March 1996): 79-96.
Residential relocation is one means of coping with living in a perceived high-risk area. An analysis of a sample of household members who live in such an area showed the extent to which fear of a recurring emergency event affects attitudes toward seeking an alternative safer area in which to reside. Intent to relocate is linked to specific sub-groups of families on the basis of how they comprehend the risks of remaining (educational level) and extent of possible economic damage (level of assets). A series of independent variables reflected affective-emotive behavior during the disaster. Postcrisis trauma related attitudes, and pre/post disaster neighborhood bonds were likewise linked with an intention to move to a safer neighborhood. A regression model focused the analysis on the degree to which concern of psychological damage to children played a decisive role in determining a relocation decision. (AA)

Kirschenbaum, Alan, "Mass Terrorism and the Distribution of Gas Masks in Israel: A Longitudinal Cohort Analysis," Vol. 19, No. 3 (November 2001): 245-267.

This paper describes and analyzes the distribution of gas masks in Israel. It is based on a longitudinal cohort analysis to assess the effectiveness of the program and those factors explaining skill level in mask use. A matched cohort sample ten years after the original distribution in 1991 are compared along with pre and post Gulf War mask recipients. The results suggest that the original distribution program to have been extremely effective in maintaining skill level in use, providing client satisfaction and increasing protective confidence. A matched cohort 10 years later showed a continuation of these high levels of preparedness and of skills required to effectively use gas masks. Contrasting pre-post Gulf War mask recipients revealed those who experienced the war had significantly higher mask-use skill levels. Marital status, and risk perceptions of an imminent war accounted for these differences. (AA)

Kirschenbaum, Alan, "Disaster Preparedness: A Conceptual and Empirical Reevaluation," Vol. 20, No. 1 (March 2002): 5-28.

Preparedness is a basic core concept in disaster research. Yet, its conceptual construction and empirical validity have rarely been assessed. Combining a theoretical variable-based proposition set derived from the disaster literature and expert judgments, a broad series of measures of preparedness are proposed. Employing a national sample of 814 urban households in Israel provided the opportunity to empirically validate this concept. Both nonparametric and multivariate analysis showed that the general construct of preparedness to actually be a series of separate factors. Regressing each factor against a common set of theoretical explanatory variables showed significant differences in the set of predictors of each preparedness factor. These results suggest that “preparedness” cannot be seen as a single overall concept but must be evaluated in terms of its derivative constructs. For disaster managers, this means that managerial practices directed toward increasing disaster preparedness behaviors must focus attention and resources separately on those variables directly affecting each type of preparedness construct. (AA)

Kirschenbaum, Alan, "Measuring the Effectiveness of Disaster Management Organizations," Vol. 22, No. 1 (March 2004): 75-102.

This study proposes introducing the ’client-stakeholder’ as a partner in measuring public sector disaster management effectiveness. Combining multiple constituency and goal attainment theories, an analysis was made of Israel’s Home Front Command. Combining responses of key managers in this disaster agency along with those of a representative national sample of Israel’s urban population, effectiveness was measured by matching stated organizational goals against the perception of their provision by client-stakeholders. Goal perceptions were found to substantially differ from and focus on only a small number of officially stated goals. The results suggest that a disaster organization's stated goals, upon which most measures of organizational effectiveness are based, are not necessarily those perceived or even used by its client-stakeholders to gauge effectiveness. In addition, factors contributing to these perceptions are not necessarily related to the organization or the services it provides. This stands in sharp contrast to traditional measures of organizational effectiveness based on internal performance measures and highlights the need to reevaluate the role of the client-stakeholder in measuring disaster management organizational effectiveness. (AA)

Kirschenbaum, Alan, "Preparing for the Inevitable: Environmental Risk Perceptions and Disaster Preparedness," Vol. 23, No. 2 (August 2005): 97–127.

Do risk perceptions of environmental hazards lead to preparing for them? Employing data from a national urban household sample (N = 814) in Israel, the link between risk perceptions and preparedness were examined for natural, industrial, technological, accidental, and non-conventional war disasters. A factor analysis generated six risk components conditional on the social familiarity with the potential victim as well as disaster-specific events and four preparedness components reflecting provisions, skills, planning, and protection. The "risk-preparedness" association based on this matrix of components was inconsistent, having few statistically significant correlations, some even negative. Regression coefficients used to predict preparedness actions due to risk perceptions were also only partially successful. Apparently the impact of risk perceptions on preparedness is limited to specific environmental disasters and strongest for those preparedness behaviors that are more immediate, concrete, and easy to achieve. These findings have direct application for disaster managers involved in risk communication and public education of disasters. (AA)

Kirschenbaum, Alan, “Families and Disaster Behavior: A Reassessment of Family Preparedness,” Vol. 24, No. 1 (March 2006): 111–143.

Disaster researchers have consistently emphasized that the family is a principal conduit for disaster behaviors and critical for its individual members’ survival. Evidence for this claim, however, is problematic as it is based primarily on anecdotal and ethnographic evidence restricted to ongoing or post-disaster coping behaviors. Such evidence should focus on the preparedness stage where family disaster behavior is critical for subsequent chances of survival. Reassessing the primacy of the family-disaster link at the preparedness stage was accomplished by analyzing a representative Israeli sample (n=814) of family household units. Focusing on the household unit provided access to its members, internal familial social processes, and household pre-disaster preparedness levels. The households were divided into traditional, cohabiting, and single-family structures. The initial analysis showed that variations in household structure had inconsistent and in some cases no impact on core disaster preparedness behaviors. Testing a series of alternative explanations related to internal familial social processes found that the extent and intensity of family social networks and gender of the household head did predict differences in preparedness levels. Apparently, the impact of families on preparedness—a vital factor in subsequent disaster behaviors—does not appear to be the result of its structure but the social processes inherent within the household. Being a family in its many diverse forms but lacking these essential familial ingredients is no guarantee of being prepared for disasters. (AA)

Klandermans, Bert, "New Social Movements and Resource Mobilization: The European and the American Approach," Vol. 4, No. 2 (August 1986): 13-37.
In the past 20 years, student movements, environmental movements, women’s movements, and peace movements developed both in America and in Europe. These actions meant an explosive growth in the number of publications about social movements. Theory formation took a different course in Europe and in the U. S. While in the U.S. resource mobilization theory shifted attention from deprivation to the availability of resources in explanation of the rise of social movements, in Europe the "new social movement approach" emphasized the development of postindustrial society. Resource mobilization and the new social movement approach are discussed. Both approaches are needed to arrive at a satisfactory explanation. The new social movement approach has concentrated on factors that determine mobilization potential, but does not give an answer to the question of how these potentials are mobilized. Resource mobilization theory does pay attention to the mobilization of resources, to the significance of recruitment networks, and to the costs and benefits of participation, but has no interest in the mobilization potentials from which a movement must draw in mobilization campaigns. Assumptions are formulated in explanation of the divergent development of the social movement literature on the two continents. (AA)

Kofman Bos, Celesta, Susann Ullberg, and Paul ’t Hart, "The Long Shadow of Disaster: Memory and Politics in Holland and Sweden," Vol. 23, No. 1 (March 2005): pp. 5–26.

Many big disasters such as the nuclear accident at Chernobyl, the Bhopal chemical disaster, or major oil spills in Alaska, France, Spain, and elsewhere have a major and lasting impact on public health, the environment, and the social and economic fabric of the communities affected. Still, despite such objectively recognizable footprints, not all disasters become equally deeply rooted, in collective memory. Why are some mass catastrophes more or less "forgotten"—a case in point is the Chicago heat wave of 1995 that claimed more than 700 lives, but has been practically erased from American public memory, which has retained much more vivid images of much less deadly disasters such as Hurricane Andrew and the Lockerbie Pan Am tragedy, and more recently has been mesmerized by "9-11"&3151;whereas others are so vividly remembered in monuments, commemorations, and public discourse? This general question inspired the research reported in this article. Specifically, we wanted to study how and to what extent people and communities victimized by disaster are able to shape and correct "official," governmental efforts at disaster investigation and remembrance.

Our key claim is that the extent and nature of disaster remembrance is not solely a question of physical characteristics such as the number of casualties, nor of the degree of social disturbance they cause at the time of their occurrence; instead it should be viewed as a product of a political encounter between grass-roots memory and the elite-level, political "processing" of disasters. To elaborate this claim, we connect ideas and concepts from memory studies, which focus mainly on how victim communities remember disasters at the local level, with the literature on the politicization of disasters that concerns itself with the governmental responses and processing of disasters.

Our argument is exploratory, based on qualitative case studies of disaster aftermaths: the 1992 El Al plane crash in Amsterdam, and the M/V Estonia ferry tragedy in the Baltic Sea in 1994. These two cases were selected because they both gave rise to conflict between grass roots and governmental recollections and interpretations of the events. Even though the cases differ in the speed to which the conflict intensified and the duration of the conflict, the governments in both cases were unable to "forget" the disaster because of continued bottom-up pressures to address unresolved questions. At the same time, the nature of the disaster was such that quite different types of victimization occurred. Hence comparing these cases allows us to study similar outcomes produced by seemingly dissimilar contextual and actor constellations, a strategy that would hopefully enable us to generate ideas about the key variables and mechanisms at work. Data on both cases were obtained from government documents, parliamentary and council proceedings, victim's organizations, mass media, and interviews. Data gathering was targeted especially at chronologically and/or politically significant episodes in the post-disaster phase, including formal commemoration ceremonies, informal commemoration rituals, the (impending) publication of investigation reports and parliamentary debates. In the final section, we shall infer some preliminary theoretical implications from the comparison of both cases. nbsp; (No abstract available; edited author introduction)

Komilis, Egil, see Wiegman, Oene, Egil Komilis, Bernard Cadet, Henk Boer, and Jan M. Gutteling.
Kory, Delores N., "Coordinating Intergovernmental Policies on Emergency Management in a Multi-Centered Metropolis," Vol. 16, No. 1 (March 1998): 45-54.
In the intervening years since Hurricane Andrew in August 1992, there have been studies by federal agencies and the Academy of Public Administration, changes in Florida statutes, assessments of the affected counties, a strengthened directive of the Federal Emergency Management Agency in training activities, and legislative and executive orders to link the levels of government. The emerging problem is how to effect cooperation in a multi-centered county with multiple municipalities, more communities seeking incorporation, and only unincorporated areas under direct county control. The problem is not for the threat of hurricanes alone. It is for the many potential disasters, natural and man-made, which may be addressed with incident command systems at the local level, but may also need mechanisms to coordinate county, regional, state, or national responses. The counties in southeast Florida are a true megalopolis, and officials are slowly recognizing that intergovernmental cooperation is imperative. This article examines the issue and provides data on local support for regional efforts in southeast Florida. (AA)
Kreps, Gary A., "The Organization of Disaster Response: Core Concepts and Processes," Vol. 1, No. 3 (November 1983): 439-465.
A theory of the structure and process of organization is being developed from archival data which describe the activities of established and emergent groups and organizations following disasters. The theory points to four necessary and sufficient elements of organization—domain, tasks, human and material resources, and activities—while making no assumption about their patterning in time and space. It is argued that 24 logically possible patterns of initiating, maintaining, and suspending organization reflect an underlying continuum of Weberian formal rationality to more elemental forms of collective behavior. Documented patterns for 423 instances of organization from 15 events, the disaster demands to which they were directed, and the focal organizations who performed them are presented. Implications of the evolving theory for disaster research and general sociology are discussed. (AA)
Kreps, Gary A., "Guest Editor’s Introduction," Vol. 7, No. 3 (November 1989): 213-214.
This special issue of the journal on taxonomy and comparative study is the result of a resolution passed at the 1986 International Sociological Association (ISA) meeting of the Research Committee on Disasters. The resolution called for a special issue devoted to the general question of the boundaries of the field. The five papers in Part 1 respond directly to the charge of the Research Committee. The five papers in Part 2 then build on the theoretical/comparative research theme developed in Part 1 as it relates to several traditional disaster research topics. The remaining two essays in Part 3 offer commentaries on the matters raised in the previous papers and, in the process, provide closure to the special issue. The general answer to the boundaries question-and one that is expressed in many different ways in the articles to follow-is that, while boundaries of disaster research should be kept broad, conceptual clarity should not be sacrificed in so doing. (Edited Editor’s Introduction)
Kreps, Gary A., "Future Directions in Disaster Research: The Role of Taxonomy," Vol. 7, No. 3 (November 1989): 215-241.
I begin the paper by raising the venerable question: what is a disaster? The issue here is the need for clarity about what we are studying. Confronting that issue leads inevitably to problems of taxonomy in studies of disasters, the hazards to which they relate, and the social structures which are antecedent and consequent of both. These problems are raised in the first section of the paper and discussed in the second. The second section includes a brief for the fundamental role of theoretical taxonomies for mining past research and guiding future studies. As then suggested in the third section of the paper, preliminary taxonomies can be grounded empirically by the burgeoning but disparate archives of data accruing from over 40 years of research. More refined taxonomies can then guide future studies. The fourth section of the paper argues that sustained taxonomic work can contribute to the applied push toward integrated emergency and hazards management, just as disaster and hazards research specialties generate greater attention from mainstream social management science. The focus of that attention should be on disasters as non-routine social problems. The paper closes with a couple of basic questions, ones which I think should always be on our minds, and ones which bring us full circle in addressing the topic posed by the title of this paper. Simply put, what would theoretical breakthroughs in studies of disasters, hazards, and social structure entail? Would we know them if we saw them? (Edited Author Introduction)
Kreps, Gary A., "Description, Taxonomy, and Explanation in Disaster Research," Vol. 7, No. 3 (November 1989): 277-280.
I am pleased that my paper stimulated the constructive commentaries of Professors Quarantelli, Drabek, and Turner. We seem to agree on several important points. First, the ideas proposed in my paper are grounded in sociological studies of disasters, are tentative, and should be abandoned wherever and whenever they don’t help us to understand the phenomena we purport to study. Second, the development and refinement of concepts and theories in any science involves a healthy tension between inventing and discovering knowledge. Third, a life-cycle approach to emergencies and disasters is essential if we are to unravel how social structure and disaster interrelate. Fourth, there are practical dangers in making generalizations about social structure and disaster without also specifying the circumstances to which these generalizations apply. Fifth, because disaster research is necessarily a multidisciplinary field, we need to be flexible about defining boundaries of research. Sixth, in drawing on a wide variety of perspectives and theories, the resulting descriptions and explanations provided by each one will be partial and incomplete. Finally, the creation of special and more general classification schemes is an essential requirement of theory building, particularly when the subject matter is as inclusive as this one seems to be. But no classification scheme should become a sacred grail or straightjacket. (Edited Author Introduction)
Kreps, Gary A., "The Federal Emergency Management System in the United States: Past and Present," Vol. 8, No. 3 (November 1990): 275-300.
The paper begins by providing a historical overview of wartime and peacetime emergency preparedness in the United States in terms of major historical trends and unresolved issues which preceded the establishment of the Federal Emergency Management Agency (FEMA) in 1979. With the unresolved issues serving as a historical backdrop, FEMA’s contemporary role in the federal emergency management system is then examined to see what progress toward their resolution is being achieved. The paper closes with a brief comment on what the historical evolution of federal emergency management in the United States suggests about what can and cannot be accomplished. (AA)
Kreps, Gary A., "Disaster as Systemic Event and Social Catalyst: A Clarification of Subject Matter," Vol. 13, No. 3 (November 1995): 255-284.
For over three decades disasters have been interpreted as systemic events and social catalysts. This means that certain kinds of actual or potential historical circumstances fit neatly within the boundaries of disaster research, while others do not. Such exclusiveness is probably a good thing because the boundaries of disaster research include a wide range of environmental, technical, and sociopolitical events. The events themselves involve social definitions of physical harm and disruption of routine activities in societies or their larger subsystems. The first section of the paper provides a formal conception of disasters that builds on ideas expressed by Fritz, Dubin, and Barton. The second section illustrates this conception with life history studies of the Mexico City earthquake (1985) and Chernobyl nuclear power plant accident (1986). The third section shows how these two events can readily be compared using the conceptual tools provided earlier. The paper closes with a brief for how sociological knowledge should advance within the exclusive but broad boundaries of disaster research. (AA)
Kreps, Gary A., "Excluded Perspectives in the Social Construction of Disaster: A Reply to Hewitt’s Critique," Vol. 13, No. 3 (November 1995): 349-351.
[Reply to the reaction paper by Kenneth Hewitt, Vol. 13, No. 3 (November 1995): 317-339.]
Kreps, Gary A. and Thomas E. Drabek, "Disasters as Nonroutine Social Problems," Vol. 14, No. 2 (August 1996): 129-153.

The United Nations proclaimed the 1990s as the International Decade for Natural Disaster Reduction. This proclamation, and the activities it generates, highlight the necessity of exploring the conceptualization of disasters. We propose that disasters are best conceptualized as nonroutine social problems: social problems because they involve conjunctions of historical conditions and social definitions; nonroutine because they usually are ignored by the public until articulated as dramatic events. We begin by linking the origins of disaster research to social problems theory and, in particular, the functionalist tradition. We explicate how functionalism has provided the implicit assumptions for most sociologically focused disaster studies, but not an analytical treatment of disasters as social problems. Rather that treatment has been stimulated by the social constructionist tradition within social problems theory. We propose that social constructionism informs rather than undermines the conceptualization of disasters as non-retain social problems. (AA)

Kroll-Smith, J. Stephen and Stephen R. Couch, "What Is a Disaster?: An Ecological-Symbolic Approach to Resolving the Definitional Debate," Vol. 9, No. 3 (November 1991): 355-366.

The definition of disaster remains a contested issue in sociology. Two contrasting definitions vie for attention, the generic and the event-quality. One definition ignores the physical dimension of disaster, focusing exclusively on social consequences. Another definition includes physical dimensions, but proponents of this approach cannot agree on just what physical features to include. This essay evaluates these two definitions, suggesting the strengths and limitations of each. It offers a third definitional strategy that adds an environmental and symbolic dimension to the event-quality definition. We offer this ecological-symbolic approach as a necessary corrective to the limitations of both the generic and the event-quality definitions. A concluding section demonstrates the utility of this third perspective by applying it to an important discussion in disaster research. (AA)

Kroll-Smith, J. Stephen, see LaPlante, Josephine M. and J. Stephen Kroll-Smith.

Lachenmeyer, Juliana R., see Gibbs, Margaret, Juliana R. Lachenmeyer, Arlene Broska, and Richard Deicher.

Lambright, W. Henry, "The Southern California Earthquake Preparedness Project: Evolution of an ‘Earthquake Entrepreneur’," Vol. 3, No. 3 (November 1985): 75-94.

A major problem for governments in earthquake-prone countries is how to improve the process of preparedness. In the U.S., a relatively novel mechanism was created to accelerate the pace and intensity of preparedness, including prediction response. Known as the Southern California Earthquake Preparedness Project (SCEPP), the entity had federal and state mandates and funding. It was an extension of federal and state policy into local government and the private sector. Established in 1980 as a temporary, three-year organization under one agency in California, it continues today with a five-county region of southern California (including Los Angeles) that would be devastated by an expected great earthquake on the south-central San Andreas fault. Although it had a limited budget, small staff, and experienced delays and leadership crisis in its early life, SCEPP is widely regarded today as having made a contribution to earthquake preparedness and prediction response in southern California. This article reviews the evolution of SCEPP as an "earthquake entrepreneur" and draws lessons from its record of relevance to government and earthquake preparedness generally. SCEPP represents an organizational model that may be considered by other earthquake-threatened settings. (AA)

Lampe, Mike, see Cornwell, Benjamin, Wendy Harmon, Melissa Mason, Brian Merz, and Mike Lampe.

Landesman, Linda Young, "Improving Medical Preparedness for Chemical Accidents: An Inter-Organizational Resource Review," Vol. 7, No. 2 (August 1989): 152-166.

While emergency planning to cope with chemical accidents has accelerated since Bhopal, there is evidence that the medical sector is not preparing at the same pace as the broader emergency response community. This paper presents a rationale for improving medical sector preparedness. In order to integrate the medical community more fully into emergency management planning and coordination, a common base of resources is presented. It is suggested that cooperative planning could emerge if both the broader emergency response community and specialized medical sectors had a common understanding of how one assesses community risk and the resources available to improve preparedness. A compendium of documents, legal mandates, and response models is presented. (AA)

LaPlante, Josephine M. and J. Stephen Kroll-Smith, "Coordinated Emergency Management: The Challenge of the Chronic Technological Disaster," Vol. 7, No. 2 (August 1989): 134-150.

Providing effective emergency response and mitigating the impact of disaster requires the ability to act and knowledge of what to do. Chronic technological disasters present a special challenge to emergency management because authority to act on this type of disaster agent is diffuse and often lodged within a variety of agencies operating at different levels of government. Moreover, knowledge of the likely chain of events for technological disaster is still in its infancy when compared to the rich research base that exists for natural disaster. The authors argue that the emerging literature on chronic technological disaster reveals systematic and important differences between the reality of this type of disaster and what conventional wisdom based on natural disaster experience says about technological disaster. This study addresses characteristics of chronic technological disasters and examines how the nature of technological disaster affects the practice of emergency management. (AA)

LaPlante, Josephine M. and J. Stephen Kroll-Smith, "Editorial Commentary," Vol. 9, No. 3 (November 1991): 317-319.

This issue of the International Journal of Mass Emergencies and Disasters is the second to be guest edited by the Section on Emergency Management of the American Society for Public Administration. The Section on Emergency Management, and our collaboration with the Research Committee on Disasters of the International Sociological Association, are outgrowths of a 1984 workshop convened by the U. S. Federal Emergency Management Agency (FEMA) and the National Association of Schools of Public Affairs and Administration (NASPAA). For two weeks, nearly three dozen public management and policy educators and a smaller group of internationally recognized experts on disasters immersed themselves in the issue of how to bring disaster research and emergency management into the mainstream of public administration education. (Edited Author Introduction)

Laska, Shirley, see Seydlitz, Ruth J., William Spencer, Shirley Laska, and Elizabeth Triche.

Lavell, Allan, "Opening a Policy Window: The Costa Rican Hospital Retrofit and Seismic Insurance Programs 1986-1992," Vol. 12, No. 1 (March 1994): 95-115.

In December 1986, the Costa Rican Social Security System formally initiated a seismic retrofit program for several of its principal hospitals as well as its administrative headquarters. Between 1983 and 1991, it also implemented a number of major changes in the seismic insurance coverage afforded its installations. Based on full access to internal documents and thirty-four in-depth interviews with key actors, the author examines the role of "focusing" disaster events and the financial, technical, professional, and ethical considerations behind these major innovations in earthquake protection policy. (AA)

Lewis, Jerry M. "A Protocol for the Comparative Analysis of Sports Crowd Violence," Vol. 4, No. 2 (August 1986): 211-225.

This paper develops a protocol for the comparative analysis of violent sports crowds. It argues that the study of fan violence should be theoretically informed and methodologically grounded. It describes the primary and secondary sources that can be used in the study of sport fan violence, particularly when the investigator is not present when the violence happens. The paper begins with a review of Smelser’s model of collective behavior. It argues that the determinants of collective behavior proposed by Smelser are useful for analyzing fan violence. It is suggested that scholars should approach fan violence with a triangulation strategy. Triangulation is developed using primary and secondary sources. The sources include site visits, personal interviews, newspaper stories, photographs, and police documents. Studies from the United States and England are used to illustrate the protocol. (AA)

Lindell, Michael K., "Are Local Emergency Planning Committees Effective in Developing Community Disaster Preparedness?", Vol. 12, No. 2 (August 1994): 159-182.

Five years after SARA Title III set a deadline for communities to establish community emergency plans for releases of toxic chemicals, it appears that many—if not most—jurisdictions have failed to fully comply with the requirements of this legislation. However, there are a number of Local Emergency Planning Committees (LEPCs) that have made significant progress, and, in this regard, SARA Title III compliance is quite comparable to that of other federal hazard mitigation and emergency preparedness programs. Moreover, the planning process mandated by this legislation does provide some significant improvements over previous methods of emergency preparedness. Some of the impediments to effective performance of LEPCs are identified, and policy and implementation changes to overcome these obstacles are recommended. (AA)

Lindell, Michael K., "Perceived Characteristics of Environmental Hazards," Vol. 12, No. 3 (November 1994): 303-326.

This study examined believes about three environmental hazards: volcanic eruption, release of toxic gas, and release of radioactive materials held by risk area residents and non-risk area residents. Analysis of responses within four categories, characteristics of the hazard agent, characteristics of the impact, perceived personal consequences, and affective reactions to the hazard, showed the two groups to have qualitatively similar response profiles, although the risk area residents tended to perceive all three hazards as less threatening than did the non-risk area residents. Both groups showed statistically significant tendencies to use these dimensions in differentiating among the hazards. The data suggest dread of a hazard is more strongly related to the probability of severe personal consequences than to the probability of a major event. Perceived characteristics of impact appear to mediate the relationship between the event and personal consequences, while the latter evokes thought about the hazard and discussion of it with others. (AA)

Lindell, Michael K., "Adoption and Implementation of Hazard Adjustments," Vol. 15, No. 3 (November 1997): 327-453.

[Part One: An Assessment of Existing Research (Hazard Adjustments and Their Consequences; Stakeholders and Their Interrelationships; Individual Adoption and Hazard Applications; Informal Social Processes; Organizational Processes; Economic Market Processes; Governmental Processes; and Legal Processes. Part Two: An Assessment of Strategies: Adjustment through Hazard Awareness Programs; and Adjustment through Sanctions. Part Three: Findings and Recommendations. References. NOTE: This special issue represents the report of the Committee on Adoption and Implementation of Natural Hazard Adjustments, working as part of the Second Assessment of Research on Natural Hazards, conducted at the Natural Hazards Research and Applications Information Center, University of Colorado, Boulder.]

Lindell, Michael K. and Ronald W. Perry, "Warning Mechanisms in Emergency Response Systems," Vol. 5, No. 2 (August 1987): 137-153.

The principal alternative mechanisms are described that might be considered by local governments for achieving prompt notification of the public in a natural or technological emergency. These alternatives include face-to-face warnings, mobile loudspeakers, sirens, commercial radio and television, NOAA Weather Radio, newspapers, and telephones. Each of the alternatives is evaluated on the basis of the number of people who can effectively be warned, specificity of the message that can be transmitted, degree of message distortion, coverage of the population at risk, dissemination time, and cost. Data collected following the eruption of Mount St. Helens are presented that illustrate how rapidly informal warning networks act to disseminate threat information in an emergency. (AA)

Lindell, Michael K. and Ronald W. Perry, "Understanding Evacuation Behavior: An Editorial Introduction," Vol. 9, No. 2 (August 1991): 133-136.

Evacuation behavior has long been an important issue for disaster research. Its importance stems from both its applied role in emergency management and its focus as a phenomenon for social scientific investigation. For emergency managers, evacuation may be seen as a generic protective mechanism. It is effective across a variety of disaster agents: floods, hurricanes, volcanic eruptions, hazardous materials incidents, and nuclear power plant accidents, to name only a few. Furthermore, there is a second dimension to the utility of evacuation in disaster management. When the state of technology permits accurate prediction or detection of the threat, evacuation is an effective preimpact tool for reducing danger to human life. At the same time, when predictions are not feasible—as in the case of earthquakes—evacuation still may serve a variety of emergency functions when used as a postimpact measure. This flexibility, combined with its wide applicability and relatively uncomplicated logistical nature, makes evacuation a powerful tool for managing the uncertain environment. (Edited Author Introduction)

Lindell, Michael K. and Carla S. Prater, "Household Adoption of Seismic Hazard Adjustments: A Comparison of Residents in Two States," Vol. 18, No. 2 (August 2000): 317-338.

Residents of a high seismic hazard area were compared with those in a moderate seismic hazard area in terms of demographic characteristics, personal hazard experience, risk perception, hazard intrusiveness, and self-reported adoption of 16 hazard adjustments (preimpact actions to reduce danger to persons and property). The results show that the two locations differed substantially in hazard experience, somewhat less so in risk perceptions and hazard intrusiveness, and little in hazard adjustment. Multiple regression analyses supported a causal chain in which location and demographic characteristics cause hazard experience, hazard experience causes hazard intrusiveness, perceived risk causes hazard intrusiveness, and hazard intrusiveness causes the adoption of hazard adjustments. (AA)

Lindell, Michael K., David J. Whitney, Christina J. Futch, and Catherine S. Clause, "Multi-method Assessment of Organizational Effectiveness in Local Emergency Planning Committees," Vol. 14, No. 2 (August 1996): 195-220.

Previous studies of Local Emergency Planning Committee (LEPC) effectiveness have been influenced strongly by the practical tissues of concern to state and federal agency personnel and by theoretical issues of interest to researchers, but not necessarily by issues that concern LEPC members. This problem was addressed by comparing the results of open-ended personal interviews with survey data collected from an LEPC in conjunction with a broader survey of 180 LEPC chairs and 1,196 LEPC members in the Midwest. The personal interviews and standardized surveys generally produced convergent results, but the personal interviews also revealed a significant amount of conflict about members’ conceptions of the LEPC’s mission, external role relationships, and staffing. This finding indicates that there are areas in which standardized surveys need to be improved and that LEPCs need to address a number of organizational design issues to increase their effectiveness. (AA)

Lindell, Michael K., William G. Sanderson, Jr., and Seong Nam Hwang, "Local Government Agencies’ Use of Hazard Analysis Information," Vol. 20, No. 1 (March 2002): 29-39.

This study examined 97 Texas government agencies’ access to information about hazards in their communities. The data indicate that printed products are still used more extensively than Internet products, which suggests that the transition from print to electronic dissemination of hazard analysis information should not exceed local agencies’ ability to access the Internet. Moreover, land use planners (LUPs) consistently were found to use computer applications more than emergency management coordinators (EMCs). This suggests that federal and state agencies should consider facilitating EMCs’ access to hazard analysis information by utilizing the computer applications with which their target audience is most familiar. Moreover, EMCs are more likely to make use of sophisticated hazard modeling applications if they have successfully mastered more basic computer applications or if they have partnered with LUPs in their communities who have mastered the advanced computer applications. (AA)

Lindell, Michael K., see Houts, Peter S., Michael K. Lindell, Teh Wei Hu, Paul D. Cleary, George Tokuhata, and Chynthia B. Flynn.

Lindell, Michael K., see Perry, Ronald W. and Michael K. Lindell (1990).

Lindell, Michael K., see Perry, Ronald W. and Michael K. Lindell (1991).

Lindell, Michael K., see Hwang, Seong Nam, William G. Sanderson, Jr., and Michael K. Lindell.

Lindell, Michael K., see Arlikatti, Sudha, Michael K. Lindell, and Carla S. Prater.

Lindsay, John, see Britton, Neil R. and John Lindsay (March 1995).

Lindsay, John, see Britton, Neil R. and John Lindsay (August 1995).

Lombardi, Marco, "Media Studies," Vol. 15, No. 1 (March 1997): 103-116.

The arrival on the scene of the study of mass emergencies and risk analysis has represented an important step forward in the world of communication, not only because of its theoretical aspects, but also because of its ability to influence policy formulation. Many researchers and scholars of mass emergencies and risk analysis today agree on focusing their research activities on communication. Communication is seen as a social process, something which is fundamental to the understanding of both crisis management and of the various activities which precede and follow crises themselves. On the other hand, information, as a product of communication, is merchandise which has great importance in many of our relationships, both on a micro and macro level. This brief account aims to stimulate the debate which is already active in the scientific community and also to provide food for thought as to the working tools used in research which is constantly face-to-face with empirical reality. (AA)

Lundskow, George, see Seydlitz, Ruth, J. William Spencer, and George Lundskow.

McCarthy, Florence, see Feldman, Shelley and Florence McCarthy.

McCormick, Lisa C., see Ginter, Peter M., W. Jack Duncan, Lisa C. McCormick, Andrew C. Rucks, Martha S. Wingate, and Maziar Abdolrasulnia.

McCubbin, Hamilton, David H. Olson, and Joan M. Patterson, "Beyond Family Crisis: Family Adaptation," Vol. 1, No. 1 (March 1983): 73-93.

Families in disaster research has drawn heavily from the family stress and crises research paradigms and concepts advanced by Reuben Hill’s ABC-X model and by related research. This article attempts to broaden the perspective of family behavior in disaster situations by advancing additional concepts, definitions, and propositions. Findings from longitudinal research on American families faced with the historically unique traumatic situation of having a husband/father held captive or unaccounted for in the Vietnam War were analyzed first in reference to the ABC-X model, which suggested the need to expand this classic model. This article introduces the Double ABC-X model in an effort to capture the dynamic nature of family response to stress over time. This expanded model includes: AA-the family’s pile-up of life events and stressors over time; BB-the family’s resources which are strengthened or developed within and in transaction with the community and include coping and social support; CC-the family’s perception of the stressor and related changes in the family; and XX-the additional end-state of family adaptation following a crisis. This model merits careful consideration and additional testing in light of stress and disaster studies reviewed and propositions advanced during the past decade. (AA)

McEntire, David A., see Drabek, Thomas E., and David A. McEntire.

McKay, Jennifer M., "Reflecting the Hazard or Restating Old Views: Newspapers and Bushfires in Australia," Vol. 14, No. 3 (November 1996): 305-319.

This paper illustrates that in the response and recovery phases of the 1994 bushfire disaster in New South Wales, Australian and overseas newspaper reporting of the causes of bush fires focused on scapegoating. The popular scapegoats were arsonists or failure of a public authority to provide fire-breaks. Thus two items were featured, whereas the causes of most bushfires are multidimensional, and official reports really attribute a cause. This paper applies an existing seven-theme classification of the content of newspaper reports to the 1994 event. Newspapers from the local community were examined as were two other papers from fire-prone communities in Australia. In addition, reports in two international papers were examined for accuracy. This paper establishes that causes are scapegoated but that accuracy of impact figures is preserved despite the distance. (AA)

McMillan, Robert, see Wetzel, Christopher G., Edward Hettinger, Robert McMillan, Monroe Rayburn, and Andrew Nix.

Madson, Patti, see Mileti, Dennis S., Donald M. Hartsough, Patti Madson, and Rick Hufnagel.

Major, Ann Marie, "A Test of Situational Communication Theory: Public Response to the 1990 Browning Earthquake Prediction," Vol. 11, No. 3 (November 1993): 337-349.

Iben Browning’s December 3, 1990, earthquake prediction for the New Madrid fault region provided the setting for examining public response and communication about a disaster warning. Grunig’s situational theory of publics was used to examine respondents’ orientations toward the earthquake problem, that is, whether they recognize the problem and whether they felt they can do anything about the problem. Two public opinion surveys, the first conducted during the first week of November 1990 and the follow-up conducted during the last week of February 1991, were analyzed. High problem recognition publics were more likely to have reported involvement with the earthquake issue, to have talked with others about earthquakes, and to have done something to prepare for the earthquake. This study extends situational theory by including a measure of the perceived influence of communication on involvement. In the November 1990 survey, problem-facers and constrained reported that both television and newspaper news and interpersonal discussion influenced their perception of the importance of the earthquake problem, whereas in the February survey only discussion with others impacted issue involvement. Mass media use and interpersonal discussion do influence how important people perceive a potential disaster to be, particularly if those people recognize the disaster as a problem and believe that they can prepare for the disaster. (AA)

Major, Ann Marie, "Gender Differences in Risk and Communication Behavior in Response to an Earthquake Prediction," Vol. 17, No. 3 (November 1999): 313-338.

This study examines gender differences in communication behavior, risk perception, and preparedness in response to the highly publicized New Madrid earthquake prediction for a 6.5-7.5 Richter magnitude earthquake on December 2-3, 1990. A survey of 629 respondents in November and a follow-up survey of 496 respondents in February 1991 in the Cape Girardeau, Missouri, community provided the opportunity to assess public response to the false alarm. The analysis includes a panel survey of 290 respondents who agreed in November to a second interview. When compared with men, women were associated with higher levels of interpersonal discussion about the prediction and perceived higher levels of interpersonal and news media influence on their perceptions of the importance of the earthquake prediction. Contrary to previous studies reporting higher levels of news media use for men, no gender differences in news media use were found. A majority of studies of risk perception suggest higher levels of perceived risk for women than men. In this study, men were associated with higher levels of risk and lower levels of preparedness. (AA)

Major, Ann Marie and L. Erwin Atwood, "Assessing the Usefulness of the U.S. Department of Homeland Security’s Terrorism Advisory System," Vol. 22, No. 2 (August 2004): 77-101.

This study reports the results of a national survey of 1,023 U.S. adults and their evaluations of the usefulness of the color-coded U.S. Department of Homeland Security’s (DHS) Advisory System. The study explores the relationships among information sources, risk perception, demographics, and preparedness behaviors within the context of the social amplification of risk. Half of the respondents (48.8 percent) rated the advisory system as useful and half (47.0 percent) rated it as not useful; however, far fewer respondents reported having made any preparations for a future attack. Strong support was found for the social amplification of risk model with 87.1 percent of the respondents reporting that terrorism was an important problem and two-thirds of those respondents reporting that news reports had influenced how important they believed the problem was. The findings also underscore that information sources were not of consequence for all respondents and that it was the perceived utility of the advisory system, not risk perception, that impacted whether or not respondents made preparations.  (AA)

Major, Ann Marie, see Atwood, L. Erwin and Ann Marie Major.

Malone, Willie, "Research Definition and Location of Research: A User’s View," Vol. 11, No. 1 (March 1993): 63-74.

Research plays an important part in the effective emergency manager’s profession. Yet, emergency managers seem frightened of research, whether reading work published by academics or obtaining relevant emergency management information to improve their own planning. This paper provides both emergency managers and researchers information resources. To date, practitioners and researchers have not used most of these resources. (AA)

Mann, Leon, "Social Influence Perspective on Crowd Behavior," Vol. 4, No. 2 (August 1986): 171-192.

Research guided by a social influence perspective on crowd behavior is considered under three categories: leader to crowd; crowd to members; crowd to outsiders. It is argued that a single model of crowd influence which relies on a single process is inadequate. It is found that several social influence processes affect the attitudes and actions of crowd members—social facilitation, modeling and imitation, conformity to group norms, group discussion, and persuasive appeals. The operation of these social influence processes is examined for a variety of crowd forms including crusade rallies, crazy auctions, spectators to a dispute, baiting crowds, and queues. The size of the crowd is shown to be an important factor mediating the probability that people will be drawn to the crowd, induced to join, and become influenced by the leader’s persuasive message. It is suggested that cultural differences in such factors as conformity pressures are linked to the incidence of crowd activity and the likelihood of social influence occurring in crowds in various countries. Future research should investigate the comparative vulnerability to influence of strangers and groups of friends in crowds, individual differences in susceptibility to influence, and discontinuities in individual behavior associated with changes in crowd size and proportion of crowd members already responding. (AA)

de Marchi, Bruna A., "Italian Sociology and the Study of Social Movements," Vol. 4, No.2 (August 1986): 117-144.

The article critically assesses the contribution of Italian sociology to the study of social movements in the last twenty years. These years nearly cover the "institutional life-cycle" of the discipline. In order to help the reader place the study of social movements within the mainstream of Italian sociology, some information is provided about its historical development and academic status, even in relation to political and cultural trends in overall society. Tracing the history of social movements studies back to it origins, the author shows how it has diverged from the American tradition, in particular as far as its relation to the study of other forms of collective behavior is concerned. In an extensive review of both theoretical and empirical contributions, the author points out what she sees as the main merits and faults of Italian scholars. The former include attention to theorization in the field of both conventional and collective behavior and preference for multi-factored models of explanation. Among the latter are unsatisfactory attempts to build general testable theories and lack of empirical research. Contributions are analyzed with regard to different aspects of social movements: formation, mobilization and recruitment, ideology and organization, politics, and outcomes. Pointing out achievements and failures of Italian analysts, the author arrived at some general rather optimistic conclusions about future developments, in both theory and research. (AA)

Marincioni, Fausto, "A Cross-Cultural Analysis of Natural Disaster Response: The Northwest Italy Floods of 1994 Compared to the U.S. Midwest Floods of 1993," Vol. 19, No. 2 (August 2001): 209-236.

The observation that similar types of natural disasters produce different reactions based on a particular culture and location demands a thorough and detailed analysis, because the reasons are likely to be numerous and complex. Although the economic situation, political organization, and technological infrastructure of communities are fundamental factors, they do not offer a complete explanation of people's behavior in the face of risk and disasters. This article uses a cross-cultural perspective to clarify the relationship between two cultures and their different patterns of response to extreme flood events. The research was carried out in two Western societies, the United States and Italy, both of which have similar socioeconomic characteristics, but distinctly different historical and cultural traditions. The disasters studied were the Po River Valley floods of November 1994 in northwest Italy and the Mississippi River-Missouri River floods in the U.S. upper Midwest during the summer of 1993. These two extreme floods were analyzed with respect to the pattern of human response during the preparation, rescue, recovery, and reconstruction phases. The study includes both human-response and cross-cultural analyses. A questionnaire was employed to gauge the perception of the flood disasters by the Italian and American disaster managers. The cross-cultural analysis was performed using an etic-emic contrast. The results showed that the different human responses observed in the floods of northwestern Italy and of the United States Midwest were linked to basic differences in four cultural elements: (1) experience with floods, (2) socio-political traditions and organization, (3) level of integration within the community, and (4) perception of the physical environment. (AA)

Marsh, Graham L., see Buckle, Philip, Graham L. Marsh, and Sydney Smale.

Marshall, Amanda L., see Sattler, David N., and Amanda L. Marshall.

Mason, Melissa, see Cornwell, Benjamin, Wendy Harmon, Melissa Mason, Brian Merz, and Mike Lampe.

May, Peter J., "Social Science Perspectives: Risk and Disaster Preparedness," Vol. 7, No. 3 (November 1989): 281-303.

In recent years, there has been a growing volume of social science literature that is relevant to the issue of how we think about risk and disasters. Sociologists have debated the definition of a "disaster" and have attempted to classify the variation in responses to hazards This paper addresses three perspectives—labeled in what follows the "cultural," "systems," and "individual choice" perspectives—that have emerged within the social science literature as distinctive perspectives about the simultaneous choice of risks and disaster preparedness. The cultural perspective, most closely associated with Douglas and Wildavsky, defines risks in terms of shared values which legitimate social choices including such things as efforts to prepare for disasters. The systems perspective, most closely associated with Perrow, considers technological risks in terms of the organizational and social properties of technological and ecosystems. The individual choice perspective most closely associated in the hazards literature with Kunreuther and his colleagues characterizes risk and preparedness levels for low probability, high consequence events as individual choices made under uncertainty and with limited information. (Edited Author Introduction).

Mendonça, David and William A. Wallace, "Studying Organizationally-situated Improvisation in Response to Extreme Events," Vol. 22, No. 2 (August 2004): 5-29.

Extreme events such as large-scale natural disasters create the need for cooperation within and among responding organizations. Activities to mitigate the effects of these events can be expected to range from planned to improvised. This paper presents a methodology for describing both the context and substance of improvisation during the response phase. The context is described by (i) analyzing communication patterns among personnel in and among responding organizations and (ii) determining the appropriateness of existing plans to the event. The substance of improvisation within this context is described by modeling the behavior and cognition of response personnel. Application of the methodology leads to descriptions of improvisation and its context that may be stored in machine-readable format for use either by researchers, responding organizations or designers of computer-based tools to support improvised decision making. Data collection strategies for implementing the methodology are discussed and selected steps illustrated using a dataset from a large-scale natural disaster.  (AA)

Merz, Brian, see Cornwell, Benjamin, Wendy Harmon, Melissa Mason, Brian Merz, and Mike Lampe.

Meyer, Jan H., "Hazard Perception and Community Change: Cultural Factors in Puna, Hawaii," Vol. 12, No. 2 (August 1994): 199-213.

The interpretation of what is hazardous in the natural or technological environment is grounded in the social organization of the community potentially affected. During the 1980s, the semi-rural ethnically diverse district of Puna, Hawaii, has experienced rapid suburbanization and the preliminary and highly controversial establishment of geothermal power stations. This essay analyzes the ways in which the geothermal development has been defined by Puna residents and focuses especially on cultural variation and the changing political economy. The geothermal conflict is seen to be the source of new community cohesion in an ethnically plural region. (AA)

Miglani, Emil, see Shrivastava, Paul, Danny Miller, and Anil Miglani.

Mikami, Shunjii and Ken’ichi Ikeda, "Human Responses to Disasters," Vol. 3, No. 1 (March 1985): 107-132.

We first discuss psychological response and coping behavior in disaster situations. We confirm earlier findings that people have a tendency to interpret the signs of danger within their daily context and to underestimate the possibility of a disaster. It is suggested that repetitive and consistent information would help to induce adaptive responses. The typical coping patterns found were: (1) information-gathering behavior, (2) activities closely related to one’s family, (3) preventive or protective behaviors, and (4) self-protection by moving. We found the following six psychological determinants of coping behavior: (1) recognizing the seriousness of the situation, (2) knowing appropriate behavior for the situation faced, (3) expecting the projected coping response to be feasible, (4) perceiving the cost and reward of acting, (5) feeling of imminence of danger, and (6) the state of emotion of those involved. In the last part of the article we examine evacuation behavior in particular, based on our surveys in four communities in Japan. The central factors which determine evacuation decisions were: (1) direct perception of threat, (2) exposure to the evacuation advice, (3) factors relating to family, (4) community preparedness, and (5) demographic characteristics. We distinguish three basic phases in the evacuation process, that is, the timing of evacuation, the choice of transportation, and the sheltering activity. Threat conditions, exposure to evacuation advice, and one’s location were found to relate to the timing of evacuation. Most people evacuated by car. No consistent pattern was found in the choice of shelters. (AA)

Mikami, Shunjii, see Hiroi, Osamu, Shunji Mikami, and Kakuko Miyata.

Mileti, Dennis S., "Societal Comparisons of Organizational Response to Earthquake Predictions: Japan vs. the United States," Vol. 1, No. 3 (November 1983): 399-413.

The conclusion reached in this research is that there are both similarities and differences in the response of organizations to scientifically credible earthquake predictions in Japan versus the United States. In general, Japanese organizations would cast an earthquake prediction as an "opportunity," while organizations in the United States would view a prediction as an "imposition" until they are convinced that they are at risk. Recent and continuing changes in policies and programs in the United States may well reduce this difference between the two nations. Specifically, findings revealed that resources were necessary for prediction-related mitigation and preparedness actions by all organizations; having a reason to respond to a prediction—or risk—was necessary for organizations in the United States, but not so in Japan where useful response is likely regardless of risk; finally, having the knowledge to act in response to a prediction was necessary for government organizations, but not for corporations who could more readily, perhaps, buy the needed expertise. (AA)

Mileti, Dennis S., "Sustainability and Hazards," Vol. 20, No. 2 (August 2002): 135-138.

Mileti, Dennis S., Donald M. Hartsough, Patti Madson, and Rick Hufnagel, "The Three Mile Island Incident: A Study of Behavioral Indicators of Human Stress," Vol. 2, No. 1 (March 1984): 89-113.

This work sought to specify stress levels induced in the local population around Three Mile Island from the accident in 1979. Unobtrusive behavioral indicators of stress for the population as a whole were compared before, during, and after the accident. The conclusions reached were that: (1) the Three Mile Island incident did produce stress in people; (2) the stresses detected through the indicators used in this study were short-lived, not severe enough to manifest themselves in dramatic indicators like psychiatric admissions or suicide; (3) stress was obviously reflected in indicators of mild stress like alcohol consumption; and (4) stress detected was well within the limits of stress that occurs annually in that local population from stress inducing events like the occurrence of a major holiday. The conclusions of this study are best interpreted in concert with findings from studies using obtrusive indicators of stress and with studies on special local sub-populations. (AA)

Mileti, Dennis S., John H. Sorensen, and Paul W. O’Brien, "Toward an Explanation of Mass Care Shelter Use in Evacuations," Vol. 10, No. 1 (March 1992): 25-42.

The use of overnight shelters during evacuations is a topic of increased societal concern. Existing investigations do not provide an integrated nor consistent explanation. An assessment of existing published data led us to conclude that many factors suggested by others are not adequate explanations for shelter use; these include types of hazard, urban versus rural, day versus night, and shelter availability publicity. However, socioeconomic status and age of evacuees are consistent explanatory concepts. Further research on this topic is needed. (AA)

Mileti, Dennis S. and JoAnne DeRouen Darlington, "Societal Response to Revised Earthquake Probabilities in the San Francisco Bay Area," Vol. 13, No. 2 (August 1995): 119-145.

Using data collected on the general public, health, safety, and welfare agencies and organizations, and businesses in the San Francisco Bay Area, we describe what people thought and did in response to receiving an informational newspaper insert about revised probabilities for the next damaging Bay Area earthquake. Our findings suggest that the insert was relatively successful in reaching all groups, that Bay Area residents are making earthquakes a permanent part of local culture, and that sufficient knowledge may be in-hand with which to effectively and productively manage public earthquake predictions.(AA)

Mileti, Dennis S. and Eve Passerini, "A Social Explanation of Urban Relocation After Earthquakes," Vol. 14, No. 1 (March 1996): 97-110.

This paper synthesizes the research record regarding urban relocation after earthquakes. Three alternative relocation responses after earthquakes are identified, the range of factors that have been documented to influence them are presented, and identified human impacts of relocation after earthquakes are discussed. The conclusion is drawn that pre-disaster planning for rebuilding cities after earthquakes is central to enhancing risk reduction effectiveness. (AA)

Mileti, Dennis S., see Fitzpatrick, Colleen and Dennis S. Mileti.

Mileti, Dennis S., see O’Brien, Paul W., and Dennis S. Mileti.

Mileti, Dennis S., see Sorensen, John H. and Dennis S. Mileti.

Mileti, Dennis S., see Sorensen, John H., Dennis S. Mileti, and Emily Copenhaver.

Miller, Danny, see Shrivastava, Paul, Danny Miller, and Anil Miglani.

Miller, Robert W., see Bartlett, Glen S., Peter S. Houts, Linda K. Byrnes, and Robert W. Miller.

Mills, Jacqueline W., see Curtis, Andrew, Jacqueline W. Mills, Jason K. Blackburn, John C. Pine, and Barrett Kennedy.

Mitchell, James K., "Half a Century of Natural Disasters in the Pacific Basin: Historical Perspectives on the Future," Vol. 10, No. 2 (August 1992): 269-279.

This paper briefly explores and comments on three interrelated themes: the natural riskiness of the Pacific Basin; recent changes in patterns of disaster; and trends in society and environment that may affect the potential for future disasters. Losses of life due to disasters appear to be declining in recent decades throughout much of the region except in Latin America and Southeast Asia, where they may be increasing. Environmental and societal changes in the Basin are likely to produce new types of disaster potential that may modify historical patterns of disaster. (AA)

Mitchell, Jerry T., Deborah S. K. Thomas, Arleen A. Hill, and Susan L. Cutter, "Catastrophe in Reel Life versus Real Life: Perpetuating Disaster Myth through Hollywood Films," Vol. 18, No. 3 (November 2000): 383-402.

Hollywood productions continuously feature disasters and the human struggle against them. Recent entries from the disaster movie genre include films on tornadoes, volcanoes, and asteroids. This article is an exploration of how mass media, specifically the entertainment industry, conveys messages about disasters. For this paper, we examine eleven disaster films looking for five key disaster "myths" as identified by Jones (1993) that perpetuate common misconceptions about hazards. Specifically, we research whether the entertainment industry passes along these myths; we also provide an update for earlier work conducted by Quarantelli (1985) and conclude that the message regarding hazards provided through these films is often mixed and inconsistent. Hollywood's fascination with the disaster genre, the validity of the science portrayed, and the language used to characterize the disaster are among the topics we explore between "reel" life and "real" life. (AA)

Miyata, Kakuko, see Hiroi, Osamu, Shunji Mikami, and Kakuko Miyata.

Monson, Rebecca, "The 1998 Floods in the Tambo Valley," Vol. 22, No. 3 (November 2004): 61-86.

This paper examines the flood event of June 1998 and its effect on residents of the upper Tambo Valley, in Victoria south east Australia. While the concept of vulnerability has been widely employed to understand disasters, this case study is unique in that it adopts a long-term historical perspective of vulnerability. It shows that rather than being the result of a chance occurrence of a natural event, the 1998 flood disaster was in fact foreseeable, and the culmination of various social, political, economic and environmental pressures, some of which had existed for well over a century.  (AA)

Monson, Rebecca, see Handmer, John, and Rebecca Monson.

Montz, Burrell E., see Tobin, Graham A., Heather M. Bell, Linda M. Whiteford, and Burrell E. Montz.

Moran, Carmen, "Does the Use of Humor as a Coping Strategy Affect Stresses Associated with Emergency Work?", Vol. 8, No. 3 (November 1990): 361-377.

The increased concern over the well-being of emergency workers has been demonstrated at an organizational level by the implementation of formal critical incident stress debriefing programs in recent years. As well as recognizing the need for an organizational response to stress management, it is also important to recognize that individuals will have their own patterns of coping strategies that may or may not fit in with organizational expectations. In the emergency context there is relatively little documentation on the nature or effectiveness of these strategies. The present paper examines one coping strategy, humor, which is frequently mentioned by emergency workers and researchers as a common and presumably helpful strategy, but one for which there is very little systematic data. Interviews with emergency workers revealed a common belief that humor helps mitigate stress, but there was no association between quantitative measures of humor and stress in the present data. Emergency organizations may be uncomfortable with the overt acknowledgement of humor in the emergency context, but this paper suggests that it is generally used sensitively and within the emergency group only. It is possible that an alternative research approach is needed to further understand positive coping strategies such as humor. (AA)

Morrow, Betty Hearn and Elaine Enarson, "Hurricane Andrew through Women’s Eyes: Issues and Recommendations," Vol. 14, No. 1 (March 1996): 5-22.

While gender is a central organizing principle in social systems, limited attention has been paid to differences in the disaster-related experiences of women and men. To address some gender-related issues we conducted a qualitative sociological analysis of women’s experiences in the most heavily impacted areas of Dade County, Florida, after Hurricane Andrew. Through interviews, focus groups, surveys, secondary data analysis, and fieldwork we document ways in which the private and public caregiving responsibilities of women expanded, often under very difficult and stressful circumstances. Being particularly interested in the intersection of gender with race/ethnicity and class, much of our work focused on minority groups having particular problems with recovery, including migrant workers, recent immigrants, single mothers, and battered women. The effects of household and community losses tended to be different for women and in many respects more profound. Being female was an important dimension which appeared to increase the negative effects of being a victim and to retard personal and family recovery, especially when compounded with poverty and minority status. Based on issues which emerged from the experiences of women victims and careproviders, we offer a series of recommendations to disaster planners to increase the involvement of women at every level of disaster response. (AA)

Morrow, Betty Hearn and Brenda D. Phillips, "What’s Gender ‘Got to Do With It’?", Vol. 17, No. 1 (March 1999): 5-13.

Disaster researchers are accumulating clear evidence that, as a group, women are likely to respond, experience, and be affected by disasters in ways that are qualitatively different. At the same time it is important to recognize and document women’s diversity. Clearly, not all women experience disasters uniformly. It is our privilege to work with a growing cadre of disaster researchers and responders who are dedicated to documenting the experiences of women—their proactions and contributions, as well as reactions and needs. To this end we are pleased to serve as editors for this special collection on women and disaster as viewed from a variety of disciplines, professions, and perspectives, both theoretical and practical. As the International Decade for Natural Disaster Reduction concludes, we offer the articles that follow as a new step into the next century. All of us associated with this special issue on women and disasters hope the collection will interest you and will have relevance to your work. May you find the arguments compelling and the commitment to a better understanding of the disaster-related vulnerabilities and capacities of women contagious. (Edited from the introduction)

Murty, Susan A., see Gillespie, David F. and Susan A. Murty.

Myers, Mary Fran, "Bridging the Gap between Research and Practice: The Natural Hazards Research and Applications Information Center," Vol. 11, No. 1 (March 1993): 41-54.

Integrating the hazards research and practitioner communities is the main goal of the Natural Hazards Research and Applications Information Center. Founded in 1975 at the University of Colorado, the center works toward its goal with four main activities: dissemination of hazards information through publication of a bi-monthly newsletter, other forms of reports, and operation of an electronic newsletter; provision of information services through maintenance of a large library and database on natural hazards; conduct of a modest research program; and sponsorship of an annual workshop. This paper describes these activities and shows how they can bridge the gap between researcher and practitioner. (AA)

Nakagawa, Yuko and Rajib Shaw, "Social Capital: A Missing Link to Disaster Recovery," Vol. 22, No. 1 (March 2004): 5-34.

Post-disaster recovery processes should be considered as opportunities for development, by revitalizing the local economy and upgrading livelihoods and living conditions. Social capital, which is defined as a function of trust, social norms, participation, and network, can play an important role in recovery. This paper examines the role of social capital in the post earthquake rehabilitation and reconstruction programs in two cases: Kobe, Japan and Gujarat, India. The Kobe case study shows that the community with social capital and with a tradition of community activities can pro-actively participate in the reconstruction program, and thereby can make a successful and speedy recovery. A model for bonding, bridging, and linking social capital was developed from the Kobe experience and was applied to Gujarat in four different communities. It was observed that the community with social capital records the highest satisfaction rate for the new town planning and has the speediest recovery rate. The role of community leaders has been prominent in utilizing social capital in the recovery process and facilitating collective decision-making. Thus, although the two case studies differ in socioeconomic and cultural contexts, the communities' social capital and leadership are found to be the most effective elements in both cases in enhancing collective actions and disaster recovery. (AA)

Neal, David M., "Blame Assignment in a Diffuse Disaster Situation: A Case Example of the Role of an Emergent Group," Vol. 2, No. 2 (August 1984): 251-266.

Blame occurs frequently after disaster, yet the process of blame is a neglected topic of disaster research. Our study looks at how a grassroots citizen’s group blamed a local company for air pollution and health problems. The blaming process directed toward the company aided in the mobilization of the citizen’s group but also prevented any immediate issue-oriented actions. As blame directed toward the company decreased within the group, solidarity within the group decreased. Yet, as blame decreased within the group, issue-oriented actions by the group increased. The placement of blame by the group had both positive and negative consequences for its goals. Comparing this case with other studies of blame in disaster, we found that: (1) placing blame does not lead to structural changes in the social system, (2) organizations can be the focus of blame, and (3) only one target of blame can exist. In addition, we suggest that the type of disaster (diffuse or focalized, and technological or natural) may have an impact upon who or what becomes the target of blame. (AA)

Neal, David M. "Integrating Disaster Research and Practice: An Overview of Issues," Vol. 11, No. 1 (March 1993): 5-13.

This special issue of the International Journal of Mass Emergencies and Disasters resulted from a conference held at the University of North Texas in February 1991. The conference focused on issues related to integrating disaster research and practice. Both practitioners and researchers discuss the problem of delivering research to the practitioners. Thus, the resulting special issue is slightly different from most other issues of this journal. (AA)

Neal, David M., "Reconsidering the Phases of Disasters," Vol. 15, No. 2 (August 1997): 239-264.

The use of disaster phases (e.g., preparedness, response, recovery, and mitigation) has assisted both disaster researchers and managers. Disaster researchers have used disaster phases to systematize and codify research results. Disaster managers have drawn upon disaster periods to organize their own activities. Yet, many problems exist with the current use of disaster periods. In summary, I find that the current uses of disaster periods lack conceptual clarity for improving scientific and practical use. As a result, I suggest ways the field can recast the use of disaster phases to improve the theoretical and applied dimensions of the field. (AA)

Neal, David M.,, "Higher Education and the Profession of Disaster Management: A Brief Commentary on Past, Current, and Future Directions"  (Introduction to the Special Section), pp. 73–75.

Neal, David M., see Perry, Joseph B., Jr., Randolph Hawkins, and David M. Neal.

Neuwirth, Kurt, see Bahk, C. Mo and Kurt Neuwirth.

Nguyen, Loc H., see Bourque, Linda B., Kimberley I. Shoaf, and Loc H. Nguyen.

Nigg, Joanne M. and Ronald W. Perry, "Influential First Sources: Brief Statements with Long-Term Effects," Vol. 6, No. 3 (November 1988): 311-343.

Some works—by virtue of their insightfulness, theoretical linkages, conceptual development, or timeliness—have attained the stature of "classics" in the field of disaster research. This article reviews six of these works that were especially influential in shaping the questions pursued and the approaches used by disaster researchers since their publication. (Edited Author Introduction)

Nimmo, Dan, "TV Network News Coverage of Three Mile Island: Reporting Disasters as Technological Fables," Vol. 2, No. 1 (March 1984): 115-145.

Nightly network news coverage of the accident at Three Mile Island raised questions about the nature of TV news as well as the capacity of the three major networks to inform viewers during disasters. A key emphasis in TV news is story-telling, especially the weaving of fables. Quantitative and qualitative analyses of the content of network news coverage of TMI reveals differences between networks in techniques of newsgathering and reporting, but even more so in stories told: CBS narrated a tale of responsible political and technological elites, ABC a nightmare of common folk victimized by elites, and NBC a story of resignation and demystification. Coverage of TMI, when compared to network coverage of other crises, suggests that in reporting disasters CBS, ABC, and NBC respectively and consistently construct rhetorical visions of reassurance, threat, and primal assurance. (AA)

Nix, Andrew, see Wetzel, Christopher G., Edward Hettinger, Robert McMillan, Monroe Rayburn, and Andrew Nix.

Nomura, Noriaki, see Isumi, Masanori, Noriaki Nomura, and Takao Shibuya.

Norman, Sarah and Eve Coles, "Order Out of Chaos? A Critical Review of the Role of Central, Regional, and Local Government in Emergency Planning in London," Vol. 20, No. 3 (November 2002): 347-367.

This paper will focus on the recent development of emergency planning in the U.K., the current situation following the latest review and how the structures that exist between the Greater London Boroughs and Central Government have reacted in responding to an event of equal magnitude to 9/11.

Norman, Sarah, see Stuart-Black, Jim, Eve Coles, and Sarah Norman.

Norris-Raynbird, Carla, "A Mitigation Tale of Two Texas Cities," Vol. 23, No. 2 (August 2005): 37–73.

Galveston and Corpus Christi, Texas, are cities that share many similar geographic features. Yet despite their similarities, Galveston and Corpus Christi differ in their perspectives on the present and their visions for the future. This paper argues that in addition to the physical vulnerability of these two cities, Galveston is made more vulnerable by its social history. Conversely, Corpus Christi has worked towards less vulnerability through its social history. Out of each city’s social history has emerged an habitual "way of doing" local government. Corpus Christi’s "'ways of doing" have for the most part, facilitated responsible progressive development, that is, its leaders have initiated civic-minded change and welcomed new ideas for the betterment of the city. Civic-mindedness has focused on community, sustainability and innovation. Galveston on the other hand, has been hindered by power constraints that have made it less able to engage in civic-minded progressive development. A focus on "the way of doing" in local government is important because it is here that decisions on planning and mitigation are made. Many researchers have noted the gaps between policy adoption and implementation of mitigation measures at the local government level. The social context of local government has invariably been implicated, but less attention has been paid to the historical development of the social context and understanding the implications of its construction. (No abstract provided; edited from the author’s introduction)

O’Brien, Paul W. and Dennis S. Mileti, "Citizen Participation in Emergency Response Following the Loma Prieta Earthquake," Vol. 10, No. 1 (March, 1992): 71-89.

Citizen response to the Loma Prieta earthquake emergency was assessed on representative samples from San Francisco and Santa Cruz Counties. Almost everyone in both counties personalized the disaster regardless of the amount of personal damage experienced, and about two-thirds of the public in both counties got involved in some sort of emergency response activity. The amount of mainshock damage experienced had the strongest predictive value for emergency response involvement. Our findings suggest that collective identification may be a necessary but not sufficient cause for collective action in response to disaster. (AA)

O’Brien, Paul W., see Mileti, Dennis S., John H. Sorensen, and Paul W. O’Brien.

Ogawa, Yujiro, Antonio L. Fernandez, and Teruhiko Yoshimura, "Town Watching as a Tool for Citizen Participation in Developing Countries: Applications in Disaster Training," Vol. 23, No. 2 (August 2005): 5–36.

This paper is an initial attempt to review town watching as a training methodology. Town watching is a participatory technique used in community or neighborhood planning in the context of a larger administrative unit (such as municipality or city) in order for residents to recognize problems as a group and put forward solutions together. In disaster town watching, citizens belonging to a neighborhood undergo a group process guided by a facilitator. The facilitator, who is a disaster professional, strives to increase the citizens’ awareness about disaster risk reduction and hazard management. Over the past few years, the authors have been involved in training sessions that introduce disaster town watching not to citizens, but to disaster professionals. The paper deals with the experiences of the authors in training events that stress disaster planning and mitigation. (No abstract provided; edited from the authors’ introduction)

Ohashi, Hitomi, see Ohta, Yutaka and Hitomi Ohashi.

Ohta, Yutaka and Hitomi Ohashi, "Field Survey on Occupant Behavior in an Earthquake," Vol. 3, No. 1 (March 1985): 147-160.

This paper deals with how occupants respond and why they are exposed to casualty risk in an earthquake. It is based upon field data obtained by means of questionnaires and interviews in recent large earthquakes in Japan. Major results obtained are: (1) the most significant factor which governs their responses is seismic intensity; and (2) multiplicity of behavioral patterns at and after an earthquake can be well interpreted by taking account of personal characteristics and surrounding circumstances. (AA)

Okabe, Keizo and Hirotada Hirose, "The General Trend of Sociobehavioral Disaster Studies in Japan," Vol. 3, No. 1 (March 1985): 7-19.

In this article we very briefly review the history of socio-behavioral disaster research in Japan which is mostly a post-1970 undertaking. Examples of recent major studies are given. While the work has been relatively limited so far, the future appears promising. (AA)

Olivo Ensor, Marisa, "Disaster Evangelism: Religion as a Catalyst for Change in Post-Mitch Honduras," Vol. 21, No. 2 (August 2003): 31–50.

Although religion clearly plays an important role in framing the way people interpret and cope with disasters, religion is virtually absent in policy debates and disaster reconstruction planning. Researchers have also tended to neglect the role of religion as a source of emotional and social support, and a vehicle of community building and group and individual identity for affected populations. This paper examines the connection between postdisaster resettlement and reconstruction, and the changing religious beliefs and practices of the women and men of Morolico, a town in southern Honduras swept away by the floods of Hurricane Mitch in October 1998. In Morolico, rates of conversion to Evangalism increased after the disastetr, as several Evangelical missions collaborated with the local population on the reconstruction of their community. My data indicate that women and men had different reasons for being attracted to Evangalism, and that conversion entailed a transformation of the social norms and proper behavior that was different for each gender. Furthermore, these conversions can be understood as gendered survival tactics in a context of dislocation and catastrophic loss. Given the multiple and complex processes taking place in post-Mitch Honduras in general, and Morolico in particular, I suggest that survival strategies and religious conversions are gender-differentiated, and need to be explored within a framework of shifting political ecological conditions, religious pluralism, and displacement.

Ollenburger, Jane C. and Graham Tobin, "Women, Aging and Post-Disaster Stress: Risk Factors for Psychological Morbidity," Vol. 17, No. 1 (March 1999): 65-78.

The goal of this research was to model the relationship between stress and natural disasters, with a view to explaining levels of stress among women. Following flooding in Iowa in 1993, two in-depth questionnaire surveys were administered, one to residents in high flood exposure areas and another to the general population as a control. Results indicated that gender plays a significant role in interpreting stress responses to natural hazards, with women consistently exhibiting greater stress than men. However, it was evident that a complex web of factors influenced stress levels including marital status, structure of the family unit, age, socio-economic status, health, levels of social involvement, and degree of hazard experience. These findings suggest that more research should focus on determining structural constraints that exacerbate stress levels for women. (AA)

Olofsson, Anna, "The Preparedness of Local Authorities for Crisis Communication with People Who Have Foreign Backgrounds: The Case of Sweden," Vol. 25, No. 2 (August 2007): 145–172.

One of the most important aspects of crisis communication is that of reaching the target population in a severe and often chaotic situation.  Therefore, crisis communication has to be customized not only to the situation but also to the population.  The aim of this study hence is to investigate the preparedness of Swedish municipalities to communicate with people who have foreign backgrounds at times of crisis.  A sample of 55 percent (n=160) of all Swedish municipalities were questioned regarding whether their crisis communication plans are adapted to this population segment and whether any preparedness measures have been taken.  The results show that Swedish municipalities do not consider people with foreign backgrounds in their crisis communication to any great extent.  However, the studied municipalities can be categorized as Active, Intermediary, or Passive, and one important difference between the three groups is whether they have previous experience of crises where people with foreign backgrounds have been involved.  (AA)

Olson, David H., see McCubbin, Hamilton, David H. Olson, and Joan M. Patterson.

Olson, Richard Stuart, "Toward a Politics of Disaster: Losses, Values, Agendas, and Blame," Vol. 18, No. 2 (August 2000): 265-287.

Offering exemplars from around the world, including China, Mexico, Nicaragua, and California, this paper argues that disasters must be understood and analyzed more deeply and more often as explicitly political events. The paper also argues that because politics is the "authoritative allocation of values," the politics-disaster nexus revolves around the allocation of several important values: life safety in the pre-event period, survival in the emergency phase, and "life chances" in the recovery and reconstruction periods. The paper concludes by suggesting that the literatures on agenda control and causal stories/blame management are particularly useful points of departure for analyzing disasters as intrinsically political events. (AA)

Olson, Richard Stuart and Juan Pablo Sarmiento Prieto, "Guns, Drugs, and Disaster: Cauca/Huila, Colombia, 1994," Vol. 13, No. 2 (August 1995): 147-160.

A Richter magnitude 6.4 earthquake occurred near the Nevada del Huila volcano in southwestern Colombia on June 6, 1994, affecting an area both deforested and coincidentally saturated by heavy rains over preceding weeks. The earthquake and resultant landslides and mud flows killed an estimated 656 people and left thousands homeless, most of them non-Spanish-speaking Paez and Guambiano. Context is all-important, and the disaster response and especially reconstruction planning became rapidly political because the event affected primarily indigenous populations and occurred in a heroine poppy growing area long contested between Colombian national security forces and several guerrilla organizations. (AA)

Olson, Richard Stuart and Robert A. Olson, "‘The Rubble’s Standing Up’ in Oroville, California: The Politics of Building Safety," Vol. 11, No 2 (August 1993): 163-188.

Disaster researchers have long been aware that the political context of mitigation and preparedness measures has a formidable impact on their initiation, adoption, and implementation. Yet most discussion and reporting of the political aspects of disasters have remained anecdotal, and few scholars have attempted to incorporate systematically political forces into social science models applied to disaster phenomena. This paper presents an explicit attempt to describe and explain the impact of politics on the public policy debate over structural safety in Oroville, California, following a damaging 1975 earthquake. (AA)

Olson, Richard Stuart and Robert A. Olson, "Trapped in Politics: The Life, Death and Afterlife of the Utah Seismic Safety Advisory Council," Vol. 12, No. 1 (March 1994): 77-94.

Utah faces serious earthquake risk from the alignment of its major population centers with the historically active Wasatch fault. This paper identifies the origins and traces the life history of the Utah Seismic Safety Advisory Council, paying special attention to the partisan political shift which contributed to its 1981 legislative failures and organizational demise. (AA)

Olson, Richard Stuart, Robert A. Olson, and Vincent T. Gawronski, "Night and Day: Mitigation Policymaking in Oakland, California, Before and After the Loma Prieta Earthquake," Vol. 16, No. 2 (August 1998): 145-179.

The 1989 Loma Prieta earthquake was a watershed event for all of the communities it affected but perhaps more so for Oakland, California, where it had a fundamental and enduring impact on the decision agenda of city government. This paper explains (1) local government inaction on earthquake safety in Oakland before the disaster and then (2) how and why a political coalition was formed to develop a series of city ordinances to abate the hazard posed by earthquake-damaged buildings as well as by a class of structures (unreinforced masonry) known to be particularly earthquake-vulnerable. (AA)

Olson, Richard Stuart and A. Cooper Drury, "Un-Therapeutic Communities: A Cross-National Analysis of Post-Disaster Political Unrest," Vol. 15, No. 2 (August 1997): 221-238.

A recurring question in the study of disaster effects involves political instability. A relationship has been posited between disasters and various forms of political unrest, and case evidence exists to support the contention. Statistical testing, however, has been lacking. A pilot study, this paper integrates a worldwide-disaster database with a political-instability database and reports time-series cross-section (pooled time-series) findings for 12 countries struck by rapid-onset natural disasters between 1966 and 1980. The regression results, both strong and significant, indicate a positive relationship between disaster severity and political unrest. The unrest, however, can be dampened if not eliminated by governmental repression, the implications of which are most disturbing. (AA)

Olson, Richard Stuart and Vincent T. Gawronski, "Disasters as Critical Junctures? Managua, Nicaragua 1972 and Mexico City 1985," Vol. 21, No. 1 (March 2003): 3-35.

Applying an adapted "critical juncture" framework to disasters, this paper compares two major urban earthquakes in Latin America: the December 23, 1972, event in Managua, Nicaragua, and the September 19 and 20, 1985, events in Mexico and particularly Mexico City. The purpose of using a critical juncture approach to the two disasters is to identify and assess event legacies, especially political legacies and how they contributed to regime change. This paper comes to the conclusion that while the Nicaragua disaster did indeed constitute a critical juncture for that nation, setting the political system off on an entirely new trajectory, somewhat unexpectedly the Mexico event did not. In retrospect, the Mexico earthquake of 1985 has to be seen as more of a marker event within a much longer and more complex national critical juncture that opened in 1968 and closed in 1988. Narrowing the focus to just Mexico City, however, the disaster was a critical juncture. (AA)

Olson, Robert A., see Olson, Richard Stuart and Robert A. Olson.

Olson, Robert A., see Olson, Richard Stuart, Robert A. Olson, and Vincent T. Gawronski.

Olson, Richard Stuart, see Gawronski, Vincent T. and Richard Stuart Olson.

O’Sullivan, Chris, see Thiel de Bocanegra, Heike, Ellen Brickman, and Chris O’Sullivan.

Oyola-Yemaiel, Arthur and Jennifer Wilson, "Terrorism and System Failure: A Revisited Perspective of Current Development Paradigms," Vol. 21, No. 3 (November 2003): 25-40.

In this article we explore social vulnerability to terrorism based upon current development paradigms and the social complexities derived from our evolutionary process. We argue that highly complex systems are the essence of accelerated development as well as the possible cause of our collapse as a society. System complexity in and of itself could very well be modern society’s principal vulnerability to terrorism with the possible outcome of a generalized failure resulting in a national disaster. To obtain vulnerability reduction we suggest that American society move toward a new stage of development accentuating redundancy and independence of crucial system functions. We recommend that business and resource consolidation and the centralization of power paradigm give way to developmental strategies of decentralized power and dispersed resource allocation. We utilized the Twin Towers incident to analyze our evolutionary developmental process and the vulnerability of our complex society and to revisit the working definition of disaster in the reality of highly complex systems. (AA)

Oyola-Yemaiel, Arthur, and Jennifer Wilson, " Three Essential Strategies for Emergency Management Professionalization in the U. S.," Vol. 23, No. 1 (March 2005): pp. 77–84.

Emergency management in the United States today is not yet a profession, but as a trade it has reached the necessary institutional maturity to advance toward a profession. Emergency management is professionalizing by pursuing the principal characteristics of a profession, namely autonomy or self-regulation and monopoly or exclusiveness. We have analyzed the current status of emergency management professionalization by investigating the efforts of various organizations at the U. S. national and state levels to organize the trade as a profession. In particular, we have examined the processes of structural formation, accreditation, and certification. In essence, professional status relates directly to the institutional and individual acquisition of autonomy and monopoly to exercise the trade. We conclude that hierarchical structure, individual certification, and institutional accreditation are essential strategies for emergency management to develop as a profession.  (AA)

Palit, Manasi, see Human, R. Josh, Manasi Palit, and David M. Simpson.

Pangan, Oliver I., see C. Dominik Güss and Oliver I. Pangan.

Paolisso, Michael, Amanda Ritchie, and Aleyda Ramirez, "The Significance of the Gender Division of Labor in Assessing Disaster Impacts: A Case Study of Hurricane Mitch and Hillside Farmers in Honduras," Vol. 20, No. 2 (August 2002): 171-195.

To date, most disaster study and practice have not explicitly considered the different roles, needs, and experiences of women and men in response to disasters. Disaster research that does incorporate gender analysis often concludes that the needs, experiences, and contributions of men and women in disaster situations are distinct. In this paper, we present a case study analysis of the agricultural and domestic impacts of Hurricane Mitch among rural, hillside farmers in Honduras, disaggregated by gender. Our research incorporates empirical data from 68 households and reveals that men and women reported similar physical impacts, but that they evaluated these impacts differently depending on where the impact fell within the gender division of labor. Our main conclusion is that impact evaluation and disaster policy must include a consideration of disaster impacts as they are filtered through the actual and normative gender division of labor, in order to determine the degree of priority or severity assigned to impacts. (AA)

Passerini, Eve, see Mileti, Dennis S. and Eve Passerini.

Patterson, George T., "Police Social-Work Collaboration in Response to the World Trade Center Attack," Vol. 21, No. 3 (November 2003): 87-102.

This paper utilizes the lessons learned from police-social work collaboration in response to the World Trade Center attacks to build capacity for the future of police-social work collaboration in response to mass emergencies and disasters. A collaborative disaster response provided during the early hours and days following the attacks, before the American Red Cross and other agencies were involved, are described. Social workers and other mental health professionals collaborating with law enforcement personnel to provide a disaster response can assist law enforcement agencies with their community service and community policing functions. The benefits and barriers to police-social work collaboration and social work practice roles are discussed as they relate to disaster preparedness, response, recovery, and collaborating effectively with law enforcement personnel. (AA)

Patterson, Joan M., see McCubbin, Hamilton, David H. Olson, and Joan M. Patterson.

Patterson, Philip and Lee Wilkins, "Routinized Reporting of Technological Accidents: Television Coverage of the Chernobyl Disaster," Vol. 6, No. 1 (March 1988): 27-46.

An analysis of the U.S. television network coverage of the nuclear accident at Chemobyl reveals that the networks relied more heavily on popular myths than scientific fact in reporting the story. The researchers found that three myths permeated the coverage: Soviets as technological bumblers, Soviets as uncaring for human life, and Soviets as liars. Using Chemobyl as a case study, the authors suggest that, while disasters are unpredictable, media behavior in reporting them is constant. This behavior will include treating the disaster as a human drama, using stereotypes to tell the story economically, focusing heavily on the technological cause, depending on familiar sourcing patterns, and finally, turning the story into a moral fable. The authors suggest that this routine helps to "tame" the story for the networks’ purposes. (AA)

Peacock, Walter Gillis, "Cross-National and Comparative Disaster Research," Vol. 15, No. 1 (March 1997): 117-133.

Distinguishing characteristics and issues of comparative and cross-cultural research, problems and opportunities, and an assessment of future prospects are offered and related to disaster research. No single approach is advocated; rather, various approaches—case study to cross-national, contemporary to historical, and qualitative to quantitative—are recommended. Methodological issues including model specification, problems of aggregation, intra- versus inter-national variation, and secondary versus primary data collection are addressed. Particular attention is devoted to issues of equivalence related to conceptualization, data comparability, operationalization and measurement, conversion, standardization, and units of observation. The need for systematic efforts to develop research tools that can be utilized to measure critical concepts such as recovery, restoration, risk, and mitigation is identified. Finally, discipline-based, yet disaster relevant, cross-national and comparative research agendas consistent with a broader ecological perspective targeting disasters, development, and the social production of vulnerability are advocated. (AA)

Peacock, Walter Gillis, Charles D. Killian, and Frederick L. Bates, "The Effects of Disaster Damage and Housing Aid on Household Recovery Following the 1976 Guatemalan Earthquake," Vol. 5, No. 1 (March 1987): 63-88.

This paper examines the effects of housing programs, disaster damage, community type, and other social determinants on household recovery following a major natural disaster—the 1976 Guatemalan earthquake. The domestic assets index, a measure of household living conditions, and a refined measure of household recovery are introduced and employed. The domestic assets scale is an index of the economic value of household equipment and is an adaptation of level-of-living scales. While reconstruction aid was the single most important determinant of recovery, it was the type and not the value of aid that was critical. Strong support exists for the conclusion that temporary housing as a form of aid retarded the recovery process while permanent housing programs actually produced net improvement in living conditions. There is also evidence that the unequal effects of different types of housing programs produced significant changes in the distribution of economic resources, thus effecting the stratification system in affected communities. In addition, while other factors associated with the social characteristics of households were found to be important, this analysis consistently suggests that households residing in small, rural, and politically removed communities experienced greater difficulty in overcoming the debilitating effects of a natural disaster. (AA)

Peacock, Walter Gillis, see Bates, Frederick L. and Walter Gillis Peacock.

Peacock, Walter Gillis, see Bates, Frederick L. and Walter Gillis Peacock, and others.

Peacock, Walter Gillis, see Gladwin, Christina H., Hugh Gladwin, and Walter Gillis Peacock

Peek, Lori, "Transforming the Field of Disaster Research Through Training the Next Generation," Vol. 24, No.3 (November 2006): 371-389

Given the importance of nurturing the next generation of hazards and disaster researchers and exposing them to the breadth, depth, and vitality of the field, surprisingly little has been written that explicitly addresses this topic. In this article, I examine the role of research centers in transforming the field of disaster research and specifically focus on the responsibility of research centers in educating and mentoring new scholars, who in turn will influence the future directions of the field. I discuss five aspects of training new researchers that I consider essential: (a) fostering commitment to the field; (b) maintaining academic and professional integrity; (c) examining root causes of disasters; (d) developing and improving research agendas; and (e) disseminating research findings. The role of research centers is critical in the training process, given that there is probably no better venue for educating new scholars and ultimately encouraging innovative perspectives, generating new knowledge, advancing science, and strengthening the field.  (AA)

Pereira, Joseph, see Rossi, Peter H., James D. Wright, Eleanor Weber-Burdin, and Joseph Pereira.

Perry, Joseph B., Jr., "Tornadoes Over Texas: A Study of Waco and San Angelo in Disaster and its Impact upon the Study of Disaster," Vol. 6, No. 3 (November 1988): 253-281.

Harry Estill Moore came to the study of disaster late in his life and academic career. Yet, in only a few years he made an impact upon the field which had lasted some thirty years and showed signs of continuing to be influential. It is the purpose of this article to review and discuss this influence especially as it is expressed in his book, Tornadoes Over Texas: A Study of Waco and San Angelo In Disaster, which was published in 1958 by the University of Texas Press. TOT is a report of several years of research carried out during the 1950s in the Sociology Department at the University of Texas by The "Waco-San Angelo Disaster Study" project directed by Harry E. Moore. It was established to study the consequences of the tornadoes which hit Waco and San Angelo on May 11, 1953. TOT, one of the publications of the project, is broad in scope and includes topics such as the tornadoes as events, the damage they caused, the financial and other costs, legal and governmental problems, age and race differences, the treatment of the disasters in the media, and detailed case study materials. (Introduction)

Perry, Joseph B., Jr., Randolph Hawkins, and David M. Neal, "Giving and Receiving Aid," Vol. 1, No. 1 (March 1983): 171-187.

Most research devoted to the problem of giving aid in disaster has focused on the postimpact period. In such situations there is usually altruism, but people tend to help family members, other relatives, and friends before strangers. This research focuses on the impact period rather than the postimpact period. Data were collected with a mailed questionnaire after the blizzard of January 1978 in the Midwest of the U.S.A. during which people were immobilized for as much as five days. Several measures of giving and receiving help were obtained. The question considered here is do the findings on helping patterns toward victims in a post-impact period apply also to a situation of prolonged impact. Respondents gave and received more help from relatives and friends than from strangers. However, friends rather than relatives both gave and received more help. The usual patterns of the importance of the primary group—family, relatives, and friends—seem to have prevailed. One of the main problems during blizzard impact may be the difficulties of persons who are physically and socially isolated. (AA)

Perry, Ronald W., "Taxonomy and Model Building for Emergency Warning Response," Vol. 7, No. 3 (November 1989): 305-327.

Recent years have seen the rise of a consensus among disaster researchers that a pressing need exists for the development of both classification systems (typologies) and theoretical models in the study of disaster phenomena. Given the importance and urgency assigned these tasks, the question of how they fit together arises. Indeed, two issues of such importance probably merit joint pursuit by the community of scholars. Yet, there is some evidence that the relationship between taxonomy and theory building is not clear to many social scientists. They are often treated as independent activities which should be pursued separately. The purpose of this paper is to examine the ways in which taxonomic activity meshes with theory construction, particularly with the construction and testing of causal models. The substantive focus for the discussion will be the problem of individual response to warning messages. It has been argued that of all disaster phenomena, warning response is among the "best studied." In fact, there is a very long history of research on warning response and a large backlog of field studies. Given all these data, a question that has long challenged researchers is: how can it be organized theoretically? One answer is that theoretical organization can be achieved both through taxonomy and model construction. From a meta-theoretical perspective, taxonomy and modeling are complementary activities, not any more distinct or separate than research and theory. The remainder of this paper is built around discussions of three issues. First, we will examine the meta-theoretical context of taxonomy and modeling. This task involves examining recent issues in causal modeling practice and specifying the relationship of classification schemes to models. Second, we will develop—drawing upon the warning response literature—a model which takes into account the basic tenets of the recent modeling literature. In this context, primary theoretical and methodological issues will also be discussed. Finally, the model will be examined in terms of a comparative dimension—across events—using classification (or typology) as a means of providing interpretative context. (Edited Author Introduction)

Perry, Ronald W. and Hirotada Hirose, "Volcanic Eruptions and Functional Change: Parallels in Japan and the United States," Vol. 1, No. 2 (August 1983): 231-253.

The purpose of this paper is to examine one aspect of community change following disaster: the impact of volcanic eruptions on two small communities with tourist-based economies. The data presented here are in the form of two case studies of towns affected by, respectively, the eruptions of Mt. Usu on the northern island of Hokkaido in Japan and of Mount St. Helens in Washington, located in the northwestern United States. Specifically, the paper describes the effects of the eruptions and subsequent emergency management policies upon the tourist economies of Toyako-Onsen, Japan, and Cougar, Washington. The study highlights differences and commonalities in response between the two communities, including reactions to the imposition of access controls, functional shifts in the local economies after controls had been lifted, and the impact of the public’s perception of the hazard upon tourism. (AA)

Perry, Ronald W. and Michael K. Lindell, "Predicting Long-Term Adjustment to Volcano Hazard," Vol. 8, No. 2 (August 1990): 117-136.

This study examined the long-term patterns of protective response to the threat of volcanic eruption at Mount St. Helens. Data collected from a sample of 103 affected residents were examined to determine the frequency of adoption and interrelationships among five actions—insurance purchase, evacuation preparation, purchase of specialized equipment, and mitigation actions for ashfall threat or for mudflow/flood threats—that could be taken to protect personal safety and property. Eight variables—hazard salience, threat knowledge, perceived risk from ashfall, perceived risk from mudflows and floods, previous damage, emergency planning, information from relatives, and information from friends—were hypothesized to be associated with higher levels of hazard adjustment. All variables except those relating to information sources were found to have significant positive correlations with the level of hazard adjustment, although the regression coefficient for one variable, perceived risk from ashfall, became non-significant when all variables were entered into a regression equation. The results suggest directions for future research as well as strategies that public safety officials can take to enhance the level of adjustment by the population at risk. (AA)

Perry, Ronald W. and Michael K. Lindell, "The Effects of Ethnicity on Evacuation Decision-Making," Vol. 9, No. 1 (March 1991): 47-68.

This paper develops a single-stage theoretical model that examines the impact of citizen ethnicity on evacuation warning compliance. Three ethnic groups are examined: blacks, whites, and Mexican-Americans. Other independent variables in the model include risk perception, possession of an adaptive plan, warning content, warning confirmation, income, and warning source credibility. The model is tested on data from a flood and a hazardous materials incident. In both events, it was found that respondent ethnicity and income had small and statistically nonsignificant effects upon warning compliance. Perceived risk was the best predictor of compliance in each data set. Ethnic group differences were detected in terms of the specific sources identified as most credible and in terms of the first source contacted for warning confirmation. (AA)
Perry, Ronald W., see Lindell, Michael K. and Ronald W. Perry (1990).

Perry, Ronald W., see Lindell, Michael K. and Ronald W. Perry (1991).

Perry, Ronald W., see Nigg, Joanne M. and Ronald W. Perry.
Petak, William J., "Natural Hazard Mitigation: Professionalization of the Policy-Making Process," Vol. 2, No. 2 (August 1984): 285-302.

Liability and increased federal involvement in issues of public safety has resulted in the development of a bewildering array of agencies and entities at all levels of government. In spite of this increased involvement, losses from catastrophic natural hazardous events are continuing to increase at an alarming rate. Although there is an increased federal involvement, primary responsibility and authority for dealing with the problems associated with natural hazard exposure rests with the states and local governments. However, the capacity of state and local governments to deal with these problems is significantly constrained by geophysical, ecological, and sociopolitical factors. The purpose of this paper is to discuss the context in which natural hazard problems are defined and policies adopted in the United States. Further we will examine the barriers to the adaptation and implementation of natural hazard mitigation policies. Professionalization of the policy adaptation and implementation process is presented as a basis for increased success in reducing societal risks to natural hazards. (AA)

Petee, Thomas, see Faupel, Charles E., Susan P. Kelley, and Thomas Petee.

Petropoulos, Nicholas P., "Disaster Behavior Research in Greece: Review and Prospects," Vol. 6, No. 2 (August 1988): 169-183.

This article is a review of the empirical research on disaster behavior in Greece during the last 35 years. Most of this was conducted by psychiatrists and other non-sociologists. It focused on the individual rather than the organizational and institutional reactions to earthquakes. Although a number of findings on the individual level are consistent with certain theoretical notions regarding panic behavior and disaster subculture, more systematic and controlled research is needed before definite conclusions can be drawn. The article concludes with suggestions for promoting sociological disaster research by taking advantage of recent institutional developments in the areas of disaster planning, research and development, and professional sociology. (AA)

Phillips, Brenda D., "The Media in Disaster Threat Situations: Some Possible Relationships Between Mass Media Reporting and Voluntarism," Vol. 4, No. 3 (November 1986): 7-26.

This research looks at possible relationships between mass media reporting and voluntarism in disaster-threat situations. The setting is a small midwestern city in the United States which was inundated by flood waters in March 1982. Data were collected through interviews with volunteers, organizational and public officials, and the media. Additionally, numerous documents pertaining to the media and volunteers are content analyzed. Observations made on-site supplement the interviews and documents. The media are found to have some effect in accordance with the suggestions of dependency theory. The media are also found to have been one of several instigators of increased voluntarism. Conflict arising out of media depiction of the volunteer effort is discussed. Further research on media effects of voluntarism in disaster situations is suggested. (AA)

Phillips, Brenda D., "Cultural Diversity in Disasters: Sheltering, Housing, and Long-Term Recovery," Vol. 11, No. 1 (March 1993): 99-110.

Demographic shifts have put minority groups and the poor at greater risk to disaster during the last decade. Problems of sheltering and housing for these groups occurred following the 1989 Lome Prieta earthquake in Watsonville, California. To mitigate future problems, disaster planners must identify various ethnic groups and other groups in the community. Diversity must be built into the disaster response during the planning stage. Researcher should continue and expand work related to diversity and disaster. (AA)

Phillips, Brenda D., "Qualitative Methods and Disaster Research," Vol. 15, No. 1 (March 1997): 179-195.

This paper discusses the existing and potential linkages between qualitative research and disaster research. It begins by considering recent trends in qualitative research relevant to disaster studies and lists misconceptions which readers should peruse before passing judgment on qualitative research. The recent trends will likely influence qualitative disaster research, especially in the areas of data analysis and writing. The paper also identifies strong linkages between qualitative and disaster research, and the unusual opportunities qualitative researchers have enjoyed within disaster research. Beyond these linkages, this essay also identifies both problems and the potential of qualitative disaster research, including expanding data collection methods, nurturing the next generation of qualitative disaster researchers, and latching onto rapidly developing computing technologies for qualitative research. The author concludes with a "wish list" for future qualitative disaster research. (AA)

Phillips, Brenda D., "Disaster as a Discipline: The Status of Emergency Management Education in the U.S.," Vol. 23, No. 1 (March 2005): pp. 111–139.

At the July 2003 Boulder, Colorado (U.S.) Natural Hazards Workshop, Dennis Mileti declared that since people talked about emergency management as a discipline, "therefore it is." Though he was not the first to so state, he did so in a timely manner as the number of emergency management programs continues to grow. Such disciplinary designations are not so easily conferred. To consider if emergency management education can rightfully be called a discipline, this paper reviews the words used to name degrees and how the main term (i.e., emergency management) has been defined, identifies the implicit core curriculum, and compares how introductory textbooks present the history of the profession. The paper then supports adding theory and methods courses to curricula, a disciplinary standard mandated by accreditation agencies in the U.S. . The paper concludes by looking at instructional delivery modes and suggests how faculty might further establish their claim to a place in the academy.   (No abstract available; edited author introduction)

Phillips, Brenda, see Blinn-Pike, Lynn, Brenda Phillips, and Patsilu Reeves.

Phillips, Brenda D., see Morrow, Betty Hearn and Brenda D. Phillips.

Pine, John C., see Curtis, Andrew, Jacqueline W. Mills, Jason K. Blackburn, John C. Pine, and Barrett Kennedy.

Pope, Terri and Dennis E. Wenger, "TMI in the Literature: A Partially Annotated Bibliography," Vol. 2, No. 1 (March 1984): 197-211.

[Annotated bibliography of citations related to the nuclear accident at Three Mile Island.]

Porfiriev, Boris N., "Disaster and Disaster Areas: Methodological Issues of Definition and Delineation," Vol. 13, No. 3 (November 1995): 285-304.

We present an extensive discussion of the linguistic, conceptual, and practical issues in discussing the category of disaster. It is argued that there are two principle orientations or approaches to research, namely an applied/pragmatic one and a theoretical/conceptual one. These are based on ontological and epistemological grounds, respectively, which serve as the main factors determining the existing differences and variations in the studying and understanding of disasters. The other reason for the variation is the logical and terminological inaccuracy of individual researchers in reasoning on disaster matters. The categories of "ecological disaster" and of "ecological disaster zones" have been selected as critical cases illustrating that issue in the theoretical approach. Also presented is the concept of disaster area as a management objective, and the classification of territories based on the depth of the destructive impact on sociopolitical systems, and on the types and groups in such territories. Also briefly discussed within the framework of the pragmatic approach are the principal measures and elements of an organizational system model for mitigating disaster aftermaths. (AA)

Porfiriev, Boris N., "Comment on the Comments, or What I See in Hewitt’s Mirror in Rereading My Paper," Vol. 13, No. 3 (November 1995): 353-356.

[Reply to the reaction paper by Kenneth Hewitt, Vol. 13, No. 3 (November 1995): 317-339.]

Prater, Carla S., see Lindell, Michael K. and Carla S. Prater.

Prater, Carla S., see Arlikatti, Sudha, Michael K. Lindell, and Carla S. Prater.

Pretto, Ernesto, see Comfort, Louis, Ali Tekin, Ernesto Pretto, Bulent Kirimli, Derek Anges, and others.

Quarantelli, E. L., "Disaster Studies: An Analysis of the Social Historical Factors Affecting the Development of Research in the Area," Vol. 5, No. 3 (November 1987): 285-310.

Almost nothing has been written about the social historical emergence and development of social and behavioral research on disasters. This paper provides a description and a sociology of scientific knowledge analysis of the factors affecting the initiation of studies in the area in the United States. First, we note how disaster research on group and behavioral aspects of disasters had their roots, almost exclusively, in rather narrowly focused applied questions or practical concerns. Second, we point out how this led to certain kinds of selective emphases in terms of what and how the research was undertaken in the pioneering days, but with substantive consequences which we still see operative today. (AA)

Quarantelli, E. L., "What Should We Study?: Questions about the Concept of Disasters (Presidential Address)," Vol. 5, No. 1 (March 1987): 7-32.

There is no one in this audience who does not immediately recognize the descriptive referent of two phrases we will utter—the Challenger space shuttle accident and the spread of the AIDS virus. However, we would also venture to say, with confidence, that the quick recognition of what we are talking about would not be accompanied by a similar consensus that both, one or the other, or neither, should be thought of as a disaster for research purposes. On the other hand, there is probably no one in this audience who will not only recognize, but agree, that the referents of the terms Bhopal and Chernobyl are, and should be, looked at as disasters. Why? Few of us would have trouble characterizing some aspects of the recent Mexico City earthquake or the Amaro, Columbia, volcanic mud slide as a disaster. Yet many of us would hesitate to characterize in the same way the clashes between the Soviet Union military and the native guerrillas in Afghanistan, the American air strike on Lybia, or the current war between Iran and Iraq. Do the deaths from the famine in Ethiopia qualify as a disaster? If yes, what about the much larger number of people who die daily as a result of cigarette smoking? Why do we and other researchers characterize certain occurrences as disasters but deny this label for other phenomena also involving loss of life, substantial great destruction of property, and/or major disruption of social life? This paper struggles with the problem of what we, as researchers, should study as a disaster. In our view, this is by far the most important task currently facing the field of disaster studies, as undertaken by social and behavioral scientists. We are not going to proclaim the definitive answer. Instead, we ask some questions and advance some suggestions for researchers about the concept of disaster. (Introduction)

Quarantelli, E. L., "The NORC Research on the Arkansas Tornado: A Fountainhead Study," Vol. 6, No. 3 (November 1988): 283-310.

The three volume, 960-page report, entitled Human Reactions in Disaster Situations issued in 1954 by the National Opinion Research Center (NORC) at the University of Chicago, is a classic. Not because it has been widely read, for very seldom do I encounter anyone who has ever even seen a copy of the publication, much less perused it. Not because its specific contents are very well known and used as a starting base in current disaster research scientific circles; for different reasons, the various summaries and inventories of disaster findings have not presented any of the data or findings, except by Barton who gives some limited and selective material in his now two decade old book, Communities in Disaster. And the NORC work, whether generally or specifically, is very seldom cited in the present day disaster research literature, and extremely few libraries have copies of the report. Rather our argument is that the publication is a classic for two other reasons: (1) it primarily reports on what, by most criteria which could be used, is still the best survey study so far undertaken in the disaster area; and (2) because of the mostly unrecognized but highly significant influence the NORC, work had on the historical development of disaster studies in the United States and on how much of the current research in the area is conducted. In this review and analysis of the research effort in the disaster area by NORC we shall present: (1) the general background of the work; (2) the nature of the field research undertaken; (3) a selective summary of the substantive focus and findings from the largest single field study within the NORC work, namely on the Arkansas tornado; (4) a brief overall assessment of the research done; and (5) some of the important consequences of what NORC did in the disaster area. (Edited Author Introduction)

Quarantelli, E. L., "Conceptualizing Disasters from a Sociological Perspective," Vol. 7, No. 3 (November 1989): 243-251.

The question of a taxonomy for disaster research cannot be addressed meaningfully until some sort of answer is given to the more fundamental issue: what is a disaster? Kreps does provide one general answer in his paper. Regarding much of what he says, he clearly is right. The evidence for this conclusion comes from the fact that many of his views correspond to mine—obviously there could be no stronger confirmation that he is correct in expressing those views! However, I do have some problems with certain of his positions. In this brief commentary, let me discuss four matters regarding which I would take a different position than that which seems to be taken by Kreps. However, what is important is not that we disagree, but rather that the differences lead in different directions in conceptualizing disasters and developing typologies or taxonomies. So these are differences which make a difference. (Edited Author Introduction)

Quarantelli, E. L., "Converting Disaster Scholarship into Effective Disaster Planning and Managing: Possibilities and Limitations," Vol. 11, No. 1 (March 1993): 15-39.

This article focuses on what can and cannot be done in taking research findings and applying them to obtain better disaster planning and managing. Five general themes are discussed. (1) Social science disaster research is of substantial value even though much of it does not fit the classic scientific research model. We illustrate this by noting the conceptual, instrumental, and symbolic uses of research findings. (2) The application of research results is partly dependent on which disaster problem is being focused on. This is because there are different groups and activities involved in the mitigation, preparedness, response, and recovery phases or stages of disasters. (3) There is a basic difference between planning for a crisis and managing it. Research and research use will differ depending on whether the strategies of planning or the tactics of managing are being addressed. (4) Research has an often overlooked function, that is, of forecasting the future. Research which is too oriented to past disasters may not have much value for application to future disasters. (5) There often is an inherent and built-in divergence of goals and interests, or gaps, between researchers and research users. The difference not only has to be recognized as a legitimate one, but it implies the need for the development of a professional social role that will bridge the gap. (AA)

Quarantelli, E. L., "Disaster Studies: The Consequences of the Historical Use of a Sociological Approach in the Development of Research," Vol. 12, No. 1 (March 1994): 25-49.

An earlier article discussing the initial days of disaster studies noted that the roots of the area in the applied concerns of research funders led to a pattern of how research was done and what was studied that still prevails today. However, this paper stresses that a certain sociological orientation and particular sociological ideas implicitly came to permeate much of the early work and many of the observations and findings made. We also indicate that the research approach, initiated with a mixture of applied concerns and basic sociological questions, has had up to now primarily functional consequences on the development of the field of the study of disasters. But the paper concludes with a statement that the field currently needs a fundamental re-conceptualization of disaster. It is argued that the impetus for that is more likely to come out of a questioning of basic ideas as well as the growing internationalization of disaster studies than from practical concerns. (AA)

Quarantelli, E. L., "Editor’s Introduction: What Is A Disaster?" Vol. 13, No. 3 (November 1995): 221-229.

We discuss earlier observations and meetings which led us to propose that a special issue of the journal be published on theoretical aspects of disasters, especially on how the term "disaster" ought to be conceptualize. Our basic position is the field cannot develop well as a research enterprise unless there is a greater clarity and more consensus about the central concept in the field. We particularly note that there are both old and new classification problems that need to be addressed in asking: What is a disaster? (AA)

Quarantelli, E. L., "Epilogue," Vol. 13, No. 3 (November 1995): 361-364.

[Ed.: Summing up and final thoughts on the five papers by Dombrowsky, Gilbert, Horlick-Jones, Kreps, and Profiriev, the reaction paper by Hewitt, and the responses to it by the same five authors in Vol. 13, No. 3 (November 1995).]

Quarantelli, E. L., "The Disaster Research Center Field Studies of Organized Behavior in the Crisis Time Period of Disasters," Vol. 15, No. 1 (March 1997): 47-69.

Between its formation in 1963 and until 1989, the Disaster Research Center (DRC) conducted more than 450 field studies of community crises, the great bulk of them involving natural or technological disaster agents. The major focus was on organized behavior whether in formal organizations or informal and emergent groups, and usually about the social entities involved in the preparedness and response activities in the crisis. After noting the background context within which the center operated, this paper summarizes the general methodological approach taken in the work. It depicts the substantial attention DRC paid to the prefield training that was given to the graduate students who did most of the field work. Also described are the in-field procedures followed, particularly the open-ended type of interviewing conducted, the kinds of participant observations made, and the systematic document collecting that was done. Finally, we note certain postfield procedures systematized by the center to measure the quantity and to insure the quality of the data gathered. (AA)

Quarantelli, E. L. and Örjan Hultåker, "An Editorial Note [introducing the special issue on Disaster Research in Japan]," Vol. 3, No. 1 (March 1985): 5.

We are happy to have in this special issue a series of articles from Japanese researchers in the disaster area. While some of the work undertaken in Japan has recently become somewhat known outside of the country through informal contacts between Japanese and researchers elsewhere, this volme represents the first systematic presentation in English of a sampling of the sociobehavioral studies which have been undertaken in that country. A nearly complete inventory of Japanese research in the area up to about 1980 is presented in Yasumasa Yamamoto and E. L. Quarantelli, "Inventory of the Japanese Disaster Research Literature in the Social and Behavioral Sciences," Book and Monograph Series No 19. Newark, Delaware: Disaster Research Center, University of Delaware, 1984. This issue of the journal cites a number of more recent studies. We should also note that in many of the original manuscripts for this issue, the authors provided numerous charts, tables, graphs, and maps. However, due to cost considerations, most such material had to be left out of the final printed versions. We regret this, but the economics of the matter left no choice. We are certain that the authors of the different articles would be happy to provide interested readers with such additional details from their manuscripts which had to be left out in the published versions of the papers. (AA)

Ramirez, Aleyda, see Paolisso, Michael, Amanda Ritchie, and Aleyda Ramirez.

Ramirez, Marizen, Megumi Kano, Linda B. Bourque, and Kimberley I. Shoaf, "Household Factors Associated with Fatal and Non-Fatal Pediatric Injury during the 1999 Kocaeli Earthquake," Vol. 23, No. 2 (August 2005): 129–147.

Children are vulnerable to injury during earthquakes, but little epidemiologic research has been conducted to understand risk patterns. The purpose of the study is to understand child and household factors that increased risk of injury during the 1999 Kocaeli earthquake. A survey of households was conducted in Gölcük, Kocaeli, 19-21 months after the earthquake. Data were extracted on children under 20 years of age. Variables included child demographics, household size, disposition of adults in the household, family preparedness, and residential building characteristics. Descriptive analyses and regression modeling were conducted. Of 615 children present during the earthquake, 38 suffered non-fatal injuries while 22 were fatally injured. Calculations of adjusted odds ratios showed that the gender and age of the child, household size, adult household members’ injury status, and extent of damage to household residence were associated with relatively higher risks of non-fatal injury to a child during the 1999 Kocaeli earthquake. (AA)

Rayburn, Monroe, see Wetzel, Christopher G., Edward Hettinger, Robert McMillan, Monroe Rayburn, and Andrew Nix.

Reeves, Patsilu, see Blinn-Pike, Lynn, Brenda Phillips, and Patsilu Reeves.

Richardson, Brian K., “The Phases of Disaster as a Relationship Between Structure and Meaning: A Narrative Analysis of the 1947 Texas City Explosion,” Vol. 23, No. 3 (November 2005): 27–54.

Developing disaster phase models has been useful, particularly for understanding response efforts to emergencies and disasters. However, such models are limited in their ability to explain the phases encountered by a social collective, or community, as it progresses through response and recovery efforts. This study examined phases of disaster response and recovery as a sociological problem. A grounded-theory analysis was used to examine 60 personal narratives of the 1947 Texas City explosion, which is an example of a cosmology episode. Survivors of the explosion provided narrative accounts describing their memories of the incident. Results support the idea that social collectives depend upon a transactional relationship between structure and meaning to make sense of events. The study develops a phase model depicting four phases experienced by the Texas City community prior to, during, and after the disaster. This study reveals contributions gained through analysis of personal narratives to illuminate the relationship between disaster and human activity. (AA)

Riley, Larry, see Farley, John E., Hugh D. Barlow, Marvin S. Finkelstein, and Larry Riley.

Ritchie, Amanda, see Paolisso, Michael, Amanda Ritchie, and Aleyda Ramirez.

Rivers, Jennifer, see Wray, Ricardo, Jennifer Rivers, Amanda Whitworth, Keri Jupka, and Bruce Clements.

Robbins, John R., "Burning Issue—The Politicization of a Bushfire," Vol. 8, No. 3 (November 1990): 325-340.

The Stirling bushfire of 1980 produced the first substantial claim for disaster liability against a South Australian local authority. In the absence of precedent and clear rules of process, this developed into a long and costly legal battle lasting nine years and then developed into a political conflict between the Council and the ruling Labor State government. The community is riven by discord about the terms of settlement. A positive outcome has been the establishment of a local Government Association Mutual Liability Scheme which indicates the possibility of local government collaboration as an alternative to a state-local relationship with its concomitant conflict. (AA)

Roberts, J. Timmons and Moona Em, "Fear at Work, Fear at Home: Surveying the New Geography of Dread in America Post 9/11," Vol. 21, No. 3 (November 2003): 41-55.

We set out to gauge how many workers in the United States felt their jobs were made more dangerous by the terrorist attacks of Fall 2001 and how they were coping with those fears. Dangerous and unhealthy jobs have long been the lot of less educated and poorer workers, but after 9/11 we believed new types of jobs might feel unsafe. We also wanted to know if recent security measures and precautions in workplaces had succeeded in reducing levels of fear. For the broader U.S. population we sought to map some of the main features in the new geography of fear. We conducted a random telephone survey of 399 U.S. residents in March 2002. The study revealed that one in four workers believed their work became more dangerous after 9/11 and that one in three felt their work had become more stressful. The range of occupations and income levels in these groups suggests that 9/11 may have shifted risk up in the stratification system to what were previously considered "clean and safe" white-collar jobs. Compared to other workers, those who believed their jobs became more dangerous after 9/11 significantly more often reported "trying not to think about terrorist attacks" and turning more to their religion. When asked how they coped with new fears, a majority of both groups reported showing their patriotism with flags and talking to others about it. Of all U.S. residents, nearly half (48 percent) believed their area was a likely target for future terrorist attacks. This varied by region of the country. Large numbers reported concern over being in cities, near military facilities, and near nuclear plants or recreation facilities with large numbers of people. Younger Americans were more afraid than those over 65. (AA)

Robinson, Courtland, see Doocy, Shannon, Courtland Robinson, and Gilbert Burnham

Rochford, E. Burke, Jr., see Blocker, T. Jean, E. Burke Rochford, Jr., and Darren F. Sherkat.

Roenigk, Dale J., "Federal Disaster Relief and Local Government Financial Condition," Vol. 11, No. 2 (August 1993): 207-225.

Federal relief for local governments following natural disasters is provided under the assumption that without aid disasters might overwhelm local resources thus slowing recovery. Using loss data for a sample of counties experiencing disasters in the mid-1980s, this paper provides evidence that changes in the financial condition of local governments was not improved by receiving federal aid. Additionally, the paper shows that the initial financial impacts of disasters may be negative, but that within two years the net effect is positive. (AA)

Rogers, George O., "Aspects of Risk Communication in Two Cultures," Vol. 10, No. 3 (November 1992): 437-464.

When people from two distinct cultures attempt to communicate, they often fail to share the fundamental foundation upon which to establish meaningful two-way communication (e.g., language and belief). Risk communication under such circumstances demands special attention and extra effort on the part of people from both cultures to understand and appreciate the risks from a comprehensive perspective that accommodates both sets of interests. This paper examines the communication about risk between the U.S. Army and the native Polynesian cultures in the Pacific Ocean. Specifically, the article analyzes the written record of the proceedings to comply with the National Environmental Policy Act of 1969 that led up to the shipment of the European Stockpile of unitary chemical weapons to Johnston Atoll that was completed in November 1990. The analysis indicates that while both the native cultures and the Army spoke the same language, the U.S. Army and the native cultures failed to communicate about the risks associated with the movement and destruction of weapons. They failed to establish risk communication dialogue, and never established a common framework for effective risk communication. The people involved from all groups did not establish a shared meaning, and no dialogue was established to clarify meaning as misunderstandings occurred. This condition contributed to increased distrust and undermined the credibility of both perspectives. (AA)

Rosenthal, Uriel, "Collective Behavior Research in The Netherlands: From Residual to Partnership," Vol. 4, No. 2 (August 1986): 91-115.

Till recently, the study of collective behavior did not pose as a distinct field in Dutch social science. During the era of pillarization and consociational democracy (1917-1967), the main thrust of social and political research involved organizational factors in social and political life rather than the irregular dynamics of panics, crazes, and hostile outbursts. Non-institutional, unscheduled phenomena were not in vogue among opinion leaders and social scientists alike. In the mid-sixties social and political life underwent drastic changes. Riots, demonstrations, and other kinds of turmoil became popular themes for discussion, partisan analysis, and, only gradually, serious research. Few students of collective behavior were able to present an interesting theoretical or conceptual perspective, most of them sticking to Smelser and Gurr. The late seventies and eighties have seen the rise of research in the so-called new social movements: groups and groupings that have settled outside the neo-corporatist system. Neither Smelser nor Gurr are still the top-dogs. McCarthy and Zald’s resource mobilization and Tilly’s structural approach have become embraced as the more promising perspective. New social movements have turned out to be a recalcitrant object of research. For solid pieces of research one should rather pay attention to new attempts to get a theoretical and empirical grip on the functioning of long-established movements. The theoretical re-orientation towards questions concerning the strategies, costs and benefits, and effectiveness of collective behavior has invited Dutch scholars to take more interest in examining the political and governmental context of collective behavior. A growing number of studies on decision-making presents collective behavior as one amidst many other competing explanatory factors. Collective behavior is about to lose its self-contained status. It becomes part of a context of both input and output factors, the latter including the "old enemy" of collective behavior: the authorities and governmental bureaucracies. It may go all the way from a residual category to a fully recognized dimension of social and political process. (AA)

Rosenthal, Uriel, "Studies in Holland Flood Disaster 1953: An Essay on the Proto-Sociology of Disaster," Vol. 6, No. 3 (November 1988): 233-251.

It appears to be just one of those typical specimens of disaster folklore that the first plane to fly over the flooded area of the southwestern part of the Netherlands in February 1953 was a U.S. aircraft with a group of eager disaster researchers aboard. There is more truth to the fact that the flood of February 1953 led to a remarkable U.S.-sponsored effort to undertake an extensive research project, resulting in the four volume Studies in Holland Flood Disaster 1953. Since 1955, the Studies in Holland Flood Disaster 1953 stand as the most important Dutch contribution to the international disaster literature. (Introduction)

Rossi, Peter H., James D. Wright, Eleanor Weber-Burdin, and Joseph Pereira, "Victimization by Natural Hazards in the United States, 1970-1980: Survey Estimates," Vol. 1, No. 3 (November 1983): 467-482.

Estimates of average annual damages and personal injuries over the period 1970-1980 to households in the United States from each of five hazards—household fires, floods, tornadoes, hurricanes and earthquakes—are derived from national sample surveys. The annual incidence rate for the four natural hazards combined is 18.7 per 1,000 households, or approximately 1.5 million households annually experiencing one or more incidents of floods, hurricanes, tornadoes or earthquakes. Average annual damages from the same hazards reported by the households amount to U.S. $6.1 billion (in 1980 dollars). Analyses of aid received in the forms of insurance payments, gifts, grants and loans show that floods present the most serious problems to households when experienced, not only causing more damage but also more likely not to be covered by insurance and more likely to lead the household into enlarging its debt burden. No substantively significant biases were found in the distribution of aid to households afflicted by natural hazards. (AA)

Rossman, Edwin J., "Public Involvement in Environmental Restoration: Disaster Research and Sociological Practice in Superfund Community Relations Plans," Vol. 11, No. 1 (March 1993): 123-133.

This paper explores the use of disaster and community research literature regarding public involvement planning for environmental restoration. Specifically, this paper is based upon the author’s direct involvement in planning associated with technological hazards. First, the paper reviews the general political and regulatory background associated with public involvement in a specific environmental restoration program. Second, it illustrates how the research literature helps focus environmental restoration upon its social context. In addition, methodological issues in public involvement planning are also addressed. (AA)

Ruberg, George E. and John F. Keeling III, "Structured Meeting Techniques that Identify Emergency Management Issues Practitioners Really Want to See Addressed," Vol. 11, No. 1 (March 1993): 75-84.

This paper introduces three structured meeting techniques that can be used to determine emergency management (EM) issues practitioners really want to see addressed. The secondary purpose is to list the benefits of using these techniques and provide recommendations for research based on three applications of the techniques. (AA)

Rubin, Claire B., "The Community Recovery Press in the United States after a Major Natural Disaster," Vol. 3, No. 2 (August 1985): 9-28.

After studying first-hand how 14 U.S. communities recovered from a major natural disaster, an organizing framework recovery process was developed. That framework depicts the dynamic processes that contribute to an efficient local recovery, including the key elements of recovery and the relationships among those factors. The three key elements are personal leadership, ability to act, and knowledge of what to do. Of paramount importance to an expeditious recovery is effective intergovernmental relations. In those communities where the speed and quality of recovery was greater, local officials had found ways to (a) ensure more productive intergovernmental relationships, (b) compete effectively for scarce resources, and (c) better manage community-level decision-making during the post-disaster period. (AA)

Ruch, Carlton, "Human Response to Vertical Shelters: An Experimental Note," Vol. 2, No. 3 (November 1984): 389-401.

As both coastal population and coastal evacuation times increase, there is a need to consider the vertical evacuation option. This research examines the changes a "vertical shelter" option might introduce in decisions to evacuate. It focuses on two possible human behavior problems associated with the use of "vertical shelters." Problem one is whether the existence of a "vertical shelter" option will inhibit large numbers of people from evacuating horizontally. Problem two is whether the existence of a "vertical shelter" option will encourage people to delay their decisions to evacuate outside the threatened area. In order to address these problems two experiments were conducted in Galveston, Texas USA. In each experiment the sample was divided into a control and experimental group. All participants were shown videotapes of Hurricane Alicia. They were then requested to select response options based on written hurricane advisories. Only the experimental group had vertical evacuation as one of the response options. The second experiment also examined the effect of the Galveston Seawall on the responses. The results of these experiments provide no statistically significant evidence that for the participants the presence of a "vertical shelter" would delay or inhibit them from evacuating horizontally. However, because of the small sample, only large differences could have been detected. (AA)

Rucks, Andrew C., see Ginter, Peter M., W. Jack Duncan, Lisa C. McCormick, Andrew C. Rucks, Martha S. Wingate, and Maziar Abdolrasulnia.

Russell, Lisa A., see Goltz, James D., Lisa A. Russell, and Linda B. Bourque.

Saenz, Rogelio, see Aguirre, B. E., Rogelio Saenz, John Edmiston, Nan Yang, Dietra Stuart, and Elsa Agramonte.

Salwen, Michael B., see Driscoll, Paul and Michael B. Salwen.

Sanderson, William G., Jr., see Hwang, Seong Nam, William G. Sanderson, Jr., and Michael K. Lindell.

Sanderson, William G., Jr., see Lindell, Michael K., William G. Sanderson, Jr., and Seong Nam Hwang.

Sarmiento Prieto, Juan Pablo, see Olson, Richard Stuart, and Juan Pablo Sarmiento Pieto.

Sattler, David N., and Amanda L. Marshall, "Hurricane Preparedness: Improving Television Hurricane Watch and Warning Graphics," Vol. 20, No. 1 (March 2002): 41-49.

This paper examines the effectiveness of hurricane watch and warning graphics currently used by television stations during a hurricane threat and new, enhanced graphics developed by the first author. The participants were 378 persons (91 men, 287 women) in Charleston, South Carolina—an area that has had recent and repeated experience with hurricane threats. The hypothesis that participants viewing the enhanced graphics would have a better understanding of the time-frame associated with hurricane watch and warning advisories and of the actions to take, and would perceive the situation more seriously compared to those viewing the currently used graphics was supported. The new graphics may help increase preparedness and minimize property loss and exposure to life threat. (AA)

Scanlon, T. Joseph, "Winners and Losers: Some Thoughts about the Political Economy of Disaster," Vol. 6, No. 1 (March 1988): 47-63.

While it is obvious disasters are negative events causing injury and death, damage, and destruction, macro-economic studies show little long-term economic effects from disaster. That is because disasters create both losers and winners, and these balance out. Who loses and who wins is not random but a result of public policy decisions. The losers include individuals who are injured, lose their jobs, lose their home, and families who lose a wage earner or a place of residence. The winners include individuals who earn extra money because they are involved in emergency response or restoration. They include wage earners and their families. They include some businesses, not others. They include communities which, because of substantial assistance, end up better off because of the disaster. Winners and losers are created by decisions about where to build a dam, who should receive what sort of assistance. This article is not based on new research but on an analysis of existing material. More research needs to be done on the economic effects on individuals and businesses and on communities and of the economic impact of policy decisions. (AA)

Scanlon, T. Joseph, "Disaster’s Little Known Pioneer: Canada’s Samuel Henry Prince," Vol. 6, No. 3 (November 1988): 213-232.

December 6, 1917, Halifax, Nova Scotia, Canada, was hit by an explosion so devastating it was later studied by those developing the atomic bomb. A French munitions ship, the Mont Blanc, en route to Europe from New York, blew up after a collision in the inner harbor. The blast killed 1,963 and injured 9,000, 22 percent of the city’s population. Samuel Henry Prince began a Ph.D. in Sociology at Columbia University. A professor, F. H. Giddings, suggested he use the Halifax explosion as the basis for a thesis. The result was Catastrophe and Social Change (1920), the first systematic study of disaster. Prince’s pioneer status is often reported, but little has been written about him. (Introduction)

Scanlon, T. Joseph, "The Role of EOCs in Emergency Management: A Comparison of Canadian and American Experience," Vol. 12, No. 1 (March 1994): 51-75.

The literature on emergency management is full of praise for Emergency Operations Centers (EOCs), yet it contains little actual description of EOCs in operation. When Henry Quarantelli (1987) examined actual EOCs, he, too, found them valuable. But he also identified problems: the EOC is in the impact area, forcing it to relocate when disaster strikes; access to the EOC is so badly controlled it becomes cramped and crowded, which may lead to decisions being made by a small group separately; membership changes constantly, making it difficult to establish continuity in decision-making; it isn’t clear, at many incidents, who was managing the EOC itself. Finally, when an EOC is established, it does not necessarily work as a unit. Quarantelli was using American research. This article uses 19 Canadian incidents to see whether disaster experience in another country would support Quarantelli. The article reports precisely the same problems. It also reports—as did Quarantelli—that EOCs are effective. Finally, it says their use in Canada is growing. (AA)

Scanlon, T. Joseph, "Changing a Corporate Culture: Managing Risk on the London Underground," Vol. 14, No. 2 (August 1996): 175-194.

Although the London Underground has had various types of emergencies since it was constructed more than 125 years ago, it had dealt with them piecemeal. Despite the fact that it transports 2.2 million persons per day, a number which is rising steadily, the Underground act as if major incidents—especially accidents or fires—were the result of human error or were simply unavoidable. After it was severely criticized when 31 persons died at a fire at King’s Cross, however, the Underground put together a comprehensive system of emergency management. It includes an internal Emergency Response Unit, staff training, and public information. This unit has won acceptance internally and has improved Underground’s status with outside emergency agencies. Despite the success in changing its internal emergency culture, Underground’s managers are still considering all aspects of risk when they make decisions such as the one to buy rather than make power. (AA)

Scanlon, T. Joseph, "Not on the Record: Disasters, Records, and Disaster Research," Vol. 14, No. 3 (November 1996): 265-280.

It is conventional wisdom that record-keeping falls apart in disasters. Yet that is not documented in the research record. Drabek’s (1986) exhaustive review of empirical studies has no reference to records. Quarantelli’s (1983) work focused on a narrow subset of records: medical records in mass casualty situations. There are, in fact, problems with records in disasters. Some records which would be useful have never been made. Others are lost or damaged, inadequate, or inaccurate. Even backups may not be available. There is also a problem with toxicity. The increasing links between humans and toxic events raise issues about the safety of records after an incident. This paper explores the types of records that would be useful to have about disasters and looks at how they should, or could, be created. Attention is also given to the question of records research strategies, as a means for—among other things—tapping the knowledge of disaster research pioneers before their information is lost. (AA)

Scanlon, T. Joseph, "Rewriting a Living Legend: Researching the 1917 Halifax Explosion," Vol. 15, No. 1 (March 1997): 147-178.

At the 1994 World Congress of Sociology in Bielefeld (Germany), Henry Quarantelli suggested that sociologists studying disasters ought to pay more attention to documents and to historical research. Research done on Canada’s worst catastrophe, the 1917 Halifax, Nova Scotia, munitions ship explosion—1,963 dead, 9,000 injured—shows that there can be scores of documents available about such incidents. These include media accounts, articles in academic journals and professional publications, and books, both non-fiction and fiction, inspired by personal experience. There are also archival records. Material on the Halifax explosion was found in Boston, Washington, D.C., Paris, London, and Oslo as well as in Canadian centers at Charlottetown, Sydney, Truro, St. John’s, Ottawa, Toronto, and Halifax. While some documents were easy to locate, others required using contacts and advertising one’s interest. Networking led to new live sources (there are still hundreds of survivors from 1917) and to documents in private hands including diaries and letters. The results provide both new insights into historical events and a test of current theories using historical data. (AA)

Scanlon, T. Joseph, "Presidential Address: Munitions Ships and Meteors: Plus c’est change . . ," Vol. 16, No. 3 (November 1998): 233-245.

Many of those who study disaster began by responding to unexpected events. Other researchers became interested in disaster when they were present at a tragedy or when their communities were impacted. Both approaches to research have their limitations. A historical approach to disaster research can eliminate many of those problems. Though the world is changing, there is little evidence that human and organizational responses to disaster are changing. That explains the title; it suggests that munitions ships and meteors may be less far apart than would appear at first glance. (Edited to create abstract)

Scanlon, T. Joseph, "Introduction [to a special symposium on Drabek’s, Human System Reponses To Disaster]," Vol. 17, No. 2 (August 1999): 207-209.

For more than a decade now, many disaster researchers have thought of Tom Drabek’s book, Human System Responses to Disaster (1986), as the reference book for our field. Because of the importance of Human Systems Responses to Disaster, it seemed to me when I became President of the Research Committee on Disasters that a good way to start the meetings in MontrŽal in 1998 would be to have a number of scholars review the book. It would then be appropriate for the author to react to what the others had to say. As time passes, the importance of the book as a current reference will fade. That will not alter its value, because Drabek has provided our field with a picture of where we stood in terms of published research at a moment in time. In my opinion, Human System Responses to Disaster is a landmark achievement because it provides something all too often lacking in social science research, a baseline measurement from which we can measure progress. (Modified by the Editor)

Scanlon, T. Joseph, "Helping the Other Victims of September 11: Gander Uses Multiple EOCs to Deal With 38 Diverted Flights," Vol. 20, No. 3 (November 2002): 369-398.

On September 11, 2001, after seeing three hijacked jets turned into missiles and a fourth crash in Pennsylvania, the United States ordered all U.S.-registered aircraft to land at the nearest airport and closed its airspace. When the decision was made, hundreds of commercial flights were over the Pacific or Atlantic en route to North America. Some had sufficient fuel to turn back. Most needed a North American airport to take them and that airport had to be in Canada. The Canadian government, its air traffic control system and Canadian airports were presented with a fait accompli. They had to accept hundreds of aircraft knowing-given what happened-that one or more of them might be carrying terrorists or be under terrorist control. Worried about the possibility that some of those jets might attack major Canadian cities, the federal government ordered that these jets land at smaller communities along Canada’s East Coast. Two Canadian cities-Halifax and Vancouver-received the most diverted flights on September 11. But when Gander’s population-10,347-is considered its intake was proportionally far greater. Gander took in 38 flights and 6,600 passengers, a 63 per cent increase in its population, compared to a two per cent increase in Halifax, less than a third of a one per cent increase for Vancouver. This article is about how Gander handled that situation. As will be shown, the community activated a number of emergency operations centers (EOCs)-and each ended up managing one aspect of the response. Though the airport was the key, the result was a coordinated system that ran smoothly without any single agency taking charge. This article describes how that system came about and why it worked; and how Gander avoided problems that often occur with multiple EOCs and emergent groups.

Scanlon, T. Joseph and John Handmer, "The Halifax Explosion and the Port Arthur Massacre: Testing Samuel Henry Prince's Ideas," Vol. 19, No. 2 (August 2001): 181-208.

Samuel Henry Prince wrote that major catastrophes lead to change. Despite his status in the field, there have been few attempts to examine empirically Prince's ideas about change. In this paper the authors describe a massacre in Port Arthur, Tasmania, in 1996 in which a man armed with automatic weapons killed 35 persons and injured 19 others. As a result of the massacre, changes occurred in Australian gun-control laws. The fallout from the massacre is examined in light of Prince's thesis about change following catastrophes.

Schepart, Charles B., see Stallings, Robert A. and Charles B. Schepart.

Schmuck, Hanna, "‘An Act of Allah’: Religious Explanations for Floods in Bangladesh as Survival Strategy," Vol. 18, No. 1 (March 2000): 85-96.

In countries of the so-called Third World, disaster prevention, preparedness, and relief do not have the expected outcome. Even if people are informed and warned about the arrival of a flood, cyclone, or earthquake, they hesitate to take precautions or leave the area. In some cases, they have to be forced to take refuge in the shelters built for this purpose. They seem to be helpless victims accepting their fate. This is especially the case in Bangladesh, a country which is frequently affected by floods, tornadoes, and cyclones. The affected people, mostly Muslim, regard these hazards as an act of Allah. Through the events He is showing His will and power against which they cannot and should not do anything. In the view of aid agencies, this perception and explanation hampers both external as well as indigenous efforts to survive disasters. However, the findings of my research on local perception and strategies to cope with floods reveal this conception to be a healthy reaction, a self-help strategy to overcome crises as quickly as possible and return to daily life. As Allah has given the floods, He will also give believers the strength to survive them. The religious explanation prevents those affected literally wasting time and energy asking why disasters happen to them and not to others. (AA)

Schorr, John K., "Some Contributions German Katastrophensoziologie Can Make to the Sociology of Disaster," Vol. 5, No. 2 (August 1987): 115-135.

The purpose of this article is to discuss some of the contributions the new and relatively undeveloped Katastrophensoziologie has been able to make to the sociology of disaster. The paper begins by reviewing the German criticism of some of the major figures in the sociology of disaster. The second section of the paper presents some of the possible contributions to be found in recent work within Katastrophensoziologie. Finally, the conclusion of the paper points to the scientific value of an international dialogue between scholars with different perspectives on the problem of disaster in societies. (AA)

Schorr, John K., see Dombrowsky, Wolf R., and John K. Schorr.

Schorr, John, see Goldsteen, Raymond L., John Schorr, and Karen S. Goldsteen.

Seydlitz, Ruth J., William Spencer, Shirley Laska, and Elizabeth Triche. "The Effects of Newspaper Reports on the Public’s Response to a Natural Hazard Event," Vol. 9, No. 1 (March 1991): 5-29.

The literature on environmental hazards suggests that media reports constitute a major source of information upon which people base their responses. However, the effect of media reports on responses is neither direct nor simple. Variables such as prior experience, the responses of others, selectivity in attention, and various characteristics of the content of media reports interact to influence responses. On the basis of the extant literature on media and hazards, we construct a model of the effect of media reports on the public’s response to a natural hazard event. We test various hypotheses derived from this model by examining a salt water intrusion in the Mississippi River that affected drinking water in the New Orleans metropolitan area in the summer of 1988. Using time series analysis, we examine the effect of various characteristics of local newspaper stories on bottled water sales throughout the intrusion period. The results suggest that in the absence of personal experience, people are more likely to respond to media reports regardless of personal relevance or seriousness of the consequences of the hazard events reported by the media. When people possess personal experience, they are more selective in their attention and response to media reports. The results also suggest that people used media reports of others’ behaviors as cues to appropriate responses. We discuss the conceptual and methodological implications of these results for future research. (AA)

Seydlitz, Ruth, J. William Spencer, and George Lundskow, "Media Presentations of a Hazard Event and the Public’s Response: An Empirical Examination," Vol. 12, No. 3 (November 1994): 279-301.

Very few studies in the area of media reports of hazards and disasters empirically examine the effect of specific characteristics of media portrayals of these situations on responses by the public and even fewer compare these effects across media. Based on the literature, we derive hypotheses concerning the effect of degree of threat and personal relevance on responses to a hazard event that threatened the water supply of the Greater New Orleans area in the summer of 1988. Using time series analysis to examine all phases of the hazard event, we find that degree of threat significantly influences only one type of response—purchasing bottled water—and only when the threatening information comes from television reports. Personal relevance impacts both purchasing bottled water and calling a bottled water company, regardless of medium (television or newspaper). We discuss the conceptual and methodological implications of these results for future research. (AA)

Seitz, Steven Thomas and Morris Davis, "The Political Matrix of Natural Disasters: Africa and the United States," Vol. 2, No. 2 (August 1984): 231-250.

Scarce resources often force governments to make difficult choices in the authoritative allocation of values. Such value decisions are particularly acute in developing countries, where need and demand far exceed government wherewithal. Major structural and political factors, which help explain the response adequacy of developed and developing nations, shed little light on the comparative performance of developing regimes alone. To aid in understanding these latter differences, this article identified three patterns of authoritative allocation found among the developing countries of Africa and Latin America: ethnic pluralism, corporatism, and egalitarianism. These patterns, in turn, help account for observed variation within developing countries of average number killed, average amount of damage, and average number of victims within the disaster categories of earthquake, flood, epidemic, drought, and storm. (AA)

Shain, Russ, see Shipman, Marlin, Gil Fowler, and Russ Shain.

Shamgar-Handelman, Lea, "The Social Status of War Widows," Vol. 1, No. 1 (March 1983): 153-169.

The paper deals with changes in the place of families in society due to the long-term effect of disaster on the family. It draws on interviews with Israeli war widows, faced with erosion in the status formerly accorded them through their late husband. Three alternative methods used by the widows to create a substitute status to halt this decline are described. None of them succeeded in preventing erosion in the status of the widow and her family. Over time, the place of the family within the various social groups and categories to which it had belonged was lost, due to the weakened position of the widow in her social network. The centrifugal process, which pushes families affected by disaster to the margin of society, creates vacancies in different social groups and categories throughout society. Quantitatively large changes of this sort might result in significant qualitative changes in the composition of those groups and categories. (AA)

Shaw, Mary Margaret, "Group Flood Insurance Program and Flood Insurance Purchase Decisions," Vol. 22, No. 2 (August 2004): 59-75.

This article describes a research project focusing on flood insurance purchase decisions of low-income residents of eastern North Carolina who are obliged to purchase an NFIP flood insurance policy as a result of having accepted a disaster assistance grant following Hurricane Floyd. A survey was sent to a random sample of these disaster assistance recipients, and results show that, despite the obligation, as many as 41 percent do not purchase flood insurance. People say that they do not purchase flood insurance because they cannot afford it. The only significant predictor of flood insurance purchase for this population is the purchase of homeowner insurance.   (AA)

Shaw, Rajib, see Nakagawa, Yuko and Rajib Shaw.

Shefner, Jon, "Pre- and Post-Disaster Political Instability and Contentious Supporters: A Case Study of Political Ferment," Vol. 17, No. 2 (August 1999): 137-160.

Recent statistical confirmation of the link between disasters and political instability has increased interest in exactly how disasters impact political regimes. This case study of the 1992 Guadalajara sewer explosions contributes to this discussion by analyzing political and economic pressures which predisposed a militant response to the 1992 disaster. A new set of political activists aided the disaster victims in their political struggle by contributing resources and by helping to construct the disaster as a political event. (AA)

Shelton, R. E., "Emergencies and Rationality: The Case of Three Mile Island, " Vol. 2, No. 1 (March 1984): 41-60.

The accident at the Three Mile Island nuclear power plant is analyzed from the perspective of rationality theory. Contrary to the popular view that operator errors are inexplicable, the concept of practical rationality reveals the subjective meaning of the operators’ actions. It is argued that rationality is a valuable notion for the practical management of emergencies and man-made disasters, and that rationality is an essential element in the development of a sociology of disasters. (AA)

Sherkat, Darren F., see Blocker, T. Jean, E. Burke Rochford, Jr., and Darren F. Sherkat.

Shetler, Jody C., see Browning, Larry D. and Jody C. Shetler.

Shibuya, Takao, see Isumi, Masanori, Noriaki Nomura, and Takao Shibuya.

Shipman, Marlin, Gil Fowler, and Russ Shain, "Whose Fault Was It?: An Analysis of Newspaper Coverage of Iben Browning’s New Madrid Fault Earthquake Prediction," Vol. 11, No. 3 (November 1993): 379-389.

A study of three newspapers that primarily serve the New Madrid Fault area shows that the press and public officials probably share the blame for public panic surrounding the 1990 Iben Browning earthquake prediction. The press failed to report soon enough scientists’ views that refuted Browning’s prediction, and some public officials used mass media to promote earthquake awareness even though the tactics fed public misperceptions about the likelihood of Browning’s prediction coming to pass. (AA)

Shiobara, Tsutomu and Shinji Katagiri, "The Sociology of Social Movements in Japan," Vol. 4, No. 2 (August 1986): 39-59.

The sociology of social movements in Japan has recently been expanding. The field has been revitalized by the introduction, mostly by the younger generation, of the resource mobilization model. The situation is parallel to that in the United States. However, Japan and the United States have differences in their respective histories of social movements and in the research done on the phenomenon. A proper understanding of the current state of the sociology of social movements in Japan and its prospects for the future is impossible if these differences are ignored. This paper attempts to describe the actual changes in the conditions of society affecting movements, and to place the study of movements within that perspective. In other words, the analysis of the study of social movements in Japan undertaken here is also a kind of exercise in the sociology of knowledge. (AA)

Shoaf, Kimberley I., see Bourque, Linda B., Kimberley I. Shoaf, and Loc H. Nguyen.

Shoaf, Kimberley I., see Ramirez, Marizen, Megumi Kano, Linda B. Bourque, and Kimberley I. Shoaf.

Shoaf, Kimberley I., see Siegel, Judith M., Linda B. Bourque, and Kimberley I. Shoaf.

Short, James F., Jr., "On Defining, Describing and Explaining Elephants (and Reactions to Them): Hazards, Disasters, and Risk Analysis," Vol. 7, No. 3 (November 1989): 397-418.

Analogs to the parable of the blind men and the elephant have long been a staple of social and behavioral science theorizing. In this special issue, Kreps takes a bold step aimed at a more focussed effort by social scientists who study a most peculiar "elephant"—hazards and disasters related to them. The success of his efforts to abstract general features and processes of social structure from empirical materials concerning disasters attests to the theoretical sophistication he brings to the task. I understand my task to be that of a sociological generalist appraising the debate here joined by Kreps and others. Specifically, I wish to relate issues in that debate to the broader field of risk analysis, and in fact to still broader issues of scientific and legal concern. The task lends itself to any number of approaches: analysis of basic versus applied scientific endeavor, or to comparisons of methodological and theoretical orientations, professional and/or subject matter concerns. As I have read and read again the papers in this issue, none of these lines of inquiry appeals. The basic versus applied research distinction, while certainly relevant to disaster studies, can only yield the conclusion that both are important and that disasters are important research sites for both. The social and behavioral science disciplines and methods that are relevant to disaster studies are so varied and interdependent that discussion of the relevance of particular disciplines or methods seems anachronistic. The usefulness of a theoretical orientation depends chiefly, I shall argue, on problem focus; that is to say, on the types of questions asked about disasters, or any other subject matter. (Edited Author Introduction)

Showalter, Pamela Sands, "Prognostication of Doom: An Earthquake Prediction’s Effect on Four Small Communities," Vol. 11, No. 3 (November 1993): 279-292.

This paper explores public reaction to pseudoscientific earthquake prediction for the New Madrid Seismic Zone (NMSZ) that achieved wide dissemination between 1989-1990. The prediction originated with Iben Browning, holder of a Ph.D. in zoology, a business consultant, and a self-described climatologist (he had no formal training in the field). Browning claimed that conditions on or around December 3, 1990, would be "ripe" for a sizable earthquake in the NMSZ (as well as other areas around the world). Media attention to the prediction was extensive and accelerated as December 3 neared. Because geologists had already published their believes that the NMSZ had a high probability of experiencing an earthquake in excess of Richter magnitude 6.0 between 1985-2045, it was important to measure the effect Browning’s prediction was having on the public’s preparation activities as well as on public understanding of the earthquake threat in the region. Because other researchers were studying larger population centers in the area, this study performed two mail surveys of four small communities in or near the periphery of the NMSZ. Results indicate the high concern levels were generally maintained six months following December 1990. If those concerns are used as a catalyst for continuing mitigation behaviors, the Browning prediction may have benefited the region. In addition, most respondents indicated that because of the prediction they felt more aware of the earthquake threat and more prepared for future earthquakes. Finally, regardless of whether an earthquake occurred on December 3, respondents indicated that they would still not only want to hear about future predictions, but that they would not necessarily be more skeptical of such predictions in the future. (AA)

Shrivastava, Paul, "Preventing Industrial Crises: The Challenges of Bhopal," Vol. 5, No. 3 (November 1987): 199-221.

This article analyses the larger policy issues raised by the Bhopal disaster. The concept of industrial crisis is used as the analytical tool for understanding Bhopal type events. Industrial crisis refers to dysfunctional effects of industrial activities that cause large scale damage (or perception of large scale damage) to human life and the natural environment. They also put the public at risk of large damage and lead to major social and economic disruptions. Bhopal was the quintessential industrial crisis of this century. Industrial crises involve three primary stakeholders—governments, corporations and communities. It is argued that joint actions by stakeholders are necessary to prevent industrial crises. Policy issues that each stakeholder must address are examined. (AA)

Shrivastava, Paul, "A Cultural Analysis of Conflicts in Industrial Disaster," Vol. 5, No. 3 (November 1987): 243-264.

Industrial disasters create occasions for the eruption of multiple conflicts among stakeholders. Victims’ perspective on these conflicts has received little research attention in the past. Understanding these conflicts can lead to insights into the political nature of such disasters, and aid in developing more humane responses to them. This paper provides a cultural analysis of social conflicts that emerged in the Bhopal tragedy. It examines victims’ subjective understanding of the tragedy and associated conflicts by analyzing a demonstration march by them. Victims’ understanding of conflicts is significantly different from that of the government that supposedly represents them. This finding has important policy implications, and warrants further research on conflicts in industrial disasters. (AA)

Shrivastava, Paul, Danny Miller, and Anil Miglani, "The Evolution of Crises: Crisis Precursors," Vol. 9, No. 3 (November 1991): 321-337.

Industrial crises, or organizationally based technological disasters that cause major harm to human life and/or the natural environment, may be triggered by industrial accidents, environmental pollution incidents, product injuries, or occupational hazards. While past explanations of crisis causes focusing on technological organizational and interorganizational failures, as well as simultaneous failures of technological organizational and societal systems provide us with a good understanding of immediate causes of events that trigger crises, the authors point out that we still lack an understanding of how preconditions for crises arise. Arguing that the precursor conditions of industrial crises are rooted in the historical development of organizations, and interactions between organizations and their environments, the authors attempt to determine why these precursors arise. Using an analysis of data on the Bhopal and the Three Mile Island crises, they trace the evolution of crisis precursor conditions, and present the patterns and logics of change in organizational and environmental variables observed in the two cases studied. (AA)

Siegel, Gilbert B., "The State of Seismic Mitigation Management in U.S. Pacific Basin Seaports and Harbors," Vol. 7, No. 2 (August 1989): 168-182.

Analysis of three sources of information (a survey of seaport officials, an analysis of expert opinion, and a case study) on seismic mitigation management in U.S. Pacific Basin seaports revealed the following seven general conclusions. There is little evidence of risk analysis having been conducted for ports. There is need for extensive evaluation of sites and mitigation technology Older ports and facilities are most vulnerable to seismic events and, for the most part, have not been retrofitted to present day standards. Some form of geotechnical studies usually precede construction of newer facilities. Virtually all examples of technological innovations encountered were for new facilities. Local government building codes are relied upon as the primary source of seismic standards. The latter do not provide standards for many requirements of seaports. Risk avoidance through insurance is not extensively practiced by ports. There is need for public policy: to create incentives for evaluation and mitigation of hazards in vulnerable areas; to develop uniform guidelines for minimum mitigation criteria; to clarify legal responsibility and liability for damage; to establish enforcement agencies for seismic safety; and to promulgate conditions governing intergovernmental transfers of funds for mitigation, recovery, etc. (AA)

Siegel, Judith M., Linda B. Bourque, and Kimberley I. Shoaf, "Victimization after a Natural Disaster: Social Disorganization or Community Cohesion?", Vol. 17, No. 3 (November 1999): 265-294.

Contrasting notions of social disorganization and social cohesion have been offered to describe community interaction after a natural disaster. Data were collected from three independent community samples, beginning seven months after the 1994 Northridge, California, earthquake and following in one year intervals for the two subsequent samples. Exposure to traumatic stress (Norris 1990)—including criminal victimization—in the 12 months prior to the interview was assessed in each sample. For all traumatic stress/victimization and for each of seven individual events, rates remain flat over time (3 data points), suggesting that neither social disorganization nor social cohesion occurred after the earthquake. Owing to the timing of the survey, respondents interviewed in the first sample only could report on pre-disaster events. For these respondents, post-earthquake rates of traumatic stress and victimization were compared with pre-earthquake rates. In contrast to the trend data, reduction in rates of robbery and, to a lesser extent, major life changes suggest that an altruistic community (social cohesion) may have arisen. A third set of analyses show that severity of exposure to the earthquake does not make a contribution to traumatic stress or victimization beyond that explained by the demographic variables repeatedly found to predict vulnerability to victimization. Last, rates of criminal victimization within Los Angeles County are compared to rates for households in the United States, using the National Crime Victimization Survey (NCVS) for the latter. Victimization rates are elevated in Los Angeles County, but not necessarily above what might be expected if exactly equivalent definitions of crimes had been used in our study and the national data set, and if comparable breakdowns by demographic characteristics were available in the NCVS for metropolitan areas of one million and more. In sum, there is no indication that social disorganization follows a natural disaster, and there is minor support for the emergence of an altruistic community. (AA)

Simmons, Kevin M., and Daniel Sutter, "Improvements in Tornado Warnings and Tornado Casualties," Vol. 24, No.3 (November 2006): 351-369

Doppler radar installation by the National Weather Service (NWS) improved tornado warning performance, raising the probability of detection and mean lead time while reducing the false alarm ratio. Research on tornado casualties has established that a warning reduces tornado injuries while lead times of up to fifteen minutes also reduce tornado fatalities. In this paper we estimate the decrease in tornado casualties attributable to the observed change in the distribution of warning lead times, and thus provide evidence on the benefit to society of weather warning systems. We find that increases in warning lead times accounts for 30-50 percent of the reduction in injuries but no more than 1/4 of the reduction in fatalities which occurred with the installation of Doppler radar by the NWS. Future improvements in warning performance to further reduce tornado fatalities by 18 percent and injuries by 24 percent.  (AA)

Simpson, David M., see Human, R. Josh, Manasi Palit, and David M. Simpson.

Slack, Jennifer K., see Innes, J. Michael and Jennifer K. Slack.

Smale, Sydney, see Buckle, Philip, Graham L. Marsh, and Sydney Smale.

Smelser, Neil J., "Commentary," Vol. 4, No. 2 (August 1986): 285-298.

In musing about this commentary, two possible strategies came to mind—first, to indicate the significance of and prepare a critique on each of the contributions to this issue, or, second, to put forward some reflections on the dynamics of the development of the field or fields of collective behavior and social movements as these have occurred to me over time and in reading the contributions. (Throughout this essay I will use the term "collective behavior/social movements" to refer to the enterprise under discussion. To use this term does not prejudge either the desirability of considering the field analytically as one or two or more.) The first appeared an easier exercise than the second, but the second seemed more interesting and possibly more instructive. So, in an ambitious moment I decided to undertake the second. In doing so, however, I will refer in passing to all of the contributions. (AA)

Smithson, Michael, "Ignorance and Disasters," Vol. 8, No. 3 (November 1990): 207-235.

While ignorance has long troubled efforts to prevent, prepare for, or manage the aftermath of disasters, relatively little work has been done on the specific varieties of ignorance and the roles they play in disasters. The classical frameworks for decision-making under "uncertainty" are too restrictive, and many prescriptions for disaster management simply call for better communication or more data collection by way of reducing ignorance. Unfortunately, in connection with disasters, ignorance often is irreducible. This article presents a framework for understanding the various kinds of ignorance and utilizes that framework to provide some insights and tools that may improve disaster preparedness, management, recovery, and learning. (AA)

Soliman, Hussein H., "An Organizational and Culturally Sensitive Approach to Managing Air-Traffic Disaster: The Gulf Air Incident," Vol. 23, No. 2 (August 2005): 75–95.

The Gulf-Air incident that took place in 2000 in Manama, Bahrain, supported the need for adopting innovative strategies to deal with the consequences of air disaster. Due to the nature of the incident, an ad-hoc team was formulated at the Cairo Airport, and its major objective was to address the critical needs for the upkeep of the regular operations at the airport as well as considering the cultural, religious, and human needs of individuals, families, and communities affected by the disaster. The ad-hoc emergency team was successful in applying immediate and flexible strategies that were effective in achieving the objectives of the emergency management plan. Contrary to the belief in the need to rely solely on the Command and Control Approach in disaster management, this study provides evidence of the effectiveness of emergency management strategies that are based on the Human Relations Approach. (AA)

Sorensen, John H., "When Shall We Leave?: Factors Affecting the Timing of Evacuation Departures," Vol. 9, No. 2 (August 1991): 153-165.

Very little work has been conducted on the dynamics of human behavior in evacuations. This paper documents what is known about the timing of departures in different emergency events. This is followed by an effort to model individual variations in warning receipt and evacuation departures in the Nanticoke, Pennsylvania, hazardous materials fire. Among the factors which are significantly related to the time of warning receipt are the mode of the first warning, the proximity to the site of the emergency, and the type of structure inhabited. The only significant variable related to mobilization time is the personalization of the warning. Perceived threat, age, and family size were not related to mobilization time. The analysis points to the need for additional research to help understand the variability of human behavior in evacuations. (AA)

Sorensen, John H., Dennis S. Mileti, and Emily Copenhaver, "Inter- and Intraorganizational Cohesion in Emergencies," Vol. 3, No. 3 (November 1985): 27-52.

The purpose of this paper is to pose and test a means to facilitate the comparative examination of interorganizational relations and behavior in emergency planning and response. Additionally we sought to define and operationalize the concept of inter- and intraorganizational cohesion in emergencies. The paper, following a review of literature on organizational behavior in disasters, describes an effort to define and develop measures for twenty indicators of inter- and intraorganizational cohesion. Data on these indicators are collected for organizations in an emergency response network at a nuclear power plant. This is done for relationships in both pre-emergency planning and for an exercise of an emergency plan. Findings regarding cohesion are presented, and the implications for refining emergency organizational theory are discussed. Overall, it was found that internally organizations are fairly cohesive but that cohesiveness diminishes between organizations. Communications and lack of interaction clarity appear to be the chief reasons for decreases in cohesion. In order to understand why this occurs, it is necessary to investigate the antecedents of organizational behavior that lead to cohesion breakdowns. (AA)

Sorensen, John H. and Dennis S. Mileti, "Decision-Making Uncertainties in Emergency Warning System Organizations," Vol. 5, No. 1 (March 1987): 33-61.

The record of organizational decision-making in warning systems is systematically reviewed. A descriptive model of organizational decision-making points and linkages is proposed. The review of 39 historical accounts included in this work led to the identification of four broad classes, comprised of 19 specific categories, of uncertainties in organizational decision-making in organizations with warning system tasks. The major decision-making uncertainty classes identified in this review were: (1) ability to interpret the impending event; (2) communications; (3) perceived impacts of the warning; and (4) exogenous influences. Primary problems have been recognition of the hazardous event and physical ability to communicate information with others in the chain of warning dissemination. It is concluded that decision-making uncertainty, at all levels and stages of warning systems, has been a major constraint to warning effectiveness and would well be a prime object to be mitigated by future warning system preparedness activities. (AA)

Sorensen, John H., see Mileti, Dennis S., John H. Sorensen, and Paul W. O’Brien.

Spencer, J. William, see Seydlitz, Ruth, J. William Spencer, Shirley Laska, and Elizabeth Triche.

Spencer, J. William, see Seydlitz, Ruth, J. William Spencer, and George Lundskow.

Stallings, Robert A., "Evacuation Behavior at Three Mile Island," Vol. 2, No. 1 (March 1984): 11-26.

Evacuation behavior associated with the accident at Three Mile Island is described based upon data from field surveys. The question addressed is whether this evacuation was unique or whether it conformed to the pattern normally found in natural disasters. Demographic and social aspects of the evacuation are compared with those in the disaster literature. The conclusion is that the voluntary evacuation at Three Mile Island did not differ significantly from those taking place in natural disasters. Therefore, no special plans, policies, or procedures seem needed over and above those in place for other kinds of disaster evacuations. But in emergencies that are unusual and infrequent, where public officials must rely exclusively on experts who themselves disagree, and where the incident is part of an existing public controversy, forced evacuation may be a difficult action to take. This should not prevent officials from taking steps to make voluntary evacuation available to all citizens who choose to take such protective actions. (AA)

Stallings, Robert A., "Ending Evacuations," Vol. 9, No. 2 (August 1991): 183-200.

There is little research describing the process by which organizations decide to issue the "all-clear" to terminate an evacuation and of the process by which evacuated families decide to return to their homes. These processes are inherently more problematic in evacuations triggered by chemical or radioactive agents than is usually the case in evacuations occasioned by natural disasters. This paper presents some examples of toxic chemical evacuations as background for an examination of the process of terminating evacuations. The "all-clear" message and the pre-disaster warning message are taken as analogous, as are the decisions to evacuate and to return. Variables that research has shown explain warning and evacuation behavior are evaluated in relation to the all-clear and return. Ending evacuations where toxic agents are concerned are more problematic because there is greater conflict which in turn lessens the credibility of all-clear messages. Both the sources of these differences and their consequences are explored. (AA)

Stallings, Robert A., "Methods of Disaster Research: Unique or Not?" Vol. 15, No. 1 (March 1997): 7-19.

[Guest Editor’s introduction to the special issue on methods of disaster research.]

Stallings, Robert A. and Charles B. Schepart, "Contrasting Local Government Responses to a Tornado Disaster in Two Communities," Vol. 5, No. 3 (November 1987): 265-284.

In the United States, immediate post-impact response activities in natural disasters are normally the responsibility of local government. Federal and state governments provide supplemental assistance, primarily in the form of financial subsidies for long-term recovery. An entirely different pattern of disaster response emerged as two adjacent communities struggled to deal with the effects of the same damaging tornado. In one community the response was directed entirely by the city manager, but in the other emergency activities were personally directed by the state’s governor without any pretext of local control. This paper examines the formal structure of the two local governments and their histories of inter-governmental relationships with the state in an effort to account for the unique pattern. (AA)

Steel, Deborah L., see Toulmin, Llewellyn M., Charles J. Givans, and Deborah L. Steel.

Stehr, Steven D., "The Changing Roles and Responsibilities of the Local Emergency Manager: An Empirical Study," Vol. 25, No. 1 (March 2007): 37–55.

A number of observers have speculated that a "new" style of emergency management has emerged in the United States in the aftermath of the attacks of September 11, 2001.  To date, there has been relatively little empirical evidence marshaled to assess this claim.  This article reports the results of an ongoing project designed to track how the staff of an office of emergency management in a large urban region allocate their time on a routine basis.  This project began in the late 1990s, allowing for a year-by-year comparison of time allotted to different emergency management functions.  Among the findings reported here are that, prior to 2002, emergency management staff spent the majority of their time on hazard preparedness projects, but this time allocation shifted dramatically when a variety of federal homeland security grants became available to state and local governments.  This shift in responsibilities may be a sign that domestic security concerns have supplanted the all-hazards approach to emergency management at the local level.  But this paper argues that it may also be a product of the manner in which federal homeland security grants are administered and the dynamics of the intergovernmental structure of emergency management in the U.S.  (AA)

Stevens, Jill D., "An Association of Circumstances: The 1990 Browning Earthquake Prediction and the Center for Earthquake Research and Information," Vol. 11, No. 3 (November 1993): 405-420.

The Center for Earthquake Research and Information (CERI) has been conducting earthquake research in the central U.S. since 1978. In addition, it has been actively involved in educating the public about earthquake risk for nine years. Through a three-year grant funded by the U. S. Federal Emergency Management Agency (FEMA), an earthquake education program was developed and successfully implemented from August 1983 to August 1986. Since 1986, CERI has continued to administer the earthquake education program through internal funding, becoming an important source of scientific information about earthquakes and earthquake preparedness in the New Madrid seismic zone. In this respect, CERI is a unique institution, combining both an active seismological/earthquake engineering research component and public education/information component in one facility. (AA)

Stimpson, Jim P., "Flood and Psychological Well-Being: Direct, Mediating, and Moderating Effects," Vol. 23, No. 1 (March 2005): pp. 27–47.

Recent attention to terrorism and natural disasters has shifted public attention toward understanding how disasters shape our lives and affect our mental health. The major challenge of stress research is to study acute stress using prospective designs that make use of major theoretical models such as the stress process model. Using prospective, representative data (N = 1,735), this study measures the direct, mediating, and moderating impacts of the 1993 Midwest floods for three major outcomes typically associated with natural disasters: depression, anxiety, and PTSD. Using the stress process model as a guiding framework, regression analyses revealed that the flood significantly elevated symptoms of depression, anxiety, and posttraumatic stress. Adding social-psychological resources such as social support and sense of control into the equation reduced the impact of the flood on well-being, suggesting evidence for a mediating effect. This study also found evidence that social-psychological resources modify the relationship between flood and well-being.   (AA)

Streeter, Calvin L., "Redundancy in Social Systems: Implications for Warning and Evacuation Planning," Vol. 9, No. 2 (August 1991): 167-182.

This paper provides a basic introduction to the concepts and theory of redundancy in social systems. It examines the implications of redundancy as a design method in planning disaster response systems, with special attention given to warning and evacuation. It also examines some of the criticisms of redundancy and examines several problems associated with transferring the concepts of redundancy to social systems. Examples are used to illustrate the benefits of planned redundancy in the design of warning and evacuation systems. (AA)

Streeter, Calvin L., see Gillespie, David F. and Calvin L. Streeter.

Stuart, Dietra, see Aguirre, B. E., Rogelio Saenz, John Edmiston, Nan Yang, Dietra Stuart, and Elsa Agramonte.

Stuart-Black, Jim, Eve Coles, and Sarah Norman, “Bridging the Divide from Theory to Practice,” Vol. 23, No. 3 (November 2005): 177–198.

Increasing exposure to hazards and their associated risks coupled with escalating political, economic, social, and cultural dynamics have led to a growing demand on emergency planners across the world. Historically, emergency planning in the United Kingdom (UK) was a second or third career option, characterized by individuals with a background based in emergency services, the military, or logistics, with similar attributes seen in emergency planners in New Zealand (NZ). In light of this new environment, practitioners and academics alike are faced with the challenge of ensuring that today’s emergency planners are suitably educated, skilled, and equipped to face the challenges of the new working environment. Since 1995 when the first United Kingdom undergraduate degree in Disaster Management came on-stream at Coventry University, a number of academic undergraduate and postgraduate courses in Disaster and Emergency Management have become ever increasingly popular to both mature students and school-leavers in the UK. Similarly, in New Zealand the historical approach to training has in recent years been adapted into a suite of professional development activities including access to tertiary-level qualifications and diplomas. Is it still acceptable to consider professional development simply in terms of short-course attendance, or should we be focusing on more contemporary academic programs as delivered by a number of tertiary organizations? Is there a gap between the theoretical (academic) approach and that of the traditional practitioner and if there is, can we bridge the divide? The historical relationship between the researcher and the practitioner in the UK and NZ appears to have been “Never the twain shall meet,” but is that still the case? The context for developing the emergency management profession is changing. The focus of job descriptions and person specifications has changed dramatically within the last five years, begging the questions: What cultural change has taken place between the practitioner and the researcher, and what value is placed on evidence based practice? In answering these questions, this paper will examine the legislative frameworks in the United Kingdom and New Zealand before identifying the respective approaches to training and professional development. (Modified authors’ introduction)

Sutphen, Sandra and William L. Waugh, Jr., "Organizational Reform and Technological Innovation in Emergency Management," Vol. 16, No. 1 (March 1998): 7-12.

As the new millennium approaches, important and fundamental changes are taking place in the profession and practice of emergency management. Not least of these changes are organizational reforms to correct past deficiencies and build capacity for future action while incorporating new applications of technology to reduce environmental risks and manage disaster responses and recovery efforts more effectively. These changes in emergency management are being driven by variety of factors, not least of which are political pressures to reduce the role of government in society and the normal process of institutionalization as the function of emergency management is recognized as important and integrated into structures of government. Decentralization of policy-making and program administration may also reflect an ideological shift that emphasizes local autonomy regardless of capacities. Perhaps more importantly, emergency management is becoming a major political and administrative concern for public officials at all levels. The articles in the symposium offer broad evidence of the organizational and technological changes taking place in the practice of emergency management. [Edited from the authors’ introduction to the special issue.]

Sutter, Daniel, Simmons, Kevin M., and Daniel Sutter.

Swain, Kristen Alley, "Sourcing Patterns in News Coverage of the Anthrax Attacks," Vol. 25, No. 1 (March 2007): 57–96.

This content analysis examined attribution of 12 source types in news coverage of the 2001 anthrax attacks that appeared in 833 stories from 272 U.S. newspapers, Associated Press, National Public Radio, and four U.S. television networks.  Sourcing patterns were examined across disaster phases, media types, attribution type, advice type, uncertainty factors, and explanation types.  Prominent sourcing shifted from federal politicians to federal health officials after journalists began receiving tainted letters, and first responders emerged as the top source type after the attacks ended. Nearly half of all attributions were unnamed sources. Law enforcement officials were the most commonly quoted sources in stories that mentioned outrage rhetoric, speculation, hoaxes, and false alarms.  The findings highlight routines that journalists use in disaster situations fraught with dread and uncertainty, as well as the types of information they seek during different phases of a crisis and by different types of sources.  (AA)

Sweet, Stephen, "The Effect of a Natural Disaster on Social Cohesion: A Longitudinal Study," Vol. 16, No. 3 (November 1998): 321-331.

On January 8, 1998, a severe ice storm devastated electrical power grids and caused extensive environmental damage in the northeastern United States and southeastern Canada. This study examines the effect this natural disaster had on perceptions of social relations in the village of Potsdam, a rural community in northern New York State. Residents (N=88) were surveyed on their perceptions of their community one month following the disaster. These data are compared with a surveyed (N=127) of community perceptions conducted three years prior to the disaster. These two surveys provide a rare opportunity to perform a longitudinal study of the effects of the disaster on social cohesion. Findings indicate that social cohesion increases in the immediate aftermath of the disaster. However, one month after the disaster, perceptions of the community return to predisaster levels. This study indicates that there are few lasting effects on social cohesion resulting from a natural disaster. (AA)

Sylves, Richard T., "Nuclear Power Emergency Planning: Politics of the Task," Vol. 2, No. 1 (March 1984): 185-196.

Great uncertainty currently prevails in the matter of off-site emergency response planning around U.S. civilian nuclear power plants. The Nuclear Regulatory Commission and the Federal Emergency Management Agency share in review and approval of off-site emergency plans prepared by state and local governments in the emergency planning zone of nuclear power plants. This study examines why off-site nuclear accident planning has been a low federal priority, why the problem is intergovernmentally complex, and why this sub-policy issue remains controversial. (AA)

Sylves, Richard T., "Editorial Commentary [Guest Editor’s Introduction]," Vol. 7, No. 2 (August 1989): 112-114.

In July of 1986 the American Society for Public Administration (ASPA), a 16,000 member public interest and professional association, formally approved creation of a "Section on Emergency Management." Funded from the modest section dues of ASPA members who elect to join the section, Emergency Management got off to more than 260 and continues to grow. The section charter calls for it "to encourage and promote sound formulation, execution, and oversight of policies and programs related to emergency management." To do this, it is to encourage research "which will improve the quality of emergency management thereby reducing risk to the public and their property." It is also supposed to provide research, in collaboration with other organizations, ". . . to expand knowledge and improve the practices of emergency management." It is in this spirit that we, members of the ASPA Section on Emergency Management, submit this special issue.

Sylves, Richard T., "Adopting Integrated Emergency Management in The United States: Political and Organizational Challenges," Vol. 9, No. 3 (November 1991): 413-424.

U.S. Federal Emergency Management Agency (FEMA) officials have promoted the Integrated Emergency Management System (IEMS) since 1981. IEMS has many components intended to serve all levels of government in developing, maintaining, and managing an efficient and cost-effective emergency management capability. This study analyzes the implementation of IEMS, and based upon interviews and primary and secondary source information, reports what U.S. local emergency managers think of FEMA’s IEMS initiative and how far local governments have gone in adopting IEMS. The author concludes that a variety of factors, which are separate from the IEMS concept itself, have impeded FEMA’s ability to successfully promote local government implementation of the IEMS approach to emergency management but that IEMS remains an important move away from narrow purpose, single hazard program orientations of the past to a broader, functional, and multi-hazard method of emergency management. (AA)

Sylves, Richard T., "How the Exxon Valdez Disaster Changed America’s Oil Spill Emergency Management," Vol. 16, No. 1 (March 1998): 13-43.

The March 1989 Exxon Valdez oil spill into Prince William Sound, Alaska, profoundly changed America’s oil spill emergency preparedness by compelling enactment of the Oil Pollution Act (OPA) of 1990 and inducing the oil industry to create the Maritime Spill Response Organization. The study discerns both improvements and remaining flaws in U.S. oil spill emergency preparedness since the Exxon Valdez disaster. Many organizations engaged in oil spill prevention and accident response have improved emergency planning, inspections, accident training and drills, clean-up equipment availability and deployment, and safety programs. Key federal and state agencies, nongovernmental organizations, oil companies, and co-operative spill response groups have made many of these changes. Problems regarding spill liability, availability of rapid-response oil clean-up contractors, disputed environmental clean-up methods, slow conversion to double-hulled oil tankers, disputes over when officials should seek oil spill presidential disaster decorations, single vessel ownership dummy companies, and variable state oil shipping rules will continue to cause complications and vulnerabilities. (AA)

Tarrow, Sidney, "Comparing Social Movement Participation in Western Europe and the United States: Problems, Uses, and a Proposal for Synthesis," Vol. 4, No. 2 (August 1986): 145-170.

This paper considers some reasons why there have been few comparisons between European and American social movements. It then considers some of the advantages from a comparative approach, offers examples in which comparative research can help to improve analysis and interpretation, and outlines some problems faced by students of comparative social movements. It then proposes a synthesis of the American "resource mobilization" and European "new social movements" traditions. (AA)

Taylor, Antony J.W., see Green, Dianne E., Antony J.W. Taylor, and Frank H. Walkey.

Tekin, Ali, see Comfort, Louis, Ali Tekin, Ernesto Pretto, Bulent Kirimli, Derek Anges, and others.

Thiel de Bocanegra, Heike, Ellen Brickman, and Chris O’Sullivan, "Vicarious Trauma in Aid Workers Following the World Trade Center Attack in 2001," Vol. 22, No. 1 (March 2004): 35-55.

This study investigated the prevalence of secondary trauma in volunteers who were involved in the emergency response after the World Trade Center (WTC) attack. Secondary or vicarious trauma is defined as therapists’ emotional reactions to their clients’ traumatic material. A total of 163 caseworkers, non-clinicians involved in addressing victims’ concrete needs, participated in a semi-structured phone interview that assessed their background and volunteer experience and a mailed survey that assessed their psychological status. Outcome data were the PTSD Checklist (PCL) and the Beck Depression Inventory (BDI). Responses identified two distinct categories of volunteers: volunteers from out of town tended to be older, more experienced in disaster relief work, and had less levels of exposure to the attack than volunteers from the New York area. Most volunteers found the experience rewarding and enriching. However, 7.4 percent of the sample met diagnostic criteria for PTSD and a fifth had BDI scores indicating moderate to severe depression. Prior trauma, exposure to the event, self-reported unmet needs, and beginning or increasing substance use after 9/11 were significantly associated with post-traumatic stress symptoms and depression. Post-traumatic stress and depression symptoms were negatively correlated with age. Having had previous disaster experience and living with a partner appeared to have a protective effect on mental health status. In conclusion, relief agencies should pay particular attention to providing support for volunteers with prior traumatic experiences. Furthermore, they should ensure ongoing support after the end of relief work. (AA)

Thomas, Deborah S. K., see Jerry T. Mitchell, Deborah S. K. Thomas, Arleen A. Hill, and Susan L. Cutter.

Tierney, Kathleen J., "Improving Theory and Research on Hazard Mitigation: Political Economy and Organizational Perspectives," Vol. 7, No. 3 (November 1989): 367-396.

This paper opens with a discussion of the progress that has been made to date in research and theory on mitigation. It goes on to suggest approaches that, by addressing neglected aspects of mitigation-related issues, may improve our understanding of the topic. Woven through the paper are calls for several shifts in emphasis with respect to studies on mitigation: (1) from a social system, consensus model to a conflict model on society and community; (2) from an event-based, discontinuous concept of disaster and mitigation to a view that stresses the continuity between ongoing social life and the disruption occasioned by natural and technological agents; (3) from the study of the social consequences of disasters to the study of aspects of the social order that increase risk and lead to disasters; and (4) from an individualistic, social psychological approach to mitigation to a perspective that takes into account macro-level social phenomena. (Edited Author Introduction)

Tobin, Graham A., Heather M. Bell, Linda M. Whiteford, and Burrell E. Montz, “Vulnerability of Displaced Persons: Relocation Park Residents in the Wake of Hurricane Charley,” Vol. 24, No. 1 (March 2006): 77–109.

Hurricane Charley made landfall in southwest Florida (USA) on August 13, 2004. It caused devastation in several coastal counties before moving rapidly north-northeastwards through the state. While storm surge and flooding were minimal, the destruction from high winds was extensive. Hurricane Charley was the most intense storm to make landfall in Florida since Andrew in 1992; three more hurricanes followed in 2004, creating problems throughout the state and leaving many people homeless. This study looked at the vulnerability of these displaced persons, exploring issues of pre- and post-event behavior, response, and recovery in a relocation park run by the Federal Emergency Management Agency (FEMA). Questionnaire surveys and in-depth interviews were used to assess perception of immediate and ongoing needs of park residents and to evaluate how well those needs had been met. Though residents reported that emergency response organizations had met most of their immediate needs and they were generally appreciative of FEMA’s efforts, there were some ongoing concerns. Results indicated that relocation park residents were more vulnerable than the general population prior to the storm and that differences among park residents were associated with variations in perception of needs and outcomes. Specifically, four themes stood out and require further study: special needs, race, access to resources, and social networks. With subsequent events, not least being Hurricanes Katrina and Wilma, more attention to long-term sheltering needs and temporary housing would seem appropriate. (AA)

Tobin, Graham, see Ollenburger, Jane C. and Graham Tobin.

Tokuhata, George, see Houts, Peter S., Michael K. Lindell, Teh Wei Hu, Paul D. Cleary, George Tokuhata, and Chynthia B. Flynn.

Toulmin, Llewellyn M., Charles J. Givans, and Deborah L. Steel, "The Impact of Intergovernmental Distance on Disaster Communications," Vol. 7, No. 2 (August 1989): 116-132.

Previous research into disaster communications, while fairly extensive, has been limited primarily to sociological analysis and organizational theory. This body of research, however, has not explored disaster communications in a federal, international, or other multi-level governmental response system. This paper expands upon existing research to present a new theory of intergovernmental disaster communications. The theory is based on the concept of intergovernmental distance, which refers to distance in terms of differing procedures and approaches used by organizations in different functional areas at various levels of government. The theory postulates that the organizational distance created by these differences becomes a critical factor that must be addressed during a disaster. The study employs three sets of dimensions. The first is in two dimensions and examines distances between functional areas at various levels of government. The second is three dimensional and considers distances between functional area and central management. The third is multidimensional. Here a multiple regression equation is used to analyze intergovernmental distance. The study concludes by addressing the policy implications of the findings, especially the need to overcome inherent intergovernmental distance through disaster planning, the need to recognize the exponential increase in communications problems caused by increases in the number of disaster responders, and the need to determine if the marginal benefits contributed by each new responder exceed the marginal communications and coordination costs each responder imposes. (AA)

Triche, Elizabeth, see Seydlitz, Ruth, J. William Spencer, Shirley Laska, and Elizabeth Triche.

Turner, Ralph H., "Waiting for Disaster: Changing Reactions to Earthquake Forecasts in Southern California," Vol. 1, No. 2 (August 1983): 307-334.

Several earthquake near-predictions in 1976 initiated a period of waiting in Los Angeles County for a great and destructive earthquake. Hypothesized negative effects of an extended period of waiting under an open-ended threat of disaster include (1) declining sense of urgency and vigilance, (2) disillusionment and disbelief, (3) accumulating anxiety and defensive denial of danger, and (4) resentment and scapegoating. Hypothesized positive effects include (5) familiarization, appreciation, and sensitization, and (6) symbolic and active rehearsal of responses. Interviews with five waves of adult County residents over a period of nearly two years, followed by a sixth wave immediately after a moderate but nondestructive earthquake, provided measures of change and stability of response to earthquake threat. Measures of fear, imminent expectation for a damaging earthquake, household preparedness, confidence in scientific earthquake prediction capability, suspicion that information was being withheld, attitude toard releasing uncertain predictions, focus on scientific as compared with unscientific forecasts, and preferred media source of information on forecasts tend to disconfirm the disillusionment, denial, and scapegoating hypotheses, to support reduced urgency and familiarization hypotheses, and to provide weak support for the rehearsal hypothesis. (AA)

Turner, Ralph H., "Taxonomy as an Approach to Theory Development," Vol. 7, No. 3 (November 1989): 265-275.

In outlining and sensitively examining some of the major problems of theory development in disaster studies, and in offering a coherent proposal for dealing with these problems, Kreps has performed an important service. I would underline his emphasis on a life history approach in disaster study, his characterization of disaster as a sensitizing concept, and his focus on finding ways to make theory development and testing a collective enterprise while allowing sufficient scope for individual creativity. The task of mining the archives that contain decades of disaster research in order to facilitate the development of disaster theory is a challenging but important one. Kreps’ sustained and thoughtful dedication to this task has already augmented our understanding of disaster response and identified promising ways of generalizing from the multitude of case studies. Altogether, I find more to agree with than to disagree with in his statement. However, I am skeptical of the value of approaching theory development by way of so great an emphasis on taxonomy. Any approach that involves the careful study of case materials can produce serendipitous insights for those whose minds are flexible enough to recognize them. But I am alarmed at the proposal "that taxonomy become a central preoccupation of the [International Sociological Association’s Disaster Research] Committee, and also this journal." (Edited Author Introduction)

Turner, Ralph H., "Reflections on the Past and Future of Social Research on Earthquake Warnings," Vol. 11, No. 3 (November 1993): 453-468.

If research into the social effects of earthquake predictions and warnings is to be useful over the long run, it must the cumulative, and it must have a firm theoretical foundation. For research to be cumulative and theoretically grounded, specific questions must be formulated and findings interpreted in terms of an organized series of broad questions that transcendent the topic of earthquake prediction response. The most frequently used approach is to conceive of earthquake prediction response as a problem of communication and, more specifically, of risk communication. In this review I will suggest a series of broad questions framed in terms of communication process and offer examples of specific issues and findings as elaborations of each of the broad questions. Any complete paradigm of communication must deal with both the sender and the receiver as well as the social context in which the interact. (Modified author paragraph)

Ullberg, Susann, see Kofman Bos, Celesta, Susann Ullberg, and Paul ’t Hart.

Urbanik, Thomas, II, "State of the Art in Evacuation Time Estimates for Nuclear Power Plants," Vol. 12, No. 3 (November 1994): 327-343.

The purpose of evacuation as a protective action at nuclear power plants is to remove people from areas potentially affected by wind-borne radioactive material. A reason for conducting evacuation time estimates studies is to aid decision-makers in the selection of appropriate protective actions. Another reason to conduct evacuation time estimates studies is to identify ways to reduce evacuation time through the development of appropriate plans. (AA)

Van Belle, Douglas A., "Race and U.S. Foreign Disaster Aid," Vol. 17, No. 3 (November 1999): 339-365.

While foreign aid allocation has been shown to be highly political, disaster aid specifically has not. Generally, one would assume that aid aimed at assisting victims of natural disasters would not be politically motivated. Race, however, perhaps the most volatile and disputed of political variables, is often suggested in various forums as a possibly significant factor in disaster aid allocations. This article aims to make two contributions. First, the issue of race and U.S. disaster aid allocations is addressed by coding each recipient state according to its predominant ethnic group and using that as an independent variable in the analysis of U.S. disaster assistance allocations from 1964-1995. Second, the possibility that different results might be produced by using location, specifically sub-Saharan Africa, is evaluated by substituting a geographical measure for the actual population characteristics as a coding for race. Though it was initially expected that there would be a racial bias, the findings indicate that race is not a statistically significant factor. (AA)

Van Willigen, Marieke, "Do Disasters Affect Individuals Psychological Well-Being? An Over-Time Analysis of the Effect of Hurricane Floyd on Men and Women in Eastern North Carolina," Vol. 19, No. 1 (March 2001): 59-83.

Studies find that psychological distress is common after disasters and that women experience more stress than do men. These studies have relied mainly on cross-sectional data, sometimes using case matching and respondent recall to infer causality. They have not directly assessed whether disasters cause psychological distress. Using data from a survey of two representative samples of community residents-one before the hurricane and one shortly afterwards-, I assess whether levels of well-being changed within the same community and if women and men were differentially impacted in this natural quasi-experiment. I find that levels of social support and the sense of purpose to one's life did decrease on average after the hurricane, although the sense of control did not While women's well-being decreased on average after the hurricane, men's perceptions of social support and sense of having a purpose to their lives increased. Differential impacts on women were not explained by gender differences in social roles or socioeconomic status. (AA)

VanArsdale, Peter W., see Holland, Connie J. and Peter W. VanArsdale.

Vaughn, C. Edwin, see Goodman, Patricia G., C. Edwin Vaughn, and Derek Gill.

Veneziano, Loius, see Clark, Lawrence V., Louis Veneziano, and Douglas Atwood.

Vigo, Gabriela, see Aguirre, B. E., Dennis E. Wenger, Thomas A. Glass, Marceline Diaz-Murillo, and Gabriela Vigo.

Voeks, Susan K., see Sebastian E. Heath, Susan K. Voeks, and Larry T. Glickman.

Vogt, Barbara Muller, "Issues in Nursing Home Evacuations," Vol. 9, No. 2, (August 1991): 247-265.

The issue of planning for evacuations of nursing homes and related health-care facilities concerns both emergency planners and disaster researchers who cite the lack of empirical data on the problems of special populations during emergency evacuations. Although most evacuations of such facilities are carried out successfully, the effectiveness of an evacuation (as measured by time to evacuate) is limited by certain constraints. This study examines selected organizational characteristics of nursing homes and related health-care facilities which experienced either a partial or complete evacuation of their facilities. Among the factors affecting facility evacuations are resources, the type and number of clientele, and community characteristics such as population density. Although the issues are related to general evacuation concerns, the findings suggest that individuals within specialized populations are unlike other victims of disaster with particular needs that require different management strategies to expedite an evacuation efficiently. (AA)

Wachtendorf, Tricia, see Webb, Gary R., Tricia Wachtendorf, and Anne Eyre.

Wade, Barbara A., see Couch, Stephen R. and Barbara A. Wade.

Walker, Peter, "Coping with Famine in Southern Ethiopia," Vol. 8, No. 2 (August 1990): 103-116.

This report looks at famine in Southern Ethiopia as recalled by those who lived through it: the victims. The householders in the famine-hit area coped with the crisis through a series of coherent strategies which aimed primarily at safeguarding the long-term viability of the household economy. In famine survival it is not just the amount of food produced or the wealth held by a family that is important. Claims which can be made on other communities of households play a major part in surviving a crisis. Any analysis of famine vulnerability must look at the total bundle of assets held by a household including the less tangible "community claims." Using this approach, it is possible to recognize local indicators of the early stages of famine, identify the most at-risk groups, and propose development strategies which will directly reduce people’s vulnerability to future famine. (AA)

Walkey, Frank H., see Green, Dianne E., Antony J.W. Taylor, and Frank H. Walkey.

Wallace, William A., see Mendonça, David and William A. Wallace.

Wallenius, Claes, "Why Do People Sometimes Fail when Adapting to Danger? A Theoretical Discussion from a Psychological Perspective," Vol. 19, No. 2 (August 2001): 145-180.

During life-threatening danger, people may react in ways that decrease their chances of surviving or coping with the event. Several empirically demonstrated reactions have a potentially maladaptive effect on performance, due to limitations in our cognitive and emotional processing capacity or the activation of obsolete adaptation mechanisms. The possible psychological explanations for this are discussed in terms of assumptions derived from three major psychological paradigms: Darwinian, Freudian, and cognitive psychology. These theoretical models all illustrate useful concepts and assumptions, which do not logically exclude one another, necessary to understand more thoroughly how psychological adaptation occurs in danger situations. However, no theory alone explains the empirical findings, and the various theories should be integrated into a model that includes different levels of psychological function, from consciously controlled processes to emotional and automatic process.

Wallenius, Claes, see Enander, Ann and Claes Wallenius.

Walsh, Edward J., "Local Community vs. National Industry: The TMI and Santa Barbara Protests Compared," Vol. 2, No. 1 (March 1984): 147-163.

Comparing two examples of local protest—one a failure and the other a success—this paper shows the importance of the interaction between local groups and national social movements in predicting the outcomes of struggles pitting communities against established industries. A critical difference between the unsuccessful attempt of Santa Barbara activists to prevent the resumption of oil drilling after the 1969 spill, on the one hand, and the successful efforts of TMI residents to block the restart of the reactor adjacent to the one damaged in the 1979 nuclear accident, on the other, is the maturity of the national environmental movement. Focusing primarily on the relatively successful TMI protest, the paper emphasizes the importance of the national antinuclear movement’s resources in forcing resourceful actors (individual and organizational) into adversarial positions vis-a-vis the offending utility. (AA)

Wang, Juju C. S., "Cultural Gap and Public Involvement: The Case of Lan-Yu Radwaste Storage Site, Taiwan," Vol. 10, No. 3 (November 1992): 465-476.

Undoubtedly, culture is a vehicle that helps people adapt to their environment. From the standpoint of cultural ecology, the unique culture embodied by the Yami people in Lan-Yu is actually composed of a set of adaptive strategies developed specifically for the sake of present-day survival. Even though Lan-Yu is an island known as "the last paradise for cultural preservation," acculturation has driven the Yami to confront selective elimination, particularly following the promotion of tourism by the Taiwanese government. Outside cultural influences as well as technology have gradually changed Lan-Yu’s social structure in terms of people, space, and activities. On the one hand, technological advancement has brought a variety of positive improvements to the island; yet, on the other hand, it has also introduced some negative influences. The Lan-Yu Radwaste Storage Site (LYRSS) has become a much debated issue due to the conflict between traditional culture and modern civilization. Since the LYRSS was established through an inflexible and top-down decision-making process without following any consideration of cultural values or rituals, it has brought about social entropy in Lan-Yis. In other words, because of LYRSS, the Yami public seems to have developed cultural resistance rather than public acceptance. The article is an attempt to explicate the social entropy within the cultural context by looking into the anti-LYRSS movement. In particular, four issues are addressed: public involvement as it relates to limiting factors and promoting factors associated with the Yami culture; the cultural gap between the "etic" and "emic" perspectives; the underlying determinants of the anti-LYRSS movement; and aspects of public involvement in Lan-Yu. (AA)

Warheit, George J., "A Propositional Paradigm for Estimating the Impact of Disasters on Mental Health," Vol. 3, No. 2 (August 1985): 29-50.

This paper reviews the literature on community-wide disasters and their relationships to subsequent mental health problems. In addition, it describes the theoretical notions of psychological stress which have guided past research, and it outlines the dimensions of a comprehensive stress paradigm. This paradigm is based on an integration of research findings from three separate fields of inquiry: disaster research, studies of psychosocial stress, and psychiatric epidemiology. The theoretical propositions on which the paradigm is based are outlined and offered as guidelines for future research. The paper concludes with a brief discussion of some of the problems confronting researchers interested in disasters and their mental health sequelae. (AA)

Waugh, William L., Jr., see Sutphen, Sandra and William L. Waugh, Jr.

Weber, Marc, see Gruntfest, Eve and Marc Weber.

Webb, Gary R., Tricia Wachtendorf, and Anne Eyre, "Bringing Culture Back In: Exploring the Cultural Dimensions of Disaster," Vol. 18, No. 1 (March 2000): 5-19.

This special issue is devoted to the popular culture of disaster. In virtually every type of society, human settlement patterns produce some kind of disaster, and every culture that lives through a major disaster produces some kind of cultural representation of it. The stories of a culture’s experience with disaster are often passed on through folklore, remembered through permanent or occasional memorials, relived through dramatized portrayals, and embedded in a group’s collective conscience as permanent markers of social time. In some societies, such as the United States, disasters occupy a central place in popular culture, appearing almost nightly on pseudo-scientific television programs and generating millions of dollars for movie makers. Because disasters and representations of them pervade so much of social life, we think it is important and worthwhile to begin paying systematic attention to the cultural dimensions of disasters. This special issue of the journal is an important step in that direction. We have tried to assemble papers that stimulate thought about various aspects of the popular culture of disaster—how it should be defined, what concepts should be used to study it, and why it is important to study. In no way is this single issue meant to be a definitive statement on the topic. In fact, if it is successful, this issue will raise more questions than it answers. By devoting an entire issue of the journal to this topic, we hope that scholars will build on what is presented here and begin thinking about alternative ways to approach the subject. (Authors’ introduction)

Weber-Burdin, Eleanor, see Rossi, Peter H., James D. Wright, Eleanor Weber-Burdin, and Joseph Pereira.

Wenger, Dennis E., "Introduction: The Legacy of Three Mile Island: Research and Policy Implications (Special Issue)," Vol. 2, No. 1 (March 1984): 5-9.

The Report of the President’s Commission on the Accident at Three Mile Island was entitled, The Need for Change: The Legacy of TMI. As a staff member of the Emergency Preparedness and Response Task Force of the Commission, I was quite pleased with that title, because it seemed to grasp the essence of the Commission’s findings concerning the incident. Deficiencies were found by the Commission in all facets of the problem. Plant operation, operator training, plant design, federal and state regulatory activity, media coverage, and emergency planning and response were all examined carefully and found to be wanting. The incident has become one of the most intensively studied emergency and crisis events in the history of the United States. Illustrative of these efforts, a partially annotated bibliography has been compiled by Terri Pope and myself and is included at the end of this volume. It is primarily focused upon social and behavioral aspects of the accident. Even within this limited scope, it is not all inclusive. It is offered only as a basic bibliography that indicates the types of investigations that have been undertaken. This issue of the journal continues to add to our knowledge of this event. The nine articles discuss topics ranging from evacuation behavior to the rationality of the control room operators. Public policy issues, media coverage, and the social impact of the accident are also addressed. In each case, the authors have considered the legacy of the accident. In effect, they address the implications of their findings and observations for other crisis, disaster, and emergency situations. [Edited editor’s introduction.]

Wenger, Dennis E., see Pope, Terri and Dennis E. Wenger.

Wenger, Dennis and Barbara Friedman, "Local and National Media Coverage of Disaster: A Content Analysis of the Print Media’s Treatment of Disaster Myths," Vol. 4, No. 3 (November 1986): 27-50.

Based on newspaper coverage for four disasters—two within the U.S.A., one in Algeria, and one in Italy—Goltz concluded that generally the media do not present images of maladaptive behavior or disaster myths. This article reexamines Goltz’s findings, presents additional relevant data from media coverage of Hurricane Alicia, and dissects several important methodological issues. Our conclusion is a counterpoint observation that the mass communication system does contain mythical elements. (AA)

Wenger, Dennis E., see Aguirre, B. E., Dennis E. Wenger, Thomas A. Glass, Marceline Diaz-Murillo, and Gabriela Vigo.

Wettenhall, Roger L., see Britton, Neil R. and Roger L. Wettenhall.

Wetzel, Christopher G., Edward Hettinger, Robert McMillan, Monroe Rayburn, and Andrew Nix, "Methodological Issues in Studying Response to the Browning Prediction of a New Madrid Earthquake: A Researcher’s Cautionary Tale," Vol. 11, No. 3 (November 1993): 437-452.

We examined five methodological issues which could contaminate research on people’s reactions to the Browning quake prediction: sample biases, self-selection artifacts, historical event artifacts, self-report inconsistency over time, and reactive testing effects. We found some evidence for self-selection biases in mail survey return rates, especially during the one-week period before the predicted quake. People who were threatened by the prediction with less likely to complete these surveys. There was a self-selection artifact associated with the TV movie "The Big One" and with the "Unsolved Mysteries" episode on Browning. These two shows attracted people who were already concerned about quakes and believed the prediction. After the prediction was disconfirmed, a control group of participants showed large declines in the perceived likelihood of future quakes, suggesting that either some historical artifact or simple knowledge that a scientist’s prediction was wrong caused a disillusionment or "cry wolf" effect. People who lived near the New Madrid fault also manifested this decline, but it was significantly smaller than the one for the control group. Consistency of self-reports about preparation for the predicted earthquake and the consistency of self-reports about watching "The Big One" and the "Unsolved Mysteries" episode were very high. We found no pretest sensitization effects, but we did uncover an unusual reactivity effect for surveys given after the failed prediction. We compared people surveyed immediately after the prediction failed and at a six-week follow-up to those who were surveyed only at the six-weeks follow-up. Filling out the immediate-post survey had the effect of reducing concern about earthquakes on the six-week follow-up. These artifacts suggest that researchers must be cautious in generalizing from their samples, interpreting pre-post prediction changes, and claiming that media effects have significant impact on beliefs about disasters. (AA)

Whiteford, Linda M., see Tobin, Graham A., Heather M. Bell, Linda M. Whiteford, and Burrell E. Montz.

Whitney, David J., see Lindell, Michael K., David J. Whitney, Christina J. Futch, and Catherine S. Clause.

Whitworth, Amanda, see Wray, Ricardo, Jennifer Rivers, Amanda Whitworth, Keri Jupka, and Bruce Clements.

Wiegman, Oene, Egil Komilis, Bernard Cadet, Henk Boer, and Jan M. Gutteling, "The Response of Local Residents to a Chemical Hazard Warning: Prediction of Behavioral Intentions in Greece, France and the Netherlands," Vol. 10, No. 3 (November 1992): 499-515.

In this study Greek, French, and Dutch residents of a hazardous chemical complex were confronted with a simulated warning scenario for an industrial accident, and intended functional and dysfunctional behaviors were measured. Intended functional behaviors were poorly predicted by our model while dysfunctional behavioral intentions could be predicted rather well. Consequences for hazard communication in the European Community are discussed. (AA)

Wilkins, Lee, "Media Coverage of the Bhopal Disaster: A Cultural Myth in the Making," Vol. 4, No. 1 (March 1986): 7-33.

This content analysis of media coverage of the Bhopal disaster examines the way in which twelve media outlets reported the tragedy. Generally, the media—both television and print outlets—covered Bhopal as a discrete event, giving relatively little time and space to the underlying policy issues centering on technological hazards. Individuals tended to be portrayed as victims, and the powerful actors in the reports were institutions or those who represented them. The majority of coverage ranged from mild to severe in thematic depictions of helplessness. In addition, television’s visual portrayal of the event included a large number of images focusing on gas. The overall thematic thrust of the coverage is the creation of a new myth of societal extinction through industrial accident resulting from carefully designed political and economics policies. Individuals, even in democracies, are portrayed as having relatively little control in establishing the policy agenda. (AA)

Wilkins, Lee, see Patterson, Philip and Lee Wilkins.

Wilson, Jennifer, "Women and Local Emergency Management," Vol. 17, No. 1 (March 1999): 111-122.

There is no doubt that women are in short supply as emergency managers at the local level. In many parts in our society women still do not hold positions of leadership, authority, or management. Emergency response agencies are no exception. Indeed, contemporary county offices of emergency management evolved from the traditional local offices of civil defense which were predominately occupied and operated by men. Thus there is a long history of emergency management being considered a male domain. Although the number of women involved in the process of local emergency management is increasing, there has been little research on women’s and men’s different experiences in this environment. This exploratory study examines women in local emergency management by looking at how gendered expectations, roles, and relationships might affect local offices of emergency management. (AA)

Wilson, Jennifer, "The Inventory’s Legacy for the Next Generation," Vol. 17, No. 2 (August 1999): 217-221.

As a neophyte disaster researcher from the sociological tradition, I owe a great deal of my understanding of the field to Thomas Drabek’s (1986) Human System Responses to Disaster: An Inventory of Sociological Findings. Truly, the Inventory is much more than simply an inventory. In reality, it is a benchmark in which Drabek codes and summarizes the key sociological findings of three decades of research on human response to catastrophic events. Although the Inventory is a valuable resource for researchers with a wide variety of disaster-related interests, the theme of this paper focuses upon emergency management. With regard to emergency management, the Inventory indeed addresses what is known as well as what had yet to be uncovered. Historically, our responsibility to emergency managers has been to share information and "translate our results" in order for all to benefit from our efforts. Thus, it is the challenge of the next generation to make sure that our research is indeed applicable for emergency managers not only in planning but in mitigation and education. (Edited from the author’s comments)

Wilson, Jennifer, see Oyola-Yemaiel, Arthur and Jennifer Wilson (2003).

Wilson, Jennifer, see Oyola-Yemaiel, Arthur and Jennifer Wilson (2005).

Wingate, Martha S., see Ginter, Peter M., W. Jack Duncan, Lisa C. McCormick, Andrew C. Rucks, Martha S. Wingate, and Maziar Abdolrasulnia.

Wisner, Ben, "Tepeyac: Case Study of Institutional and Social Learning Under Stress," Vol. 21, No. 3 (November 2003): 57-66.

There is an anthropological and sociological literature dealing with emergent organizations in disaster situations. Less is known about the ways in which preexisting organizations learn new skills in order rapidly to be able to provide a new range of services in a postdisaster situation. The case study of Tepeyac, an immigrant workers' rights, social service, and cultural organization serving Hispanics in New York City, provides some preliminary insight into the flexibility of such organization and highlights the potential of other similar organizations as a community resource in disasters elsewhere in the U.S. and perhaps elsewhere in the world. (AA)

Wood, James L. and Patricia A. Wood, "Dilemmas and Opportunities of International Collective Behavior/Social Movements Research: A Case Study," Vol. 4, No. 2 (August 1986): 193-210.

There is a national focus to much collective behavior/social movements research. However, when the investigation takes place in a foreign country, certain dilemmas—and opportunities—may arise. Three sets of dilemmas and opportunities in relation to conducting research on social movements abroad are explored: (1) the decision to describe the movement or test a general hypothesis about social movements; (2) the decision to study the social movement at one point in time or to study it over a longer time period; and (3) the decision to use observational methods or survey research methods. The way research goals can be modified according to the practical constraints encountered is illustrated by a case study of Britain’s Nuclear Disarmament Movement, with particular focus on the Peace Camps such as Greenham Common and CND (Campaign for Nuclear Disamament). The peace camps represented a new form of social protest. Although the Greenham Common camp had received coverage in the media, almost no information was available concerning the 14 or so other camps. Practical constraints and situational factors are discussed which influenced the investigation of the peace camps to become a descriptive, observational study within a shorter time frame. Yet contrasting experience with a study of CND illustrates circumstances favoring at least some hypothesis testing even within a shorter time period. Finally, a possible middle ground between description and hypothesis testing is suggested, whereby descriptive data are collected within a specific theoretical framework. (AA)

Wood, Nathan J. and James W. Good, “Perceptions of Earthquake and Tsunami Issues in U.S. Pacific Northwest Port and Harbor Communities,” Vol. 23, No. 3 (November 2005): 103–138.

Although there is considerable energy focused on assessing natural hazards associated with earthquakes and tsunamis in the U.S. Pacific Northwest, little has been done to understand societal vulnerability to these hazards. Part of understanding societal vulnerability includes assessing the perceptions and priorities of public sector individuals with traditional emergency management responsibilities and of private citizens who could play key roles in community recovery. In response to this knowledge gap, we examine earthquake and tsunami perceptions of stakeholders and decision makers from coastal communities in the U.S. Pacific Northwest, focusing on perceptions of (1) regional hazards and societal vulnerability, (2) the current state of readiness, and (3) priorities for future hazard adjustment efforts.  Results of a mailed survey suggest that survey participants believe that earthquakes and tsunamis are credible community threats. Most communities are focusing on regional mitigation and response planning, with less effort devoted to recovery plans or to making individual organizations more resilient.  Significant differences in expressed perceptions and priorities were observed between Oregon and Washington respondents, mainly on tsunami issues.  Significant perception differences were also observed between private and public sector respondents.  Our results suggest the need for further research and for outreach and planning initiatives in the Pacific Northwest to address significant gaps in earthquake and tsunami hazard awareness and readiness.  (AA)

Wood, Patricia A., see Wood, James L. and Patricia A. Wood

Wray, Ricardo, Jennifer Rivers, Amanda Whitworth, Keri Jupka, and Bruce Clements, “Public Perceptions about Trust in Emergency Risk Communication: Qualitative Research Findings,” Vol. 24, No. 1 (March 2006): 45–75.

Communication to the general public is a critical component of effective emergency response following terrorism events. Trust is essential to effective communication. Four Schools of Public Health conducted focus groups across the country with different ethnic groups to inform development of public messages and strategies in the event of an emergency. Secondary analysis of the transcripts was conducted to explore factors related to trust in government. General lack of confidence in the government’s ability to respond was associated with concerns about preparedness, lack of disclosure, and dedication. Local officials and emergency responders were more trusted than federal officials and were associated with greater levels of disclosure and empathy. Past experience contributed to perceptions of trust. Urban groups were more concerned about officials’ honesty, whereas rural groups were concerned about resource allocation. Local organizations and agencies were most trusted, as well as the United States Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC), United States Federal Emergency Management Agency (FEMA), and the American Red Cross (ARC). The findings lead to recommendations related to allocation of emergency response resources for underserved areas; integration of local and federal agencies in emergency response preparedness and communication; and an emphasis on full disclosure, action steps, and leadership in emergency response communication. (AA)

Wright, James D., see Rossi, Peter H., James D. Wright, Eleanor Weber-Burdin, and Joseph Pereira.

Wyner, Alan J., "Earthquakes and Public Policy: Implementation in California," Vol. 2, No. 2 (August 1984): 267-284.

Successful public policy implementation is almost always problematic. Seismic safety policies are prone to implementation problems, and it is at least arguable that seismic safety policies may be more susceptible to implementation problems than some other policies. This paper focuses on efforts to implement seismic safety policies in thirteen local California communities. The most important aspects of seismic safety policy implementation in California are: (1) the role of key governmental personnel, (2) the political environment surrounding the issue of seismic safety, and (3) the tractability of the issue itself. Given the way these three aspects interact and because seismic safety is not an issue that generates consistent expressions of organized public support, policy implementation will always falter unless a highly committed and motivated core of public officials diligently pursue implementation. Absent these personnel, the perceived intractability of the problem and lack of visible political rewards for supporting seismic safety make seismic safety a policy area prone to unsuccessful or incomplete implementation. (AA)

Yamori, Katsuya, "Disaster Risk Sense in Japan and Gaming Approach to Risk Communication," Vol. 25, No. 2 (August 2007): 101–131.

The aim of the present paper was to identify and describe the three different modes of risk sense that occurred before Japanese society digested and finally accepted the unfamiliar and imported concept of "risk" (or its Japanese translation "risuku") in the context of natural disaster reduction.  These modes were: mode zero, in which the concept of risk was almost absent before the mid-1990s; the first mode, which occurred after the 1990s when the concept of risk became rapidly and widely accepted by linking it with the preexisting concept of "danger," or "kiken" in Japanese; the second mode, in which, some people highlighted active and participatory risk management processes based on the significant distinction between risk and danger proposed by Luhmann.  Today, another mode of risk sense is needed, to move beyond the limitations of the first and second modes, and to deal with the recurrence of natural disasters we are bound to face in Japan.  To deal with such disasters, a novel and promising gaming approach is proposed that entails a new, third mode conceptualization of risk.  (AA)

Yang, Nan, see Aguirre, B. E., Rogelio Saenz, John Edmiston, Nan Yang, Dietra Stuart, and Elsa Agramonte.

Yoshii, Hiroaki, "Simulation Study of Confusion at Terminal Train Stations Caused by Earthquake Warnings," Vol. 3, No. 1 (March 1985): 67-85.

Three simulation models with different areas of application are developed in this report to predict the risk posed by the rapid return to their homes of people around terminal stations immediately after earthquake warnings issued in daytime. These are also useful tools to evaluate the effectiveness of measures to mitigate the risk. The applications of these models to several terminal stations and train lines with many passengers were carried out, and the results indicate the following. (1) Around 30-40 percent of the people around terminal stations should walk home. (2) Those who intend to take trains should go to terminal stations three or four hours ahead of the time they might otherwise need. (3) Strong traffic control at passages and wicket gates should be undertaken by police officers and station staff as soon as possible. (4) It is very important to make an "earthquake diagram" and to keep it as available as possible. (5) Public officers involved in the planning for the prevention of disasters should build "information bases" at terminal stations to announce various types of information to waiting passengers after earthquake warnings have been issued. (6) Finally, public officers and managers of businesses around terminal stations should inform people for whom they are responsible about the circumstances anticipated and the measures mentioned above. (AA)

Yoshimura, Teruhiko, see Ogawa, Yujiro, Antonio L. Fernandez, and Teruhiko Yoshimura.

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International Research Committee on Disasters (RC 39)
Department of Sociology
CLB 006
Oklahoma State University
Stillwater, OK 74078-4062

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