Volume 23, No. 2. (August 2005)
Yujiro Ogawa, Antonio L. Fernandez, and Teruhiko Yoshimura, "Town Watching as a Tool for Citizen Participation in Developing Countries: Applications in Disaster Training," pp. 536.
This paper is an initial attempt to review town watching as a training methodology. Town watching is a participatory technique used in community or neighborhood planning in the context of a larger administrative unit (such as municipality or city) in order for residents to recognize problems as a group and put forward solutions together. In disaster town watching, citizens belonging to a neighborhood undergo a group process guided by a facilitator. The facilitator, who is a disaster professional, strives to increase the citizens awareness about disaster risk reduction and hazard management. Over the past few years, the authors have been involved in training sessions that introduce disaster town watching not to citizens, but to disaster professionals. The paper deals with the experiences of the authors in training events that stress disaster planning and mitigation. (No abstract provided; edited from the authors introduction)
Carla Norris-Raynbird, "A Mitigation Tale of Two Texas Cities," pp.3773.
Galveston and Corpus Christi, Texas, are cities that share many similar geographic features. Yet despite their similarities, Galveston and Corpus Christi differ in their perspectives on the present and their visions for the future. This paper argues that in addition to the physical vulnerability of these two cities, Galveston is made more vulnerable by its social history. Conversely, Corpus Christi has worked towards less vulnerability through its social history. Out of each citys social history has emerged an habitual "way of doing" local government. Corpus Christis "’ways of doing" have for the most part, facilitated responsible progressive development, that is, its leaders have initiated civic-minded change and welcomed new ideas for the betterment of the city. Civic-mindedness has focused on community, sustainability and innovation. Galveston on the other hand, has been hindered by power constraints that have made it less able to engage in civic-minded progressive development. A focus on "the way of doing" in local government is important because it is here that decisions on planning and mitigation are made. Many researchers have noted the gaps between policy adoption and implementation of mitigation measures at the local government level. The social context of local government has invariably been implicated, but less attention has been paid to the historical development of the social context and understanding the implications of its construction. (No abstract provided; edited from the authors introduction)
Hussein H. Soliman, "An Organizational and Culturally Sensitive Approach to Managing Air-Traffic Disaster: The Gulf Air Incident," pp. 7595.
The Gulf-Air incident that took place in 2000 in Manama, Bahrain, supported the need for adopting innovative strategies to deal with the consequences of air disaster. Due to the nature of the incident, an ad-hoc team was formulated at the Cairo Airport, and its major objective was to address the critical needs for the upkeep of the regular operations at the airport as well as considering the cultural, religious, and human needs of individuals, families, and communities affected by the disaster. The ad-hoc emergency team was successful in applying immediate and flexible strategies that were effective in achieving the objectives of the emergency management plan. Contrary to the belief in the need to rely solely on the Command and Control Approach in disaster management, this study provides evidence of the effectiveness of emergency management strategies that are based on the Human Relations Approach. (AA)
Alan Kirschenbaum, "Preparing for the Inevitable: Environmental Risk Perceptions and Disaster Preparedness," pp.97127.
Do risk perceptions of environmental hazards lead to preparing for them? Employing data from a national urban household sample (N = 814) in Israel, the link between risk perceptions and preparedness were examined for natural, industrial, technological, accidental, and non-conventional war disasters. A factor analysis generated six risk components conditional on the social familiarity with the potential victim as well as disaster-specific events and four preparedness components reflecting provisions, skills, planning, and protection. The "risk-preparedness" association based on this matrix of components was inconsistent, having few statistically significant correlations, some even negative. Regression coefficients used to predict preparedness actions due to risk perceptions were also only partially successful. Apparently the impact of risk perceptions on preparedness is limited to specific environmental disasters and strongest for those preparedness behaviors that are more immediate, concrete, and easy to achieve. These findings have direct application for disaster managers involved in risk communication and public education of disasters. (AA)
Marizen Ramirez, Megumi Kano, Linda B. Bourque, and Kimberley I. Shoaf, "Household Factors Associated with Fatal and Non-Fatal Pediatric Injury during the 1999 Kocaeli Earthquake," pp. 129147.
Children are vulnerable to injury during earthquakes, but little epidemiologic research has been conducted to understand risk patterns. The purpose of the study is to understand child and household factors that increased risk of injury during the 1999 Kocaeli earthquake. A survey of households was conducted in Gölcük, Kocaeli, 19–21 months after the earthquake. Data were extracted on children under 20 years of age. Variables included child demographics, household size, disposition of adults in the household, family preparedness, and residential building characteristics. Descriptive analyses and regression modeling were conducted. Of 615 children present during the earthquake, 38 suffered non-fatal injuries while 22 were fatally injured. Calculations of adjusted odds ratios showed that the gender and age of the child, household size, adult household members injury status, and extent of damage to household residence were associated with relatively higher risks of non-fatal injury to a child during the 1999 Kocaeli earthquake. (AA)
Feedback from the Field:
Joe Scanlon, "Strange Bed Partners: Thoughts on the London Bombings of July 2005 and the Link with the Indian Ocean Tsunami of December 26th 2004," pp. 149158.
Book Review by:
David Alexander, on Rod Gerber and John Salter (eds.), Civil Care and Security Studies, pp. 159161.
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